Role of pathogens in multiple sclerosis.

Role of pathogens in multiple sclerosis. Int Rev Immunol. 2014 Jul-Aug;33(4):266-83 Authors: Libbey JE, Cusick MF, Fujinami RS Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Although the etiology of MS is unknown, genetic and environmental factors play a role. Infectious pathogens are the likely environmental factors involved in the development of MS. Pathogens associated with the development or exacerbation of MS include bacteria, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae, the Staphylococcus aureus-produced enterotoxins that function as superantigens, viruses of the herpes virus (Epstein-Barr virus and human herpesvirus 6) and human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) families and the protozoa Acanthamoeba castellanii. Evidence, from studies with humans and animal models, supporting the association of these various pathogens with the development and/or exacerbation of MS will be discussed along with the potential mechanisms including molecular mimicry, epitope spreading and bystander activation. In contrast, infection with certain parasites such as helminthes (Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercolaris, Enterobius vermicularis) appears to protect against the development or exacerbation of MS. Evidence supporting the ability of parasitic infections to protect against disease will be discussed ...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In PracticeAuthor(s): Alexandra Leonard, Jingya Wang, Li Yu, Hao Liu, Yeriel Estrada, Lydia Greenlees, Roderick McPhee, Alexey Ruzin, Emma Guttman-Yassky, Michael D. HowellAbstractBackgroundAtopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disease with significant local and systemic inflammation and barrier disruption. AD is associated with increased risk of allergen sensitization and skin colonization by Staphylococcus aureus. The heterogeneity of AD is unknown, and its complexity suggests its subdivision into several e...
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
M. Yassine For a long time, viruses have been shown to modify the clinical picture of several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes (T1D), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjögren’s syndrome (SS), herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK), celiac disease (CD), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Best examples of viral infections that have been proposed to modulate the induction and development of autoimmune diseases are the infections with enteric viruses such as Coxsackie B virus (CVB) and rotavirus, as well as influenza A viruses (IAV), and herpesviruses. Other viruses that ...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
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Source: International Journal of Trichology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and incurable autoimmune neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. Although the symptoms of MS can be managed by vitamin D3 treatment alone, this condition cannot be completely eradicated. Thus, there might be unknown factors capable of regulating the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Genome-wide analysis showed that miRNAs were associated with VDRs. We sought to determine the role and mechanism of action of miRNA-125a-5p and VDRs in a model of MS, mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which was induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35 &ndash...
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Source: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Creepy Dreadful Wonderful Parasites - Category: Parasitology Source Type: blogs
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Source: Food Control - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
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