Islet number rather than islet size is a major determinant of beta and alpha cell mass in humans.

Islet number rather than islet size is a major determinant of beta and alpha cell mass in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Feb 11;:jc20133731 Authors: Kou K, Saisho Y, Sato S, Yamada T, Itoh H Abstract Objective: To clarify the relative contribution of islet number and islet size to beta and alpha cell mass in humans. Research Design and Methods: We obtained the pancreas at autopsy from 72 Japanese adults with no history of diabetes or pancreatitis (age 47 ± 12 years, BMI 24.1 ± 5.0). Pancreatic sections were stained for insulin or glucagon, and fractional beta cell area (%BCA) and alpha cell area (%ACA) were measured. Islet number and islet size as well as beta cell turnover were also quantified. HbA1c measured within 1 year prior to death was obtained in 38 individuals. Results: There was considerable inter-individual variation in islet density and mean islet size, with a significant negative correlation between the two (r = -0.25, P = 0.03). There were significant positive correlations between islet density and %BCA or %ACA (r = 0.63, P
Source: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: J Clin Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Related Links:

Abstract Hypertriglyceridemia, defined as fasting serum triglyceride levels of 150 mg per dL or higher, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Severely elevated triglyceride levels (500 mg per dL or higher) increase the risk of pancreatitis. Common risk factors for hypertriglyceridemia include obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Less common risk factors include excessive alcohol use, physical inactivity, being overweight, use of certain medications, and genetic disorders. Management of high triglyceride levels (150 to 499 mg per dL) starts with dietary changes and physi...
Source: American Family Physician - Category: Primary Care Authors: Tags: Am Fam Physician Source Type: research
Purpose of review The pancreas is highly affected in cystic fibrosis, with complications occurring early in childhood. This review highlights recent research in exocrine pancreatic function in the era of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator therapies and discusses how these are affecting pancreatitis and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) in children. Additionally, new research into exocrine--endocrine interactions sheds light on how CFTR dysfunction in ductal cells may affect beta cells. Recent findings Ivacaftor has disproved the hypothesis that EPI in children with cystic fibros...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Tags: GASTROENTEROLOGY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Bradley Barth Source Type: research
Authors: Sandru F, Carsote M, Valea A, Albu SE, Petca RC, Dumitrascu MC Abstract Somatostatinoma is a tumour mainly originating from pancreas or duodenum; overall with an incidence of 1/40 million persons. We introduce a narrative review of literature of somatostatinoma including the relationship with neurofibromatosis type 1. Clinical presentation includes: Diabetes mellitus, cholelithiasis, steatorrhea, abdominal pain, and obstructive jaundice while papillary tumour may cause acute pancreatitis. The neoplasia may develop completely asymptomatic or it is detected as an incidental finding during an imaging or a sur...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
AbstractThe islets of Langerhans are well embedded within the exocrine pancreas (the latter comprised of ducts and acini), but the nature of interactions between these pancreatic compartments and their role in determining normal islet function and survival are poorly understood. However, these interactions appear to be critical, as when pancreatic exocrine disease occurs, islet function and insulin secretion frequently decline to the point that diabetes ensues, termed pancreatogenic diabetes. The most common forms of pancreatogenic diabetes involve sustained exocrine disease leading to ductal obstruction, acinar inflammati...
Source: Diabetologia - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionMacrophages are involved with various stages of pancreatic cancer development, pancreatitis, and diabetes. Elucidating their role in these conditions will aid the development of targeted therapeutic treatments.
Source: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research
Objective We investigated the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies and associated patient and disease-related risk factors in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP). Methods We enrolled 115 consecutive CP outpatients. Micro-nutritional assessments included plasma levels of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D and E) and trace elements (magnesium and zinc). Bioelectrical impedance and muscle function tests were used to characterize the macro-nutritional status (sarcopenia and phase angle). Prevalence of micro-nutritional deficiencies was estimated and associated with a number of patient and disease characteristics including...
Source: European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
This article provides guidance on integrating oral semaglutide into clinical practice in primary care. Patient populations with T2D who may gain benefit from oral semaglutide include those with inadequate glycemic control taking one or more oral glucose-lowering medication (e.g. after metformin), patients for whom weight loss would be beneficial, patients at risk of hypoglycemia, those who would historically have been considered for treatment with a subcutaneous GLP-1RA, and those receiving basal insulin who require treatment intensification. Like other GLP-1RAs, oral semaglutide is contraindicated in those with personal/f...
Source: Postgraduate Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Postgrad Med Source Type: research
Abstract Acute pancreatic injury can be related to both parenchymal (responsible for exocrine functions) and islet (mainly β-cells, responsible for endocrine functions) damage. During embryonic development, both the salivary glands and the pancreas originate from the foregut, which explains many of the observed histological and functional similarities between these two organs. The relationship between several diseases of the pancreas and salivary glands, resulting from morphological and functional similarities, is well established. Sphingolipids constitute a class of biologically active molecules involved in ...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
In this study, we developed a derivatization-assisted microextraction method to enhance the detection sensitivity for trace levels of a DPP-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, from a small volume (10 μL) of human plasma by using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Subjecting the analyte to 100 W microwave irradiation after derivatization using a quinoline alkylating reagent (8-bromomethyl quinilone, BrMQ) shortened the reaction time to ~120 s and allowed the target analyte to be easily extracted to a small volume of the organic layer (20 μL). The ana...
Source: Talanta - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Talanta Source Type: research
Fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus (FT1D) is a newly established subtype of type 1 diabetes. Its etiology has not been fully elucidated. Several cases with FT1D have exhibited pancreatitis or myocarditis.
Source: BMC Endocrine Disorders - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Case report Source Type: research
More News: Diabetes | Endocrinology | Insulin | Pancreas | Pancreatitis | Study