On the Origin of Heterotrophy.

On the Origin of Heterotrophy. Trends Microbiol. 2015 Nov 12; Authors: Schönheit P, Buckel W, Martin WF Abstract The theory of autotrophic origins of life posits that the first cells on Earth satisfied their carbon needs from CO2. At hydrothermal vents, spontaneous synthesis of methane via serpentinization links an energy metabolic reaction with a geochemical homologue. If the first cells were autotrophs, how did the first heterotrophs arise, and what was their substrate? We propose that cell mass roughly similar to the composition of Escherichia coli was the substrate for the first chemoorganoheterotrophs. Amino acid fermentations, pathways typical of anaerobic clostridia and common among anaerobic archaea, in addition to clostridial type purine fermentations, might have been the first forms of heterotrophic carbon and energy metabolism. Ribose was probably the first abundant sugar, and the archaeal type III RubisCO pathway of nucleoside monophosphate conversion to 3-phosphoglycerate might be a relic of ancient heterotrophy. Participation of chemiosmotic coupling and flavin-based electron bifurcation - a soluble energy coupling process - in clostridial amino acid and purine fermentations is consistent with an autotrophic origin of both metabolism and heterotrophy, as is the involvement of S(0) as an electron acceptor in the facilitated fermentations of anaerobic heterotrophic archaea. PMID: 26578093 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Trends in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

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Conclusion: This study has a total complication rate of 16%, approximately 10% of those are severe. The most common complication to PCNL was infection (60%), followed by bleeding (5.4%), reoperation (1.6%) and pain (0.5%). The high prevalence of E. faecalis might need to be considered, however the results should be validated in a larger cohort, possibly with a higher rate of antibiotic resistance, before a change of guidelines regarding prophylactic antibiotics could be proposed. PMID: 32208808 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Scand J Urol Source Type: research
Analyst, 2020, Advance Article DOI: 10.1039/C9AN02572C, PaperBin Yang, Yiling Fan, Yang Li, Jun Yan, Xueen Fang, Jilie Kong An integrated microfluidic system based on circular fluorescent probe-mediated isothermal nucleic acid amplification for identification of five diarrheagenicEscherichia coli strains has been developed. To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above. The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: RSC - Analyst latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: These observations suggest that early onset colorectal cancer and AML may be related diseases.
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Gastrointestinal Source Type: research
In this study, we analyzed the epidemiological and genetic features of NoV outbreaks from July 2014 to June 2018 in Huzhou, China. A total of 450 stool samples collected from 51 AGE outbreaks were tested for NoVs by real-time RT PCR. Partial polymerase and capsid sequences of NoV-positive samples were amplified and sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. NoVs were found to be responsible of 84.3% of AGE outbreaks in Huzhou over the past 5 years. Most NoV outbreaks were reported in the cool months (November-March) and occurred in primary schools and kindergartens. Changes in the diversity of genotypes and the distribution of p...
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Bacterial persisters are rare phenotypic variants that are temporarily tolerant to high concentrations of antibiotics. We have previously discovered that stationary-phase-cell subpopulations exhibiting high redox activities were less capable of producing proteins and resuming growth upon their dilution into fresh media. The redox activities of these cells were maintained by endogenous protein and RNA degradation, resulting in self-inflicted damage that transiently repressed the cellular functions targeted by antibiotics. Here, we showed that pretreatment of stationary-phase cells with an ATP synthase inhibitor, chlorpromaz...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, the stress response of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari to elevated temperatures (46°C) was investigated by survival assays and whole transcriptome analysis. None of the strains survived at 46°C for more than 8 h and approximately 20% of the genes of C. coli RM2228 and C. lari RM2100 were differentially expressed. The transcriptomic profiles showed enhanced gene expression of several chaperones like dnaK, groES, groEL, and clpB in both strains, indicating a general involvement in the heat stress response within the Campylobacter species. However, the pronounced differences in the expression ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
AbstractThe aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a humic acid (HA) ‐supplemented diet on productive performance and some physiological parameters of growing rabbits. A total of 80 weaned V‐line rabbits at an age of 4 weeks were randomly divided into four groups. Rabbits of groups 2, 3 and 4 were fed diet containing 35 (HA35), 70 (HA70) and 105 (HA105) mg Humic acid/kg diet while the first group served as control (HA0). Body weight gain was positively affected by HA treatment. HA105 rabbits had the improved feed conversion value. HA treatments had significantly reduced plasma cholesterol concentra...
Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition - Category: Zoology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 March 2020Source: Research in Veterinary ScienceAuthor(s): Mei Xue, Muhammad Akmal Raheem, Yi Gu, Huiqi Lu, Xiangjun Song, Jian Tu, Ting Xue, Kezong Qi
Source: Research in Veterinary Science - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Conditions:   Eosinophilic Gastritis;   Eosinophilic Duodenitis Interventions:   Drug: antolimab (AK002);   Other: Placebo Sponsor:   Allakos, Inc. Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Condition:   Analysis Transmission Rate Interventions:   Diagnostic Test: Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and whole genome sequencing;   Other: Data collection Sponsor:   University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland Active, not recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
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