Phenibut (4‐amino‐3‐phenyl‐butyric acid): Availability, prevalence of use, desired effects and acute toxicity

ConclusionsPhenibut is readily available in the UK from Internet sites selling NPS. Its desired and adverse effects appear similar to other gamma‐aminobutyric acid receptor agonists. [Owen DR, Wood DM, Archer JRH, Dargan PI. Phenibut (4‐amino‐3‐phenyl‐butyric acid): Availability, prevalence of use, desired effects and acute toxicity. Drug Alcohol Rev 2015;00:000–000]
Source: Drug and Alcohol Review - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Original Paper Source Type: research

Related Links:

The World Food Programme distributing food in El Salvador. The second of the UN's 17 Sustainable Development Goals is to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture. Credit: WFP/David FernandezBy Trish CotterMELBOURNE, Sep 21 2021 (IPS) COVID-19 has exposed serious vulnerabilities in how people around the world access and consume food. One of the more alarming trends is the significant increase in the consumption of foods that may be tasty and convenient, but harm our heath. These ultra-processed products include sugary drinks, snack foods, frozen meals, packaged breads and ...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Climate Change Editors' Choice Featured Food and Agriculture Food Security and Nutrition Global Headlines Health IPS UN: Inside the Glasshouse Poverty & SDGs TerraViva United Nations Source Type: news
CONCLUSION: Individuals experiencing loneliness at least a few times in the past 2 weeks reported more days of subsequent alcohol or cannabis use compared with individuals who were not lonely. This is cause for concern, as national surveys of US adults indicate increasing rates of loneliness, depression and substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic. These results suggest the need for health care providers to screen for feelings of loneliness and potentially harmful coping behaviors such as substance use, and to offer healthier alternative coping strategies.PMID:34543868 | DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.107115
Source: Addictive Behaviors - Category: Addiction Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsNear or above national average rates of substance use lends credence to the importance of this issue within Arab American communities. Tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use are multifactorial issues requiring increased attention and further exploration into factors associated with substance use, including potential stigma and the challenges of cultural acceptability.
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - Category: Addiction Source Type: research
AbstractSubstance use disorder is a major public health concern in India. Understanding social support among persons who were abstaining from substance use would help in promoting long-term abstinence. To examine perceived social support among abstinent individuals with substance use disorder.Cross-sectional study design was used. Sixty subjects who were attending follow-up service were selected consecutively from out-patient specialty clinic (Addiction Medicine), tertiary care teaching hospital, Bangalore. Persons with SUDs between the age of 18 –60 years with minimum abstinence period of three months and abo...
Source: Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation and Mental Health - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Clin Psychol Rev. 2021 Sep 10;89:102083. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2021.102083. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThis systematic review synthesized the literature examining addiction substitution during recovery from substance use or behavioral addictions. A total of 96 studies were included with sample sizes ranging from 6 to 14,885. The most common recovery addictions were opioids (30.21%), followed by cannabis (20.83%), unspecified use (17.71%), nicotine (12.50%), alcohol (12.50%), cocaine (4.17%), and gambling (2.08%). Statistical results were provided by 70.83% of the studies. Of these, 17.65% found support for addiction substi...
Source: Clinical Psychology Review - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: VNPs hold significant promise as smoking cessation aids among people in AOD treatment because of their unique ability to satisfy both nicotine cravings and behavioural habits. However, multiple barriers, such as accessibility, maintenance, and the challenges of reducing other substance use simultaneously also need to be addressed for optimal engagement in clinical trials with VNPs to quit smoking.PMID:34536632 | DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.107097
Source: Addictive Behaviors - Category: Addiction Authors: Source Type: research
We examined (a) whether drinking motives change, (b) time-varying effects of motives on alcohol use and consequences, and (c) change in the strength of the association between motives and use and motives and consequences over the first year of college. A sample of 121 heavy drinking first-year students (50% female, 58% Caucasian) completed three assessments (baseline, 3 months, 6 months). Endorsement of social motives declined from 0 to 3 months, while endorsement of coping, enhancement, and conformity motives declined from 3 to 6 months. Social motives were positively associated with alcohol use and consequences across as...
Source: Addictive Behaviors - Category: Addiction Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: The present study provides preliminary support for the long-term efficacy of imaginal retraining on craving for tobacco but not on smoking behaviour, highlighting the importance of multimodal treatment concepts in smoking cessation that target a variety of maintaining factors. Future studies need to investigate the long-term efficacy of the intervention in prospective RCTs that test alternative ways of conveying the technique to improve adherence.Eur Addict Res
Source: European Addiction Research - Category: Addiction Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: While blackout and alcohol-related Tweets were similar in time of day (peaking in the evening) and day of week (peaking on weekends), they differed during certain celebrations/holidays, suggesting that while alcohol use may be more common during some celebrations, others are more associated with serious harms.PMID:34530209 | DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.107110
Source: Addictive Behaviors - Category: Addiction Authors: Source Type: research
Addict Behav. 2021 Aug 31;124:107107. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.107107. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDrunkorexia is a behavior pattern marked by calorie restriction and/or compensation in relation to alcohol consumption. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of social norms (descriptive, injunctive) and social comparison orientation (SCO; global, alcohol-specific, eating disorder-related) in drunkorexia engagement. Specifically, our research aimed to examine a possible interaction between norms and SCO; we hypothesized that the relationship between social norms and drunkorexia would be moderated by SCO in ...
Source: Addictive Behaviors - Category: Addiction Authors: Source Type: research
More News: Addiction | Alcoholism | Conferences | Emergency Medicine | Internet | Toxicology | Websites