Assessment of BCG vaccine practices.

[Assessment of BCG vaccine practices]. Arch Pediatr. 2015 Nov 6; Authors: Lechiche C, Charpille M, Saissi G, Sotto A Abstract Tuberculosis is a major public health problem. In France, the vaccine against tuberculosis (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, BCG) is in decline. This decline is firstly due to changes in BGG administration that were implemented in 2006 and secondly because of new recommandations in 2007 that ended compulsory vaccination. To determine their position on this vaccine, in 2013-2014 we asked general practitioners, pediatricians, and Maternal and Infantile Protection Center physicians in the Gard and Herault departments (in Southern France) why this vaccine was not administered and their suggestions for improvement. Most of these doctors (73.9%) stated that they did not oppose this vaccination for children. They expressed concern about potential side effects, technical problems (intradermic injection, multi-dose bottles) and parents' refusal. One quarter of these physicians would have preferred that this vaccine remains compulsory and one third that this vaccine be administered in the maternity hospital. They also requested simplified criteria for patient eligibility, technical improvements (training for intradermal injection, single-dose vaccine) and more information for the public concerning this vaccination. PMID: 26552631 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Archives de Pediatrie - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Arch Pediatr Source Type: research

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Tuberculosis (TB) ranks as the leading cause of death among infectious diseases in human history, claiming over a billion lives in the past two centuries alone [1, 2]. Although a number of important advances have been made to control TB in the past decade, an estimated 10 million people fell ill with TB and 1.5 million died from the disease in 2018 alone [1]. The only licensed TB vaccine, bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG), provides partial protection against severe forms of TB in infants and young children (averting thousands of paediatric deaths annually), but fails to stop transmission of pulmonary tuberculosis in adults [3, 4].
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AbstractMycobacterium tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death attributed to a single infectious organism. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the standard vaccine againstM. tuberculosis, is thought to prevent only 5% of all vaccine-preventable deaths due to tuberculosis, thus an alternative vaccine is required. One of the principal barriers to vaccine development againstM. tuberculosis is the complexity of the immune response to infection, with uncertainty as to what constitutes an immunological correlate of protection. In this paper, we seek to give an overview of the immunology ofM. tuberculosis infection, and by doi...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
ConclusionAlthough the correlation of Mantoux test with elevated ESR was not significant in our study, it could be of value as a screening tool along with the Mantoux test, which is sensitive but nonspecific in the diagnosis of active tuberculosis. Together, they could be a valuable screening tool in any community or hospital for diagnosis of the disease.
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Vaccines have been traditionally developed with the presumption that they exert identical immunogenicity regardless of target population and that they provide protection solely against their target pathogen. However, it is increasingly appreciated that vaccines can have off-target effects and that vaccine immunogenicity can vary substantially with demographic factors such as age and sex. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), represents a key example of these concepts. BCG vaccines are manufactured under different conditions across the globe generati...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
A better understanding of all immune components involved in protecting against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is urgently needed to inform strategies for novel immunotherapy and tuberculosis (TB) vaccine development. Although cell-mediated immunity is critical, increasing evidence supports that antibodies also have a protective role against TB. Yet knowledge of protective antigens is limited. Analyzing sera from 97 US immigrants at various stages of M. tuberculosis infection, we showed protective in vitro and in vivo efficacy of polyclonal IgG against the M. tuberculosis capsular polysaccharide arabinomannan (AM). Us...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 32130727 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: European Journal of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Eur J Immunol Source Type: research
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health threat. Although a vaccine has been available for almost 100 years termed Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), it is insufficient and better vaccines are urgently needed. This treatise describes first the basic immunology and pathology of TB with an emphasis on the role of T lymphocytes. Better understanding of the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) serves as blueprint for rational design of TB vaccines. Then, disease epidemiology and the benefits and failures of BCG vaccination will be presented. Next, types of novel vaccine candidates are being discussed. These i...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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