Role of capsid proteins in parvoviruses infection

The parvoviruses are widely spread in many species and are among the smallest DNA animal viruses. The parvovirus is composed of a single strand molecule of DNA wrapped into an icosahedral capsid. In a viral infection, the massy capsid participates in the entire viral infection process, which is summarized in this review. The capsid protein VP1 is primarily responsible for the infectivity of the virus, and the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of the VP1 serves as a guide to assist the viral genome in locating the nucleus. The dominant protein VP2 provides an “anti-receptor”, which interacts with the cellular receptor and leads to the further internalization of virus, and, the N-terminal of VP2 also cooperates with the VP1 to prompt the process of nucleus translocation. Additionally, a cleavage protein VP3 is a part of the capsid, which exists only in several members of the parvovirus family; however, the function of this cleavage protein remains to be fully determined. Parvoviruses can suffer from the extreme environmental conditions such as low pH, or even escape from the recognition of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), due to the protection of the stable capsid, which is thought to be an immune escape mechanism. The applications of the capsid proteins to the screening and the treatment of diseases are also discussed. The processes of viral infection should be noted, because understanding the virus-host interactions will contribute to the development of thera...
Source: Virology Journal - Category: Virology Authors: Source Type: research

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Conclusion: The perception of health risk of contracting influenza and a primary healthcare physicians' recommendation played an important role in shaping participants' decisions towards vaccination. Primary healthcare physicians are invited to assess and if necessary adjust inappropriate prevention behaviour through their everyday patient consultations as well as add to the knowledge about influenza severity and influenza vaccination benefits to their patients. PMID: 31431093 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: European Journal of General Practice - Category: Primary Care Tags: Eur J Gen Pract Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 August 2019Source: Nano TodayAuthor(s): Rein Verbeke, Ine Lentacker, Stefaan C. De Smedt, Heleen DewitteAbstractIn the early nineties, pioneering steps were taken in the use of mRNA as a therapeutic tool for vaccination. In the following decades, an improved understanding of the mRNA pharmacology, together with novel insights in immunology have positioned mRNA-based technologies as next-generation vaccines. This review outlines the history and current state-of-the-art in mRNA vaccination, while presenting an immunological view on mRNA vaccine development. As such, we highlight the chal...
Source: Nano Today - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
Authors: Han BH, Yoon JJ, Kim HY, Ahn YM, Jin SN, Wen JF, Lee HS, Lee YJ, Kang DG Abstract The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells plays a crucial role in pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. The principal objective of this study was to determine the effects of Ojeoksan (OJS) on human aortic smooth muscle cell (HASMC) proliferation induced by tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-aα). Thymidine incorporation after TNF-α treatment was increased and this effect was inhibited significantly by OJS treatment. HASMC proliferation and migration by kinetic live cell imaging were also reduced by treatm...
Source: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: J Physiol Pharmacol Source Type: research
This study examined the effect of NH3 on the immune response to infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccination and protection against homologous serotype challenge in commercial broiler chickens. One-day-old chicks were administered IBV vaccine and exposed to 30-60 ppm of NH3. At 28 DOA, birds were challenged oculonasally with a pathogenic homologous IBV, and protection was measured by viral detection, clinical signs, ciliostasis, and presence of airsacculitis. IBV-specific serum IgG and lacrimal fluid IgA titers, as well as Harderian gland (HG) immune cell phenotypes, were evaluated. Ammonia exposure was associated ...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Source: American Journal of Health Behavior - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 August 2019Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Lulu Chen, Jialong Zhang, Minmin Wang, Shuonan Pan, Chunxiao Mou, Zhenhai ChenAbstractSeneca Valley virus (SVV) has been identified as the causative agent of SVV-associated vesicular disease (SAVD). To investigate the pathogenicity of two newly isolated SVV strains (GD-S5/2018 and GD04/2017) in China, experimental infections of mice and pigs were performed. SVV GD-S5/2018 was lethal to mice infected by intramuscular, intraperitoneal, or oral routes, while SVV GD04/2017 was avirulent without causing any discernible clinical signs in mi...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Abstract The T1 parvovirus Minute Virus of Mice (MVM) was used to study the roles that phosphorylation and N-terminal domains (Nt) configuration of capsid subunits may play in icosahedral nuclear viruses assembly. In synchronous MVM infection, capsid subunits newly assembled as two types of cytoplasmic trimeric intermediates (3VP2, and 1VP1:2VP2) harbored a VP1 phosphorylation level fivefold higher than that of VP2, and hidden Nt. Upon nuclear translocation at S phase, VP1-Nt became exposed in the heterotrimer and subsequent subviral assembly intermediates. Empty capsid subunits showed a phosphorylation level rest...
Source: Virology - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Virology Source Type: research
Abstract Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is a major virus leading to fetal death in swine. However, the effects of PPV infection on sows are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PPV on porcine steroidogenic luteal cells (SLCs) survival and functions and underlying mechanisms. In vivo experiment results showed artificial infection of PPV significantly reduced the concentration of serum progesterone and induced histopathological lesions and SLCs apoptosis in porcine corpora luteum. In vitro cultured primary porcine SLCs, PPV could infect and replicate in SLCs and induced SLCs apoptosis...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research
In this study, a potential mechanism of PPV-induced activation of the nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) by infection in porcine kidney cells (PK-15) was elucidated for the first time. The subcellular localization of p65 analyzed by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) showed that PPV infection induced p65 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. p65 phosphorylation was detected in PK-15 cells with progression of PPV infection. NF-κB-regulated gene expression was enhanced in a viral dose-dependent manner using the NF-κB luciferase reporter assay system. Furthermore, PPV-induced NF-κB acti...
Source: Molecular Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, we found that the nonstructural protein NP1 of PBoV inhibitsSendai virus-induced IFN- β production and the subsequent expression of IFN-stimulating genes (ISGs). Ectopic expression of NP1 significantly impairs IRF3-mediated IFN-β production; however, it does not affect the expression, phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation of IRF3, the most important transcription factor for IF N synthesis. Coimmunoprecipitation and Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggested that NP1 interacts with the DNA-binding domain of IRF3, which in turn blocks the association of IRF3 with IFN-β promoter. Togethe...
Source: Virus Genes - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
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