Eradication of measles: remaining challenges

Abstract Measles virus (MeV) is an aerosol-borne and one of the most contagious pathogenic viruses known. Almost every MeV infection becomes clinically manifest and can lead to serious and even fatal complications, especially under conditions of malnutrition in developing countries, where still 115,000 to 160,000 patients die from measles every year. There is no specific antiviral treatment. In addition, MeV infections cause long-lasting memory B and T cell impairment, predisposing people susceptible to opportunistic infections for years. A rare, but fatal long-term consequence of measles is subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Fifteen years ago (2001), WHO has launched a programme to eliminate measles by a worldwide vaccination strategy. This is promising, because MeV is a human-specific morbillivirus (i.e. without relevant animal reservoir), safe and potent vaccine viruses are sufficiently produced since decades for common application, and millions of vaccine doses have been used globally without any indications of safety and efficacy issues. Though the prevalence of wild-type MeV infection has decreased by>90 % in Europe, measles is still not eliminated and has even re-emerged with recurrent outbreaks in developed countries, in which effective vaccination programmes had been installed for decades. Here, we discuss the crucial factors for a worldwide elimination of MeV: (1) efficacy of current vaccines, (2) the extremely high contagiosity of MeV demandi...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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athieu Measles remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide among vaccine preventable diseases. Recent decline in vaccination coverage resulted in re-emergence of measles outbreaks. Measles virus (MeV) infection causes an acute systemic disease, associated in certain cases with central nervous system (CNS) infection leading to lethal neurological disease. Early following MeV infection some patients develop acute post-infectious measles encephalitis (APME), which is not associated with direct infection of the brain. MeV can also infect the CNS and cause sub-acute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in immuno...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Not so long ago, coming down with measles was seen almost as a rite of passage. Before measles vaccination began in the U.S. in the early 1960s, millions of Americans, many of them children, contracted the virus each year—forcing them to weather a flu-like illness and telltale skin rash, but also bestowing lifelong immunity. As a result, some Americans still view measles as relatively harmless—which, in addition to a dangerous uprising of anti-vaccine sentiment, has led some parents to decline shots for their children, contributing to a resurgence of preventable illness in the U.S. and overseas. A pair of relat...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized embargoed study Infectious Disease Research Source Type: news
Nanorobots swimming in blood vessels, in silico clinical trials instead of experimenting with drugs on animals and people, remote brain surgeries with the help of 5G networks – the second part of our shortlist on some astonishing ideas and innovations that could give us a glimpse into the future of medicine is ready for you to digest. Here, we’re going beyond the first part with medical tricorders, the CRISPR/Cas-9 gene-editing method, and other futuristic medical technologies to watch for. 11) In silico clinical trials against testing drugs on animals As technologies transform every aspect of healthcare,...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Artificial Intelligence E-Patients Future of Medicine Future of Pharma Genomics Health Sensors & Trackers 3d printing AI bioprinting blockchain clinical trials CRISPR digital digital health drug development genetics Innovat Source Type: blogs
Mark K. Slifka1* and Ian J. Amanna2 1Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health &Science University, Beaverton, OR, United States2Najít Technologies, Inc., Beaverton, OR, United States Vaccines play a vital role in protecting our communities against infectious disease. Unfortunately, some vaccines provide only partial protection or in some cases vaccine-mediated immunity may wane rapidly, resulting in either increased susceptibility to that disease or a requirement for more booster vaccinations in order to maintain immunity above a protective level. The durability of a...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study we have evaluated whether our OMVs vaccine is capable of overcoming the deficiencies of commercial vaccines in both controlling infections caused by PRN(-) isolate/strain and inducing memory immunity. We found that our OMVs-based formulation has a higher protective capacity against the PRN(-) bacteria than that induced with a commercial aP vaccine. We found that CD4 T cells with a tissue-resident memory (TRM) cell phenotype (CD44+CD62LlowCD69+ and/or CD103+) accumulated in the lungs of mice after the second OMVs vaccine immunization. CD4 TRM cells were also detected in mice immunized with wP vaccine, but not ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions Apart West Nile virus (78), thousands of congenital microcephaly cases, fetal brain tissue damage and neurological syndromes have been associated with ZIKV infection. Unfortunately, the epidemics of this mosquito born, and a relative stable virus is on a rise. Although congenital microcephaly is a rare disorder however, due to lack of standardized diagnostic test facilities, the incidence in the geographically widespread ZIKV epidemic regions is higher. Animals studies showed that ZIKV is a neurotropic virus. It directly targets the developing embryonic brain cells by inducing apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
One of the most contentious areas of health policy over the past two decades has been the safety of vaccination. Vaccines prevent the outbreak of diseases that used to be widespread, like polio, and scientific consensus strongly supports their safety. Yet many Americans refuse or delay the vaccination of their children out of fear that it could lead to autism, even though scientific consensus refutes this claim. Anti-vaccine attitudes have been fueled in large part by growing rates of autism diagnoses as well as a now debunked study in The Lancet that linked autism and the measles mumps rubella (MMR) vaccine – pushin...
Source: Kevin, M.D. - Medical Weblog - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Conditions Pediatrics Source Type: blogs
Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 100Author(s): Kristin Pfeffermann, Mareike Dörr, Florian Zirkel, Veronika von MesslingAbstractDespite the availability of safe and effective vaccines against measles and several animal morbilliviruses, they continue to cause regular outbreaks and epidemics in susceptible populations. Morbilliviruses are highly contagious and share a similar pathogenesis in their respective hosts. This review provides an overview of morbillivirus history and the general replication cycle and recapitulates Morbillivirus pathogenesis focusing on common and unique aspects se...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Yes, you should vaccinate your pets. And no, they can’t get autism. That’s the surreal message the British Veterinary Association (BVA) is pushing out to pet owners. It comes amid a mounting trend of individuals who refuse to vaccinate their dogs due to a mistaken belief that shots can cause autism. This theory — which originally stems from a widely discredited and later retracted 1998 study that purported to find a link between autism and the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine — has been repeatedly disproven in humans, and has no scientific basis when it comes to animals. “There’s currently ...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Autism healthytime onetime Source Type: news
The “ anti-vaxxer ” movement blamed for outbreaks of measles in the U.S. and Europe has now turned to pets, leading officials to rebut claims about side effects from vaccines.
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Animal Behavior Dogs Vaccination and Immunization Autism Veterinary Medicine Great Britain British Veterinary Association ITV (British television network - was offered iTV, which is either a case error in the tag name or another network...) Source Type: news
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