Later emergence of acquired drug resistance and its effect on treatment outcome in patients treated with Standard Short-Course Chemotherapy for tuberculosis

The failure of current Standard Short-Course Chemotherapy (SCC) in new and previously treated cases with tuberculosis (TB) was mainly due to drug resistance development. But little is known on the characterist...
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

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ACC Abstract Tuberculosis of the skull or calvarial tuberculosis (CTB) is rare. The literature until 2019 reported less than 60 cases of CTB in childhood. The authors describe two patients with CTB associated with other manifestations of TB, such as: spine and rib injuries, peripheral adenopathy, hepatic and splenic involvement who improved with chemotherapy. The patients were a four-year-old and an eight-year-old child, whose diagnoses were confirmed by histopathological, bacteriological or molecular investigation. Both were not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and did not need orthopedic tre...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research
Conclusions: Delivery of granulysin by recombinant adenovirus to the infected lung could enhance the clearance of TB in vivo and might be a promising adjunct therapeutic vaccine for TB and MDR-TB.
Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Conclusion: According to the results of this study, infected infants with congenital CMV infection could identify at early stage by testing Guthrie cards (within 21 days of life). Furthermore, since there is a lack of CMV knowledge in our population, educating and effective counseling by obstetricians/gynecologists to the pregnant women are recommended. PMID: 32994908 [PubMed]
Source: Iranian Journal of Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Tags: Iran J Microbiol Source Type: research
Authors: Kaba Ö, Kara M, Bayramoğlu Z, Çalışkan E, Çetin B, Karimov E, Özkuvancı Ü, Özlük Y, Hançerli Torun S, Yürük Yıldırım ZN, Ziylan HO, Somer A Abstract A 15-year-old girl was followed up for 2 years in a district hospital for management of vesicoureteral reflux and, subsequently, hydronephrosis of both kidneys and required bilateral ureteroneocystostomy. Despite surgery, there was continuous progression of the left hydronephrosis. Referral to a tertiary hospital because of continued sterile pyuria prompted investigation for tuberculosis (TB):...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research
AbstractA 68-year-old man was diagnosed with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer and underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) in June 2014. The pathological diagnosis was urothelial carcinoma (UC), Grade 2, pT1. He was treated with intravesical bacillus Calmette –Guérin (BCG) instillation after TURBT. In February 2016, he received anti-tuberculosis treatment for systemic BCG infection, and tuberculosis treatment was continued. In September 2018, he presented with bilateral scrotum swelling and underwent bilateral orchiectomy following a diagnosis of anti tuberculotics-resistant epididymiti...
Source: International Cancer Conference Journal - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Optic nerve infiltration in systemic metastatic retinal lymphoma may have initial occult signs but with profound visual loss. Ocular infections like CMV retinitis and tuberculosis may mask and delay the diagnosis in immunocompromised patients. PMID: 32967510 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Ocul Immunol Inflamm Source Type: research
In this study, we used the Hollow Fiber Infection Model (HFIM) to evaluate the impact of different pharmacokinetic profiles of mice and Non-Human Primates (NHP) versus Humans on bacterial cell kill as well as resistance suppression. We examined both plasma and Epithelial Lining Fluid (ELF) profiles. We examined simulated exposures equivalent to 600 mg and 900 mg daily of linezolid in man. For both plasma and ELF exposures, the murine PK profile provided estimates of effect that were biased low relative to human and NHP PK profiles. Mathematical modeling identified a linkage between Cmin concentrations and bacterial kill an...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Abstract Spiroketal indolyl Mannich bases (SIMBs) present a novel class of membrane-inserting antimycobacterials with efficacy in a tuberculosis mouse model. SIMBs exert their antibacterial activity by two mechanisms. The indolyl Mannich base scaffold causes permeabilization of bacteria and the spiroketal moiety contributes to inhibition of the mycolic acid transporter MmpL3. Here, we show that low-level resistance to SIMBs arises by mutations in the transcriptional repressor MmpR5 resulting in upregulation of the efflux pump MmpL5. PMID: 32958714 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
We report a patient with multifocal PCNSL involving the choroid plexus, who presented with abnormal gait and episodic confusion and memory loss. PCNSL should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute encephalopathy among immunocompetent older individuals who have choroid plexus enhancing lesions.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is the most significant cause of death from a single infectious agent worldwide. Antibiotic-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis represent a threat to effective treatment, and the long duration, toxicity and complexity of current chemotherapy for antibiotic-resistant disease presents a need for new therapeutic approaches with novel modes of action. M. tuberculosis is an intracellular pathogen that must survive phagocytosis by macrophages, dendritic cells or neutrophils to establish an infection. The tryptophan biosynthetic pathway is re...
Source: Biochemical Society Transactions - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Soc Trans Source Type: research
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