Ebola in Antiquity?

This article addresses whether Ebola may have been present in an urban setting in Athens in 430 bce and explores the historical importance of the ancient outbreak. New knowledge from today's West African epidemic allows a more accurate assessment of whether Ebola may have caused the Athenian outbreak than was once possible. The Athenian disease, whose etiology remains unknown, developed abruptly with fevers, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, and hemorrhage. It originated in sub-Saharan Africa and was especially contagious to doctors and caregivers. No remedies were effective. But the few survivors who were reexposed to diseased patients were not attacked a second time, suggesting protective immunity. What lessons can we learn from the ancient outbreak that bears a clinical and epidemiologic resemblance to Ebola? The historian Thucydides, an eyewitness and disease sufferer, described how the unsuspecting city panicked as it struggled to handle the rapidly spreading, devastating disease. Moreover, he stressed a theme that has relevance today—namely, that fear and panic intensified the disruption of society and damage to the individual that was directly caused by the disease. Moreover, fear amplified the spread of disease. The destructive nature of fear has remained a signature feature of pestilences that have subsequently caught ill-prepared societies off-guard—Bubonic plague in medieval times, AIDS in the 1980s, and Ebola today. The ancient Athenian ...
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: VIEWPOINTS Source Type: research

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Publication date: 21 August 2019Source: Neuron, Volume 103, Issue 4Author(s): Matthew P. WalkerWe are suffering a global sleep-loss epidemic. The health consequences within an individual are well characterized. But does society suffer just as much? Here, I discuss how insufficient sleep erodes our societal fabric as much as it does our biological fabric, and offer some prescriptive remedies.
Source: Neuron - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
We examined the association of prescription size with new persistent opioid use after cardiothoracic surgery.MethodsOpioid-naive Medicare patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery between 2009 and 2015 were identified. Patients who filled an opioid prescription between 30 days before surgery and 14 days after discharge and with continuous Medicare enrollment 12 months before and 6 months after surgery were selected (n = 24,549). New persistent use was defined as continued prescription fills 91 to 180 days after surgery. Prescription size was reported in oral morphine equivalents. Multivariable regression was performe...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
Source: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management - Category: Palliative Care Source Type: research
Source: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management - Category: Palliative Care Source Type: research
In conclusion, using a simple, fast, and inexpensive detection method, such as LAMP, especially in endemic regions or in an outbreak to control spreading of pathogens, is very important for public health.
Source: Journal of Microbiological Methods - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
The New England Journal of Medicine, to their credit,has several open-access essays on the environmental crisis. A good part of the value-added from these is that they demonstrate the synergy among some important issues that aren't often considered together, and don't get a lot of attention in the corporate media.Sorenson and Gracia-Trebenino discuss an epidemic that is largely ignored in the United States. Agricultural workers in tropical climates are experiencing radical increases in the incidence of chronic kidney disease and renal failure. While the cause is not fully understood, it appears to be linked to rising tempe...
Source: Stayin' Alive - Category: American Health Source Type: blogs
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Volume 143Author(s): Shofarul Wustoni, Shaofei Wang, Juan R. Alvarez, Tania C. Hidalgo, Suzana P. Nunes, Sahika InalAbstractAlzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with severe memory loss and impaired cognitive skills. A common pathological change found in AD-affected brains is the accumulation of a peptide named amyloid-β (Aβ) that can form plaques. Aβ aggregates are visible to structural scanning tools; however, these bulky and expensive instruments are accessible to trained personnel in clinical ...
Source: Biosensors and Bioelectronics - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
Authors: Reist J, Frazier J, Rottingham A, Welsh M, Viyyuri BR, Witry M Abstract Background: Underutilization of Prescription monitoring programs (PMP), especially in states where participation is voluntary could limit their impact against opioid epidemic. Objectives: To (1) examine PMP use among Iowa healthcare providers (HCPs); (2) identify factors prompting and impeding PMP use, and (3) assess beliefs toward mandating PMP use. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of Iowa HCPs was conducted using a 12-item questionnaire. Survey domains include demographics, current PMP utilization, conditions and barriers associated...
Source: Substance Use and Misuse - Category: Addiction Tags: Subst Use Misuse Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 August 2019Source: EpidemicsAuthor(s): Philip Milton, Helen Coupland, Emanuele Giorgi, Samir BhattAbstractKernel methods are a popular technique for extending linear models to handle non-linear spatial problems via a mapping to an implicit, high-dimensional feature space. While kernel methods are computationally cheaper than an explicit feature mapping, they are still subject to cubic cost on the number of points. Given only a few thousand locations, this computational cost rapidly outstrips the currently available computational power. This paper aims to provide an overview of kernel m...
Source: Epidemics - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Disasters both natural and anthropogenic are increasing in intensity and frequency. 2018 marked the eighth consecutive year in which greater than seven high-consequence natural disasters occurred in the United States alone. These numbers do not include mass shootings or disease outbreaks, such as measles, influenza, and hepatitis A.
Source: Critical Care Clinics - Category: Intensive Care Authors: Tags: Preface Source Type: research
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