Increasing trend of fluconazole-non-susceptible Cryptococcus neoformans in patients with invasive cryptococcosis: a 12-year longitudinal study

This study aimed to investigate the rate of fluconazole-non-susceptible Cryptococcus neoformans in Southern Taiwan for the period 2001–2012 and analyze the risk factors for acquiring it among patients with invasive cryptococcosis. Methods: All enrolled strains were isolated from blood or cerebrospinal fluid samples of the included patients. If a patient had multiple positive results for C. neoformans, only the first instance was enrolled. Susceptibility testing was performed using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institutes M27-A3 broth micro-dilution method. The MIC interpretative criteria for susceptibility to fluconazole were ≤8 μg/ml. A total of 89 patients were included. Patients (n = 59) infected by fluconazole-susceptible strains were compared with those (n = 30) infected by non-susceptible strains. The patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed. Results: The rate of fluconazole-non-susceptible C. neoformans in the study period significantly increased over time (p 
Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: In this single-center series of liver transplant recipients, the incidence of invasive fungal infections was relatively low, probably due to the universal prophylaxis with fluconazole and limited use of the broad-spectrum antibiotics. Early diagnosis and treatment of invasive fungal infections could lead to a better prognosis for liver transplant recipients with invasive fungal infections. PMID: 31724926 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: Exp Clin Transplant Source Type: research
ConclusionThere are very limited studies related to the immune modulation status of HIV co-infected with Cryptococcus before the initiation of any drug therapy. Such information might through in-depth light to understand the initial state of the immune environment which certainly would play a pivotal role in the outcome of the immune modulation.
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
No abstract available.
Source: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine - Category: African Health Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Meningitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans is responsible for upwards of 180,000 deaths worldwide annually, mostly in immunocompromised individuals. Currently there are no licensed fungal vaccines, and even with anti-fungal drug treatment, cryptococcal meningitis is often fatal. Our lab previously demonstrated vaccination with recombinant cryptococcal proteins delivered in glucan particles (GPs) protects mice against an otherwise lethal infection. The aim of the present study was to discover additional cryptococcal antigens affording vaccine-mediated protection. Sixteen proteins, each with evidence of extr...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDefective cell –mediated immunity is a major risk factor for cryptococcosis, a fatal disease if untreated. Cryptococcal meningitis (CM), the main presentation of disseminated disease, occurs through hematogenous spread to the brain from primary pulmonary foci, facilitated by yeast virulence factors. We revisit r emarkable recent improvements in the prevention, diagnosis and management of CM.Recent FindingsCryptococcal antigen (CrAg), main capsular polysaccharide ofCryptococcus spp. is detectable in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of infected patients with point of care lateral flow assays. Rece...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
AbstractCryptococcosis is an opportunistic mycotic infection often found in pigeon droppings and other bird excrement. This serious disease is often fatal and, not unexpectedly, far more common in patients with immune deficiency, including those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It has been hypothesized that women with cryptococcosis and HIV have a more favorable mortality experience than men. In addition, the availability of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (ART) for HIV in the United States (US) has been associated with greater racial disparities in mortality. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Cryptococcal ocular involvement in AIDS patients has been occasionally proved among the cases already reported. Thus, the post mortem exam is still pivotal to improve the quality of the clinical diagnosis, especially in limited-resource settings. PMID: 31676212 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Rev Iberoam Micol Source Type: research
To date, cryptococcosis remains sporadic in Europe, and this is a case of canine cryptococcosis with ocular and CNS involvement in continental Europe with identification of the organism on cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) cytology and description of the clinical and MRI features, and outcome. AbstractTo date, cryptococcosis remains sporadic in Europe, and this is a case of canine cryptococcosis with ocular and CNS involvement in continental Europe with identification of the organism on cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) cytology and description of the clinical and MRI features, and outcome.
Source: Clinical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe most common thin-section CT feature of PC was pulmonary nodules/masses, which were ill-defined and located peripherally. Cavitations within nodules/masses were more commonly found in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients. PC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules/masses.
Source: La Radiologia Medica - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Purpose of review Describe the range of infectious causes of ocular motor neuropathies, from common presentations to unusual manifestations of diseases less frequently seen in the developed world. Provide information on recent developments in diagnostic testing for pathogens that may cause ocular motor neuropathies. Recent findings Antigen detection in serum or CSF has improved the diagnosis of cryptococcal disease. Cartridge PCR testing for tuberculosis has increased diagnostic accuracy, though tuberculous meningitis remains difficult to diagnose. Rapid, multiplex PCR and unbiased sequencing allow for diagnosis of a ...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research
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