Recent HIV/AIDS News from NIAID

July 30, 2015: HVTN 505 Vaccine Induced Antibodies Nonspecific for HIV July 23, 2015: Two Paths Pave Way for Development of a Preventive HIV Vaccine July 21, 2015: Study Finds PrEP Use Feasible Among High-Risk Groups in U.S. Community Settings July 20, 2015: Dr. Fauci at IAS 2015: Comprehensive Global Prevention Can End HIV/AIDS Pandemic July 20, 2015: Early Antiretroviral Therapy Prevents Non-Aids Outcomes in HIV-Infected People, NIH-Supported Study Finds July 20, 2015: HIV Control Through Treatment Durably Prevents Heterosexual Transmission of Virus July 20, 2015: Young South African Women Can Adhere to Daily PrEP Regimen as HIV Prevention, Study Finds July 17, 2015: Cholesterol Metabolism in Immune Cells Linked to HIV Progression

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Food allergy prevalence has increased over the past 2  decades and is estimated to affect 8% of children and 4% to 10% of adults. There is an unmet need to evaluate new therapeutic modalities that may decrease the risk of food-induced anaphylaxis and improve patients’ quality of life. Oral, epicutaneous, and sublingual food immunotherapies have diff erent safety and efficacy profiles, and their long-term outcome and applicability are unclear. Food allergy trials are currently evaluating different biologics (given as monotherapy or adjunct to immunotherapy), modified food proteins, DNA vaccines, and fecal microbiota transplantation.
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Yang F, Jia X, Lei P, He Y, Xiang Y, Jiao J, Zhou S, Qian W, Duan Q Abstract OBJECTIVE: To develop and test a novel method for automatic quantification of hepatic steatosis in histologic images based on the deep learning scheme designed to predict the fat ratio directly, which aims to improve accuracy in diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with objective assessment of the severity of hepatic steatosis instead of subjective visual estimation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six 8-week old New Zealand white rabbits of both sexes were fed with high-cholesterol, high-fat diet and sacrifice...
Source: Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Category: Radiology Tags: J Xray Sci Technol Source Type: research
Hydroxypropyl‑β‑cyclodextrin attenuates the epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition via endoplasmic reticulum stress in MDA‑MB‑231 breast cancer cells. Mol Med Rep. 2019 Nov 06;: Authors: Wu Y, Zhao Y, He X, He Z, Wang T, Wan L, Chen L, Yan N Abstract The epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been reported to serve vital roles in regulating the progress of cancer metastasis. In addition, lipid rafts enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol serve important roles in physiological and biochemical processes as a signaling platform. The present study explored the effects of hydro...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
Authors: Li MJ, Atkins WM, McClary WD Abstract Lipid nanodiscs provide a native-like lipid environment for membrane proteins, and they have become a valuable platform for the study of membrane biophysics. A range of biophysical and biochemical analyses are enabled when membrane proteins are captured in lipid nanodiscs. Two parameters that can be controlled when capturing membrane proteins in lipid nanodiscs are the radius, and hence the surface area of the lipid surface, and the composition of the lipid bilayer. Despite their emergence as a versatile tool, most studies with lipid nanodiscs in the literature have fo...
Source: Current Protocols in Protein Science - Category: Biochemistry Tags: Curr Protoc Protein Sci Source Type: research
Conclusions: Rural/remote HIV/AIDS programs across Canada expressed similar challenges and lessons learned, suggesting that there is potential for knowledge exchange, and development of a community of practice. Top-down planning and evaluation models may fail to capture program achievements in rural/remote contexts. The long-term engagement practices that render rural/remote programs promising do not always conform to planning and implementation requirements of limited funding.
Source: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice - Category: Health Management Tags: Research Reports: Research Full Report Source Type: research
An 89-year-old man presented to the hospital with transient slurred speech and left-sided weakness resulting in a fall. He noted that a month before, he had transient visual disturbances as well. Past medical history was significant for hypertension, hypothyroidism, colitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. He was a never smoker. He did not take aspirin or statin medication at home.
Source: Journal of Vascular Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Vascular images Source Type: research
Use of software improves sensitivity of radiologists, reduces number of false - positive findings
Source: The Doctors Lounge - Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncology, Pulmonology, Radiology, Journal, Source Type: news
Contributors : Ariel Rodriguez-Frandsen ; Laura Martin-Sancho ; Anshu P Gounder ; Sumit K ChandaSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensInfluenza A virus (IAV) is a human respiratory pathogen that causes yearly global epidemics, and sporadic pandemics due to human adaptation of pathogenic strains. Efficient replication of IAV in different species is, in part, dictated by its ability to exploit the genetic environment of the host cell. To investigate IAV tropism in human cells, we evaluated the replication of IAV strains in a diverse subset of epithelial cell lines. HeLa cells ...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Abstract: Despite available vaccination, measles is one of the leading causes of death among young children in developing countries. In clinical practice, the spectrum of differential diagnoses of morbilliform exanthemas associated with fever is wide, and it can be hard to differentiate from other infectious eruptions, especially in adults or in atypical courses in immunocompromised patients. The goal of our study was to identify characteristic histomorphological and immunohistochemical patterns of measles exanthema through the study of 13 skin biopsy specimens obtained from 13 patients with this disease and a review of ...
Source: The American Journal of Dermatopathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Original Study Source Type: research
Up until the first half of the twentieth century, large-scale health disasters were mostly due to natural causes (earthquakes, volcanoes, hurricanes, etc.) or infections (e.g., smallpox, influenza epidemics, cholera). But something peculiar happened as we entered the second half of the century: Health disasters due to natural causes became dwarfed by large-scale health disasters that are man-made. Here’s a list of the Six Worst U.S. Health Disasters of the Last 50 Years, mostly man-made phenomena that have exacted huge tolls: widespread disease, premature death, poorly managed (though nonetheless highly profitable fo...
Source: Wheat Belly Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Undoctored Wheat Belly Lifestyle autoimmune gluten grain-free grains Inflammation low-carb Weight Loss Source Type: blogs
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