Later emergence of acquired drug resistance and its effect on treatment outcome in patients treated with Standard Short-Course Chemotherapy for tuberculosis

The failure of current Standard Short-Course Chemotherapy (SCC) in new and previously treated cases with tuberculosis (TB) was mainly due to drug resistance development. But little is known on the characterist...
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

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Conclusion: An improvement in the reduction of percentage of lost to follow-up and coverage with CTX and ARV therapy could greatly increase chances to efficiently control TB in Cameroon. PMID: 32724812 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
We reported such a case in a 15-year-old girl who presented with fever and neck swelling and was found to have lymphadenopathy. A biopsy of the right supraclavicular lymph node showed Reed-Sternberg cells and stained positive for acid-fast bacilli and tuberculosis culture. The patient was diagnosed with tuberculous adenitis with concurrent Hodgkin lymphoma in the same lymph node. She was started on anti-tubercular medications and chemotherapy and showed clinical improvement. This case highlights the need for suspicion in order to identify these two disorders in the same patient, since missing one of them is possible and ma...
Source: Oman Medical Journal - Category: Middle East Health Tags: Oman Med J Source Type: research
gneux S Abstract We analysed 312 drug-resistant genomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) collected from HIV coinfected and HIV negative TB patients from nine countries with a high tuberculosis burden. We found that rifampicin-resistant Mtb strains isolated from HIV coinfected patients carried disproportionally more resistance-conferring mutations in rpoB that are associated with a low fitness in the absence of the drug, suggesting these low fitness rpoB variants can thrive in the context of reduced host immunity. PMID: 32718966 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Abstract The novel regimen of bedaquiline, pretomanid, and linezolid (BPaL) is highly effective against drug resistant tuberculosis, but linezolid toxicities are frequent. We hypothesized that, for a similar total weekly cumulative dose, thrice-weekly administration of linezolid would preserve efficacy while reducing toxicity compared to daily dosing, in the context of the BPaL regimen.Using C3HeB/FeJ and BALB/c mouse models of tuberculosis disease, thrice-weekly linezolid dosing was compared to daily dosing, with intermittent dosing introduced (a) from treatment initiation or (b) following an initial period of da...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Contributors : Michelle M Bellerose ; Megan K Proulx ; Clare M Smith ; Richard E Baker ; Thomas R Ioerger ; Christopher M SassettiSeries Type : OtherOrganism : Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37RvUnderstanding how M. tuberculosis survives during antibiotic treatment is necessary to rationally devise more effective tuberculosis chemotherapy regimens. Using genome-wide mutant fitness profiling and the mouse model of TB, we identified genes that alter antibiotic efficacy specifically in the infection environment.
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Other Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv Source Type: research
Conclusions: Patients with mm could benefit from a consistent tst testing policy coupled with subsequent ltbi therapy. However, universal testing might not be required. A targeted program combining evaluation of host risk factors, imaging findings, and screening tests might optimize ltbi diagnosis and management, and thus be effective in preventing the development of active tb in at-risk patients with mm. PMID: 32669929 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Current Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Curr Oncol Source Type: research
Source: Infection and Drug Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infection and Drug Resistance Source Type: research
Abstract Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death by an infectious disease.…. PMID: 32661004 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Abstract Criteria defining bedaquiline resistance for tuberculosis have been proposed addressing an emerging concern. We evaluated bedaquiline phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (pDST) criteria using drug-resistant tuberculosis clinical isolates tested at five reference laboratories. Isolates were tested at the proposed bedaquiline MGIT960 and 7H11 Agar Proportion (AP) critical concentrations, and dilutions higher. The epidemiological cut-off value for the broth microdilution (BMD) plates (frozen and dry) was investigated. Any isolate testing resistant had Sanger sequencing performed (atpE and Rv0678 genes). T...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
In conclusion, we developed a population PK model and assessed target attainment for different ETA regimens. Patients may not be able to tolerate the doses needed to achieve the predefined targets supporting current recommendations for ETA deprioritization. PMID: 32631828 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
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