Mycobacterial Lung Disease Complicating HIV Infection

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2016; 37: 230-242DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1572559Mycobacterial infections have caused enormous morbidity and mortality in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Of these, the most devastating has been tuberculosis (TB), the leading cause of death among HIV-positive persons globally. TB has killed more people living with HIV than any other infection. Diagnosis of latent TB infection (LTBI) is critical as treatment can prevent emergence of TB disease. Bacteriologic confirmation of TB disease should be sought whenever possible as well as drug susceptibility testing. When detected early, drug susceptible TB is curable. Similar to TB, nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can also produce pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections including disseminated disease that can be fatal. Diagnosis through accurate identification of the pathogenic organism will greatly inform treatment. Depending on the NTM identified, treatment may not be curable. Ultimately, preventive strategies such as initiation of antiretroviral drugs and treatment of LTBI are interventions expected to have significant impacts on control of TB and NTM in the setting of HIV. This chapter will review the impact of pulmonary mycobacterial infections on HIV-positive individuals.[...]Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals:Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text
Source: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

Related Links:

Conditions:   Tuberculosis;   Pre-XDR-TB;   Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis;   Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis;   Rifampicin Resistant Tuberculosis Interventions:   Drug: Bedaquiline Oral Tablet;   Drug: Linezolid Oral Tablet;   Drug: Delamanid in Oral Dosage Form;   Drug: Clofazimine Oral Product;   Drug: Levofloxacin Oral Tablet;   Drug: Isoniazid Oral Product;   Drug: Ethambutol Oral Product;   Drug...
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Publication date: Available online 19 August 2019Source: Pathology - Research and PracticeAuthor(s): Hui Wang, Rani KanthanAbstractAmoebiasis, caused by the intestinal protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, though a relatively common parasitic disease in the tropical and subtropical regions, is uncommon in the developed countries. In these countries, as amoebic colitis shares similar clinical symptoms and endoscopic features with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), these cases can be easily unrecognized and misdiagnosed.In this case report, we discuss the case of an adult patient with invasive intestinal amoebiasis, who was initia...
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
[Vanguard] The Food and Drug Administration, FDA, has approved a medication for treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis infection.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
Currently available model organisms such as Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) have significantly contributed to our understanding of tuberculosis (TB) biology, these models have limitations such as differences in genome size, growth rates and virulence. However, attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains may provide more representative, safer models to study M. tuberculosis biology. For example, the M. tuberculosis ΔleuDΔpanCD double auxotroph, has undergone rigorous in vitro and in vivo safety testing. Like other auxotrophic strains, this has subsequently ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundThe complexity of diagnosis for critically ill dyspnea presentations in the emergency department remains a challenge. Accurate and rapid recognition of associated life-threatening conditions is paramount for timely treatment. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has been shown to impact the diagnosis of dyspnea presentations in resource-rich settings, and may be of greater diagnostic benefit in resource-limited settings.MethodsWe prospectively enrolled a convenience sample of 100 patients presenting with dyspnea in the Emergency Department at University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (UTH-K) in Rwanda. After a t...
Source: Critical Ultrasound Journal - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is one of most pathogenic microorganism in the world. It was reported that M. tb GlmU was a potential drug target, therefore, discovering compounds targeting GlmU acetyltransferase is necessary. The nature-driven compounds were tested for inhibiting GlmU acetyltransferase activity. It was found that dicumarol exhibited inhibitory effect on GlmU acetyltransferase with the IC50 value of 4.608 μg/ml (13.7 μM). The inhibition kinetics indicated that dicumarol displayed an uncompetitive inhibition for acetyl CoA and noncompetition-competition mixed type inhibition for GlcN-1-P, respectiv...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
[WHO] Abuja, 13 August 2019 - "I have been injecting drugs for a long time and we share syringes," says Ali who lives in the suburb of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) and recently diagnosed to be co-infected with Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. Consequent to difficulties of life in the streets, Ali was exposed to drug use as early as age 10 and started using injectable drugs when he was 14. "I wish I can stop now though, but It is very difficult" he laments.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
ConclusionSerotonin syndrome should be considered in patients on multiple serotonergic agents on the background of end ‐stage renal disease. Prompt recognition and distinction from lupus activity can significantly impact management decisions.
Source: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: APLAR GRAND ROUND CASE Source Type: research
AbstractPopulation attributable fraction (PAF) refers to the proportion of all cases with a particular outcome in a population that could be prevented by eliminating a specific exposure. The authors of a recent paper evaluated the prevalence and estimated the PAFs for risk factors of TB among elderly people in China [Inf Dis Poverty. 2019;8:7]. Confounding is inevitable in observational studies and Levin ’s formula is of limited use in practice for unbiasedly estimating PAF. In a complex survey design, an unbiased estimation of the PAF can be calculated using a sample-weighted version of the Miettinen formula or a sa...
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Nature, Published online: 19 August 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02482-yAlkaline compound helps the tuberculosis bacterium to ward off an acid attack from host cells.
Source: Nature AOP - Category: Research Source Type: research
More News: Respiratory Medicine | Tuberculosis