Uganda: Cattle Trial Cuts Human Sleeping Sickness

[SciDev.Net] A method to stamp out human sleeping sickness by injecting cattle with a parasite-killing drug and spraying insecticide has proven effective in Uganda.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news

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We examined bloodstream and procyclic life cycle stages, and a knockdown lacking DRC11/CMF22 of the nexin dynein regulatory complex (NDRC). Sub-tomogram averaging yields a resolution of 21.8 Å for the 96-nm repeat. We discovered several lineage-specific structures, including novel inter-doublet linkages and microtubule inner proteins (MIPs). We establish that DRC11/CMF22 is required for the NDRC proximal lobe that binds the adjacent doublet microtubule. We propose that lineage-specific elaboration of axoneme structure inT. brucei reflects adaptations to support unique motility needs in diverse host environments.
Source: eLife - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Cell Biology Microbiology and Infectious Disease Source Type: research
by Megan A. Sloan, Karen Brooks, Thomas D. Otto, Mandy J. Sanders, James A. Cotton, Petros Ligoxygakis Trypanosomatid parasites are causative agents of important human and animal diseases such as sleeping sickness and leishmaniasis. Most trypanosomatids are transmitted to their mammalian hosts by insects, often belonging to Diptera (or true flies). These are called dixenous trypanosomatids since th ey infect two different hosts, in contrast to those that infect just insects (monoxenous). However, it is still unclear whether dixenous and monoxenous trypanosomatids interact similarly with their insect host, as fly-monoxenou...
Source: PLoS Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 2 November 2019Source: Journal of Molecular BiologyAuthor(s): Arpita Saha, Vishal P. Nanavaty, Bibo LiAbstractTrypanosoma brucei is a kinetoplastid parasite that causes African trypanosomiasis, which is fatal if left untreated. T. brucei regularly switches its major surface antigen, VSG, to evade the host immune responses. VSGs are exclusively expressed from subtelomeric expression sites (ESs) where VSG genes are flanked by upstream 70 bp repeats and downstream telomeric repeats. The telomere downstream of the active VSG is transcribed into a long-noncoding RNA (TERRA), which forms RNA:DN...
Source: Journal of Molecular Biology - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Immunological Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) studies often exclude malaria, although both infections overlap in specific endemic areas. During this co-infection, it is not known whether this parasitic int...
Source: Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
This study therefore reports a novel immune evasion mechanism, whereby T. brucei secretes amino-acid derived metabolites for the purpose of suppressing both the host CNS and peripheral immune response, potentially via induction of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by infection due to protozoan parasites of the Trypanosoma genus and is a major fatal disease throughout sub-Saharan Africa. After an early hemolymphatic stage in which the peripheral tissues are infected, the parasites enter the CNS causing a constellation of neurologic features. Although the CNS stage of HAT has been recognized for over a century, the mechanisms generating the neuroinflammatory response are complex and not well understood. Therefore a better understanding of the mechanisms utilized by the parasites to gain access to the CNS compartment is critical to explaini...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Views [amp ] Reviews Source Type: research
phill A Abstract Trypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis and Nagana disease in cattle, imposing substantial medical and economic burden in sub-Saharan Africa. The current treatments have limitations, including the requirement for elaborated protocols, development of drug resistance, and they are prone to adverse side effects. In vitro screening of a library of 14 dinuclear-thiolato bridged arene ruthenium complexes, originally developed for treatment of cancer cells, resulted in the identification of 7 compounds with IC50 values ranging from 3 to 26 nM. Complex [(η6-p-MeC6H4Pri)2Ru2(μ2-SC6...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
by Dennis J. Grab, Olga V. Nikolskaia, Bertrand Courtioux, Oriel M. M. Thekisoe, Stefan Magez, Maxim Bogorad, J. Stephen Dumler, Sylvie Bisser ObjectiveWhere human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) patients are seen, failure to microscopically diagnose infections byTrypanosoma brucei gambiense in blood smears and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the critical early stages of the disease is the single most important factor in treatment failure, a result of delayed treatment onset or its absence. We hypothesized that the enhanced sensitivity of detergent-enhanced loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) will allow for point o...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2019Source: Protein Expression and PurificationAuthor(s): Lauren E-A. Eyssen, Theresa H.T. CoetzerAbstractThe metacaspases (MCAs) are attractive drug targets for the treatment of African trypanosomiasis as they are not found in the metazoan kingdom and their action has been implicated in cell cycle and cell death pathways in kinetoplastid parasites. Here we report the biochemical characterisation of MCA5 from T. congolense. Upon recombinant expression in E. coli, autoprocessing is evident, and MCA5 further autoprocesses when purified using nickel affinity chromatography, which we...
Source: Protein Expression and Purification - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Wow - we received so many excellent comments on how parasites and the number 5 go together! Here are many of them - in no particular order - for your viewing pleasure:Pentatrichomonas hominis is a nonpathogenic intestinal flagellate named for its 5 flagella (penta from the Greek pente, meaning five + trich, pertaining to hair [flagella]). By Neil Anderson and Bernardino Rocha.There are 5 lobes of the lung, and all can be infected by Paragonimusspecies. By Brian Duresko.The are 5Plasmodiumspecies that are responsible for the bulk of malaria in humans:P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, andP. knowlesi(t...
Source: Creepy Dreadful Wonderful Parasites - Category: Parasitology Source Type: blogs
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