Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Version 2.2015.

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Version 2.2015. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2015 Oct;13(10):1240-79 Authors: Alvarnas JC, Brown PA, Aoun P, Ballen KK, Barta SK, Borate U, Boyer MW, Burke PW, Cassaday R, Castro JE, Coccia PF, Coutre SE, Damon LE, DeAngelo DJ, Douer D, Frankfurt O, Greer JP, Johnson RA, Kantarjian HM, Klisovic RB, Kupfer G, Litzow M, Liu A, Rao AV, Shah B, Uy GL, Wang ES, Zelenetz AD, Gregory K, Smith C Abstract Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) continues to advance, as evidenced by the improved risk stratification of patients and development of newer treatment options. Identification of ALL subtypes based on immunophenotyping and cytogenetic and molecular markers has resulted in the inclusion of Philadelphia-like ALL and early T-cell precursor ALL as subtypes that affect prognosis. Identification of Ikaros mutations has also emerged as a prognostic factor. In addition to improved prognostication, treatment options for patients with ALL have expanded, particularly with regard to relapsed/refractory ALL. Continued development of second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors and the emergence of immunotherapy, including blinatumomab and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, have improved survival. Furthermore, incorporation of minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring has shown insight into patient outcomes and may lead to treatment modification or alternative treatment strategies in select populations. This excerpt focuses on the ...
Source: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Natl Compr Canc Netw Source Type: research

Related Links:

In conclusion, these recent studies strongly support CD123 as an important therapeutic target for the treatment of BPDCN, while a possible in the treatment of AML and other hematological malignancies will have to be evaluated by in the ongoing clinical studies.
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Abstract CAR T cell therapy of cancers promises to revolutionize oncology by harnessing the powers of synthetic biology and immunotherapy in a single agent. CARs are synthetic receptors composed of an extracellular antigen binding domain and one or more intracellular signaling domains which act in concert to activate the T cell upon antigen recognition. CARs targeting B cell associated CD19 demonstrated robust in vivo cytolytic activity, expansion, and persistence upon antigen exposure paving the way for clinical application of this technology and ultimately FDA approval for pediatric and young adult acute lymphob...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci Source Type: research
Abstract Effector lymphocytes are multifunctional cells of the immune system that promote cytolysis of pathogen-infected cells and nascent tumors. Tumors must learn to evade effectors and employ a wide variety of mechanisms to do so. Bispecific Abs (BsAbs) are an emerging cancer immunotherapy approach seeking to re-engage either T effectors or NK cells with malignant cells. Possessing specificity for effector cells on one end and a tumor Ag on the other, these molecules work by attracting effectors to the target cell to build an immunologic synapse and induce tumor cell killing. The BsAb blinatumomab, for example,...
Source: Journal of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Immunol Source Type: research
Treatment of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphoma using chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting B-cell surface protein CD19 has demonstrated impressive clinical results in children and young adults. Despite the promising results from CD19 CAR therapy, up to 40% of patients, who initially achieve remission, eventually relapse. Relapse or non-response to CD19-directed CAR therapy may be due to low or diminished CD19 expression. Such patients would be predicted to benefit from CAR therapies targeting other B-cell surface proteins, such as CD22.Scientists at the National Cancer Institute ’s (NCI) Pe...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
Targeting the CD22 receptor of B-cells with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells has been a promising new therapy to treat B-cell malignancies in clinical trials, inducing remission in 70% of patients with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, diminished CD22 expression on B-cell surface can lead to relapse and decreased remission duration, which may be prevented through increasing CAR-T affinity towards CD22.   Researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) developed an affinity-matured monoclonal antibody panel including an anti-CD22 antibody variant, L7, displaying a higher affinity against ...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
Cancer arises from the accumulation of genetic alterations, which can lead to the production of mutant proteins not expressed by normal cells. These mutant proteins can be processed and presented on the cell surface by major histocompatibility complex molecules as neoepitopes, allowing CD8+ T cells to mount responses against them. For solid tumors, only an average 2% of neoepitopes predicted by algorithms have detectable endogenous antitumor T cell responses. This suggests that low mutation burden tumors, which include many pediatric tumors, are poorly immunogenic. Here, we report that pediatric patients with acute lymphob...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Abstract Immunotherapy has become an established pillar of cancer treatment improving the prognosis of many patients with a broad variety of hematological and solid malignancies. The two main drivers behind this success are checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. This review summarizes seminal findings from clinical and translational studies recently presented or published at important meetings or in top-tier journals, respectively. For checkpoint blockade, current studies focus on combinational approaches, perioperative use, new tumor entities, response prediction, toxicity manag...
Source: Clin Med Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: J Exp Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
Refractory and relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and T-lineage leukemia have poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Adoptive cellular immunotherapies are emerging as an effective treatment for patients with chemotherapy refractory hematological malignancies. Indeed, the use of unselected donor lymphocyte infusions has demonstrated successes in treating patients with AML and T-lineage leukemia post–allogeneic transplantation. The development of ex vivo manipulation techniques such as genetic modification or selection and expansion of individual cellular components has permitted the clinical translation of...
Source: The Cancer Journal - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research
Abstract Refractory and relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and T-lineage leukemia have poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Adoptive cellular immunotherapies are emerging as an effective treatment for patients with chemotherapy refractory hematological malignancies. Indeed, the use of unselected donor lymphocyte infusions has demonstrated successes in treating patients with AML and T-lineage leukemia post-allogeneic transplantation. The development of ex vivo manipulation techniques such as genetic modification or selection and expansion of individual cellular components has permitted the clinical tr...
Source: Cancer Journal - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Cancer J Source Type: research
Conclusion and Future Perspectives This review illustrates our current knowledge of USP7, including its source and characterization, structure, binding partners and substrates in various biological processes. Besides, how USP7 regulates various aspects of a cell under both normal and pathological states are elaborated in detail. As the processes of ubiquitination and deubiquitination are extremely dynamic and context-specific, a series of studies have linked USP7 to different cancers. The biology, particularly the immune oncology mechanisms, reveal that USP7 inhibitors would be useful drugs, thus it is vital to develop hi...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
More News: Acute Leukemia | Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia | Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Immunotherapy | Leukemia