Obesity and infection: reciprocal causality.

Obesity and infection: reciprocal causality. Physiol Res. 2015;64 Suppl 2:S105-19 Authors: Hainer V, Zamrazilová H, Kunešová M, Bendlová B, Aldhoon-Hainerová I Abstract Associations between different infectious agents and obesity have been reported in humans for over thirty years. In many cases, as in nosocomial infections, this relationship reflects the greater susceptibility of obese individuals to infection due to impaired immunity. In such cases, the infection is not related to obesity as a causal factor but represents a complication of obesity. In contrast, several infections have been suggested as potential causal factors in human obesity. However, evidence of a causal linkage to human obesity has only been provided for adenovirus 36 (Adv36). This virus activates lipogenic and proinflammatory pathways in adipose tissue, improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and hepatic steatosis. The E4orf1 gene of Adv36 exerts insulin senzitizing effects, but is devoid of its pro-inflammatory modalities. The development of a vaccine to prevent Adv36-induced obesity or the use of E4orf1 as a ligand for novel antidiabetic drugs could open new horizons in the prophylaxis and treatment of obesity and diabetes. More experimental and clinical studies are needed to elucidate the mutual relations between infection and obesity, identify additional infectious agents causing human obesity, as well as define the conditions that predisp...
Source: Physiological Research - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

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Mouse Trefoil Factor 3 (Tff3) Ameliorated hepatic steatosis via increasing Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-α (PPARα) mediated fatty acid oxidation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Jun 18;: Authors: Wu X, Zheng H, Yang R, Luan X, Zhang L, Jin Y, Jin Q, Xue J Abstract Hepatic trefoil factor 3 (Tff3) was identified as a potential protein for the treatment of diabetes, yet the effect of Tff3 on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has never been explored. Here, we found that the expression of hepatic Tff3 was significantly decreased in NAFLD mice models, suggesting that Tff...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 June 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Wei Tang, Yingying FanAbstractAimsWe aimed to explore the role of SIRT6 in Insulin resistance (IR). We are the first to investigate on this crucial relationship in an obese mouse model fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) and an IR model based on the mature 3T3-L1-derived adipocytes.Main methodsWestern blotting (WB) and qPCR analysis were performed to evaluate the SIRT6 protein and mRNA expressions in HFD mice as well as IR cells. Injection of adenovirus encoding SIRT6 gene in HFD mice and transfection of pcDNA3-SIRT6 in IR cells increased the glucose u...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Abstract Obesity induces accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and ATM-driven inflammatory responses that promote the development of glucose and lipid metabolism disorders. ClC-3 chloride channel/antiporter, encoded by the Clcn3, is critical for some basic cellular functions. Our previous work has shown significant alleviation of type 2 diabetes in Clcn3 knockout (Clcn3-/-) mice. In the present study we investigated the role of Clcn3 in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and ATM inflammation. To establish the mouse obesity model, both Clcn3-/- mice and wild-type mice were fed a HFD for 4 or 16 weeks. ...
Source: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Acta Pharmacol Sin Source Type: research
In conclusion, TSF improved lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis by inducing the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway-mediated autophagy. Introduction Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a worldwide health concern due to the increased incidence of obesity and diabetes. In addition, NAFLD is closely associated with the risk factors of coronary heart disease, such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia, which are considered to be the leading causes of death (Wiest et al., 2017). Although our understanding of the pathogenesis of NAFLD has significantly improved, there is still no effective medica...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
This study was supported by research grants from Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI) and European Fund of Regional Development (FEDER) to JC-R (AGL2016-74857-C3-3-R) and JS (AGL2016-74857-C3-1-R). CO-R has a predoctoral fellowship from AEI (BES-2014-068040). Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. References 1. Blouet C, Schwartz GJ. Hypothalamic nutrient sensing in the control of energy homeostasis. Behav Brain Res. (2010) 209:1–1...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Roberto Javier Elizondo-Vega1, Antonia Recabal1 and Karina Oyarce2* 1Laboratorio de Biología Celular, Departamento de Biología Celular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile 2Facultad de Medicina y Ciencia, Universidad San Sebastián, Concepción, Chile Nutritional signals have long been implicated in the control of cellular processes that take place in the hypothalamus. This includes food intake regulation and energy balance, inflammation, and most recently, neurogenesis. One of the main glial cells residing in the hypothalam...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Early childhood infection with enterovirus – but not adenovirus – linked to later coeliac disease Related items fromOnMedica Probiotics in newborns might lower diabetes risk Women less likely than men to achieve CHD targets Send children with suspected diabetes to hospital immediately, GPs urged Scans show severe brain damage in Zika-affected babies Many overweight teens don ’t realise they’re too heavy
Source: OnMedica Latest News - Category: UK Health Source Type: news
We examined the effects of such genes on T2DM using an improved adenovirus vector that demonstrates safer, higher, and longer-term transgene expression than that of the conventional adenovirus vector. We also found that certain foods inhibit the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is related to T2DM. In this review, we introduce our research results, demonstrating how genes and food independently contribute to the mechanisms of T2DM pathology. PMID: 30606928 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research
Researchers here test a gene therapy that mimics the normal regulatory mechanisms governing BDNF expression in the hypothalamus, enhancing BDNF activity only when it is called for. In aging mice, this slows the expected decline of metabolism, as measured by a variety of metrics and markers. As a basis for a human enhancement therapy, this is intriguing, but not a near term prospect. I think we are at present quite a long way removed from a world of reliable, widely available gene therapies targeted to the brain, even under the most aggressive timelines. The aging process and age-related diseases all involve pertur...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
ConclusionsOur findings indicate thatKbtbd11 expression may be involved in nutritional regulation and is increased in obese adipose tissue. In addition,Kbtbd11 appears to be required for the differentiation of adipocytes in 3T3‐L1 cells. Collectively, these results reveal a novel link between the expression ofKbtbd11 and fat accumulation and suggest thatKbtbd11 is a new therapeutic target for obesity.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: Journal of Diabetes Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
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