Doctors warn of codeine risks after case of acute confusion in girl, 14

Lack of efficacy and risk of intoxication and addiction suggest use of over-the-counter codeine drugs may be unwarranted, says reportDoctors have issued a warning about the use of over-the-counter medicines containing codeine following what is believed to be the first published case of acute confusion in a 14-year-old girl.The risks associated with codeine in cough remedies, both prescribed and otherwise, may be “particularly unnecessary” because of the lack of evidence that they actually work, the experts said. Continue reading...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Drugs policy UK news Ireland Europe Medical research Science Health Society Doctors Source Type: news

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CONCLUSIONS: There is moderate-certainty evidence that ECs with nicotine increase quit rates compared to NRT and compared to ECs without nicotine. Evidence comparing nicotine EC with usual care/no treatment also suggests benefit, but is less certain. More studies are needed to confirm the effect size. Confidence intervals were for the most part wide for data on AEs, SAEs and other safety markers, with no difference in AEs between nicotine and non-nicotine ECs. Overall incidence of SAEs was low across all study arms. We did not detect evidence of harm from nicotine EC, but longest follow-up was two years and the number of s...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of our study indicate that advanced age can increase the risk of mortality in COVID 19 patients under invasive ventilation whereas, mortality among invasive ventilation patients is high, irrespective of their characteristic. Guidelines are therefore, required regarding the use of invasive ventilation among these patients.PMID:34512967 | PMC:PMC8423777 | DOI:10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102832
Source: Annals of Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionThe problematic use of OTC medicines is quite prevalent in adults, necessitating raising public awareness about their safe use. In addition, innovative harm minimisation models need to be developed, evaluated and implemented across health care settings.
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This is the first study to observe longitudinal relationships between SEs at e-cigarette initiation and subsequent e-cigarette use behaviors. Findings highlight the importance of preventing initial e-cigarette use among adolescents.PMID:34186298 | DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.107028
Source: Addictive Behaviors - Category: Addiction Authors: Source Type: research
Chest. 2021 May 21:S0012-3692(21)00962-4. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2021.05.031. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is associated with a reduced risk of developing sarcoidosis, and we previously reported that nicotine normalizes immune responses to environmental antigens in patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis. The effects of nicotine on pulmonary sarcoidosis progression is unknown.RESEARCH QUESTION: Is nicotine treatment well-tolerated and will it improve lung function in patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis?STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: With local IRB approval, we conducted a randomized, double-...
Source: Chest - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: There is moderate-certainty evidence that ECs with nicotine increase quit rates compared to ECs without nicotine and compared to NRT. Evidence comparing nicotine EC with usual care/no treatment also suggests benefit, but is less certain. More studies are needed to confirm the size of effect, particularly when using modern EC products. Confidence intervals were for the most part wide for data on AEs, SAEs and other safety markers, though evidence indicated no difference in AEs between nicotine and non-nicotine ECs. Overall incidence of SAEs was low across all study arms. We did not detect any clear evidence of ...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion This is an unusual fascinating case which posed a significant diagnostic dilemma. Ruling out infection particularly in great challenge in diagnosing CRMO in a male adult who is homeless and a heroin abuser presenting with multifocal osteolytic lesions was challenging. The severity of his conditio n necessitated using novel treatments such as tocilizumab.Disclosure W. Ng: None.A. Anjum: None.J. Devlin: None.A. Fraser: None.
Source: Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research
Behavioural interventions for smoking cessation: an overview and network meta ‐analysisKey messages Behavioural support can help more people to stop smoking for six months or longer, without causing unwanted effects.Some types of support appear to work better than others. More studies are needed to identify the best ways to support people who are trying to stop smoking, and to identify the best people to support them.Stopping smokingThe best thing people who smoke can do for their health is to stop smoking. People breathe more easily and cough less when they stop smoking. Stopping also lowers their risk of getting l...
Source: Cochrane News and Events - Category: Information Technology Authors: Source Type: news
A potentially dangerous drug found in most over-the-counter cough medicines is more popular than opioids among teenagers, largely because it is legal, inexpensive and easy to obtain. The post DXM: A drug in plain sight appeared first on Counseling Today.
Source: Counseling Today - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Counseling Today Member Insights Counselors Audience Substance dependence and addictions teenager Source Type: research
Introduction or background: Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by permanent dilation of the bronchi and mucus production. For these patients pulmonary rehabilitation and secretion clearance are the recommended treatment. High frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) is a relatively new technique that may promote mucus expectoration and contribute to clinical stability as add-on therapy to usual airway clearance techniques (ACTs).Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of HFCWO as add-on treatment to usual ACTs in patients with bronchiectasis and frequent exacerb...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research
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