The march toward malaria vaccines.

The march toward malaria vaccines. Vaccine. 2015 Aug 28; Authors: Hoffman SL, Vekemans J, Richie TL, Duffy PE Abstract In 2013 there were an estimated 584,000 deaths and 198 million clinical illnesses due to malaria, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccines would be the ideal addition to the existing armamentarium of anti-malaria tools. However, malaria is caused by parasites, and parasites are much more complex in terms of their biology than the viruses and bacteria for which we have vaccines, passing through multiple stages of development in the human host, each stage expressing hundreds of unique antigens. This complexity makes it more difficult to develop a vaccine for parasites than for viruses and bacteria, since an immune response targeting one stage may not offer protection against a later stage, because different antigens are the targets of protective immunity at different stages. Furthermore, depending on the life cycle stage and whether the parasite is extra- or intra-cellular, antibody and/or cellular immune responses provide protection. It is thus not surprising that there is no vaccine on the market for prevention of malaria, or any human parasitic infection. In fact, no vaccine for any disease with this breadth of targets and immune responses exists. In this limited review, we focus on four approaches to malaria vaccines, (1) a recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccine aimed at Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) pre-erythrocytic stages of the ...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

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Abstract Malaria is a disease of public health importance in many parts of the world. Currently, there is no effective way to eradicate malaria, so developing safe, efficient, and cost-effective vaccines against this disease remains an important goal. Current research on malaria vaccines is focused on developing vaccines against pre-erythrocytic stage parasites and blood-stage parasites or on developing a transmission-blocking vaccine. Here, we briefly describe the progress made towards a vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum, the most pathogenic of the malaria parasite species to infect humans. PMID: 3168740...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Abstract Plasmodium vivax, the chronic relapsing human malaria parasite with the most widespread distribution, possesses proteins associated with the merozoite surface that could be targets for host immune responses and potential vaccine candidates. Of these, the merozoite surface protein 3 of P. vivax (PvMSP3) is an attractive vaccine target as well as a genetic marker for epidemiological surveillance. PvMSP3 comprises a group of protein members encoded by a multigene family. Although some protein members, i.e. PvMSP3α and PvMSP3β, have been targets for molecular and immunological investigations, the m...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
First ever cases in Britain, says Public Health England Related items fromOnMedica Vaccine linked to earlier onset of seizures in Dravet syndrome Scans show severe brain damage in Zika-affected babies Lyme disease may be three times more common in UK than previously thought Single-dose malaria drug eliminates parasite from liver Common anti-parasitic could be new tool for malaria control
Source: OnMedica Latest News - Category: UK Health Source Type: news
In this study, using samples collected from young children in Ghana at multiple time points during a longitudinal study, we adapted a predictive modelling framework which combines feature selection and machine learning techniques to identify an antigen signature of clinical immunity to malaria. Our results show that an individual's immune status can be accurately predicted by measuring antibody responses to a small defined set of 15 target antigens. We further demonstrate that the identified immune signature is highly versatile and capable of providing precise and accurate estimates of clinical protection from malaria in a...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Proteomics : MCP - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Mol Cell Proteomics Source Type: research
Nanorobots swimming in blood vessels, in silico clinical trials instead of experimenting with drugs on animals and people, remote brain surgeries with the help of 5G networks – the second part of our shortlist on some astonishing ideas and innovations that could give us a glimpse into the future of medicine is ready for you to digest. Here, we’re going beyond the first part with medical tricorders, the CRISPR/Cas-9 gene-editing method, and other futuristic medical technologies to watch for. 11) In silico clinical trials against testing drugs on animals As technologies transform every aspect of healthcare,...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Artificial Intelligence E-Patients Future of Medicine Future of Pharma Genomics Health Sensors & Trackers 3d printing AI bioprinting blockchain clinical trials CRISPR digital digital health drug development genetics Innovat Source Type: blogs
Conclusions: Naturally acquired sexual stage immunity, as detected by antibodies to Pfs230 and Pfs48/45, was present in most studies analyzed. Significant between-study heterogeneity was seen, and methodological factors were a major contributor to this, and prevented further analysis of epidemiological and biological factors. This demonstrates a need for standardized protocols for conducting and reporting seroepidemiological analyses.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In conclusion, the overall results present the molecular characterization of annexin B30, annexin B5a, annexin B7a and annexin B5b from S. mansoni in host-parasite interactions and strongly suggest that the molecules could be useful candidates for vaccine or diagnostic development.
Source: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Authors: Szuster-Ciesielska A, Wawiórka L, Krokowski D, Grankowski N, Jarosz Ł, Lisiecka U, Tchórzewski M Abstract Malaria remains one the most infectious and destructive protozoan diseases worldwide. Plasmodium falciparum, a protozoan parasite with a complex life cycle and high genetic variability responsible for the difficulties in vaccine development, is implicated in most malaria-related deaths. In the course of study, we prepared a set of antigens based on P-proteins from P. falciparum and determined their immunogenicity in an in vivo assay on a mouse model. The pentameric complex P0-(P1-P2)2 wa...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research
Malaria parasites undergo several stages in their complex lifecycle. To achieve reductions in both the individual disease burden and malaria transmission within communities, a multi-stage malaria vaccine with high effectiveness and durability is a more efficacious strategy compared with a single-stage vaccine. Here, we generated viral-vectored vaccines based on human adenovirus type 5 (AdHu5) and adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) expressing a fusion protein of the pre-erythrocytic stage Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) and the transmission-blocking sexual stage P25 protein (Pfs25). A two-dose h...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Funding Opportunity RFA-AI-19-059 from the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts. The purpose of this initiative is to stimulate basic research, discovery, and early translational research to enable and accelerate the generation of highly efficacious pre-erythrocytic stage, sporozoite-based vaccines. Cross-fertilization and collaboration among investigators from malaria vaccine research and other basic research areas such as parasite biology, parasite genomics, pathogenesis, and host immunology are highly encouraged. The goal is to generate one or more promising vaccine candidates against human malaria that exhibit performan...
Source: NIH Funding Opportunities (Notices, PA, RFA) - Category: Research Source Type: funding
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