Formation and maintenance of the BBB

Publication date: Available online 26 July 2015 Source:Mechanisms of Development Author(s): Marie Blanchette, Richard Daneman The central nervous system (CNS) is vascularized by a dense capillary network that is critical to deliver oxygen and nutrients, and remove carbon dioxide and waste products, from the neural tissue. These blood vessels contain a series of properties, termed the blood–brain barrier (BBB), which distinguishes them from vasculature in other tissues, enabling CNS vessels to stringently regulate the transfer of ions, molecules and cells between the blood and the tissue. This barrier is critical to maintain brain homeostasis which allows for proper neuronal function and also to protect the tissue from injury and disease and many neurological diseases are associated with BBB dysfunction, including traumatic brain injuries, Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, epilepsy, and multiple sclerosis. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling the development of the BBB may lead to improved comprehension of the pathophysiology of these diseases, and further aid in the identification of targets to modulate the barrier to treat different neurological diseases. Many of the properties of the BBB are possessed by the endothelial cells that form the walls of the blood vessels but are acquired through a series of complex cellular interactions with the microenvironment throughout its development. We will review what is known about the induction and...
Source: Mechanisms of Development - Category: Biology Source Type: research

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Conclusions: Preliminary literature suggests that FMT may be a promising treatment option for several neurological disorders. However, available evidence is still scanty and some contrasting results were observed. A limited number of studies in humans have been performed or are ongoing, while for some disorders only animal experiments have been conducted. Large double-blinded randomized controlled trials are needed to further elucidate the effect of FMT in neurological disorders.
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
It’s not often that a person growing up among the cotton fields of southwest Oklahoma goes on to become a successful manager of global technology companies, but Leland White is not your average person. During his career, he built and managed semiconductor manufacturing plants around the world and provided management consulting services to large corporations and federal agencies. After a successful business career, he retired in Colorado to pursue two passions: downhill skiing and high-performance driving. Referred to by family and friends as “Lee,” he turned 78 last spring. I talked to Lee about the chall...
Source: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Press Releases - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Authors: Tags: Health Care Slider Speech-Language Pathology Dysphagia Swallowing Disorders Source Type: blogs
Abstract The endocannabinoid system participates in the regulation of CNS homeostasis and functions, including neurotransmission, cell signaling, inflammation and oxidative stress, as well as neuronal and glial cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and survival. Endocannabinoids are produced by multiple cell types within the CNS and their main receptors, CB1 and CB2, are expressed in both neurons and glia. Signaling through these receptors is implicated in the modulation of neuronal and glial alterations in neuroinflammatory, neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research
This study confers the discipline, frameworks, and methodologies used by different deep learning techniques to diagnose different human neurological disorders. Here, one hundred and thirty-six different articles related to neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders diagnosed using different deep learning techniques are studied. The morbidity and mortality rate of major neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders has also bee n delineated. The performance and publication trend of different deep learning techniques employed in the investigation of these diseases has been examined and analyzed. Different performance metrics ...
Source: Journal of Medical Systems - Category: Information Technology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Mujun Sun, Stuart J. McDonald, Rhys D. Brady, Lyndsey Collins-Praino, Glenn R. Yamakawa, Mastura Monif, Terence J. O’Brien, Geoff Cloud, Christopher G. Sobey, Richelle Mychasiuk, David J. Loane, Sandy R. ShultzAbstractNeurological conditions such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease are serious clinical problems that affect millions of people worldwide. The majority of clinical trials for these common conditions have failed, a...
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
What are the current trends and hot topics in neurology? The increasing insights into the genetics and molecular bases of neurological disorders open new perspectives for specific and personalized treatments. This is evidenced most dramatically by the antisense therapy for spinal muscular atrophy. Promising neurological research currently targets neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Duchenne muscular atrophy, or Huntington’s disease. Likewise, brain-machine interfaces and neuroprosthetics offer huge potential. Never before has it been more important and more exc...
Source: BioMed Central Blog - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: blogs
Abstract Purinergic signaling was proposed in 1972, after it was demonstrated that adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) was a transmitter in nonadrenergic, noncholinergic inhibitory nerves supplying the guinea-pig taenia coli. Later, ATP was identified as an excitatory cotransmitter in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, and it is now apparent that ATP acts as a cotransmitter in most, if not all, nerves in both the peripheral nervous system and central nervous system (CNS). ATP acts as a short-term signaling molecule in neurotransmission, neuromodulation, and neurosecretion. It also has potent, long-term (trophic) ...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Inder Puri, Govind Singh, Rajendra Kumar Acharya, Divya GoswamiAnnals of Indian Academy of Neurology 2019 22(4):373-376 New disability law called “Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016” has been acted in 2016. The United Nations' Convention for Rights of Persons with Disabilities is the sole of this new act. Of the total 21 categories, three new neurological legal disability categories such as chronic neurological conditions, Parkinson disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis have been notified first time in the new act. The new guidelines have been notified in the year 2018 for evaluation and certifica...
Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Gray matter (GM) imaging is important in the investigation of many neurological diseases, including schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, tuberous sclerosis, and epilepsy, which are all associated with changes in cortical GM. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a quantitative statistical analysis system for double inversion recovery (DIR) MRI and to evaluate the new system using preliminary clinical data. METHODS: The study population comprised of 10 healthy volunteers and six patients with or without brain degeneration. A quantitative statistica...
Source: Technology and Health Care - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Technol Health Care Source Type: research
Preoperative and postoperative mental health status (MHS) of total joint arthroplasty patients can affect immediate and long-term outcomes following surgery. Alterations in MHS can be acute or chronic. The most common etiologies include acute changes due to (1) delirium or stroke, (2) movement disorders (Alzheimer dementia, Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy), and (3) mood/behavior disorders (major depressive disorder, anxiety, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia). Across etiologies, alterations in MHS are associated with worse clinical/patient-reported outcomes and greater total cost of care. Prevention via pharm...
Source: Techniques in Orthopaedics - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Symposium Source Type: research
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