Selective decontamination and antibiotic resistance in ICUs

Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) have been associated with reduced mortality and lower ICU-acquired bacteremia and ventilator-associated pneumonia rates in areas with low levels of antibiotic resistance. However, the effect of selective decontamination (SDD/SOD) in areas where multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are endemic is less clear. It will be important to determine whether SDD/SOD improves patient outcome in such settings and how these measures affect the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Here we review the current evidence on the effects of SDD/SOD on antibiotic resistance development in individual ICU patients as well as the effect on ICU ecology, the latter including both ICU-level antibiotic resistance and antibiotic resistance development during long-term use of SDD/SOD.
Source: Critical Care - Category: Intensive Care Authors: Source Type: research

Related Links:

British Journal of Cancer, Published online: 17 September 2019; doi:10.1038/s41416-019-0575-6Negative plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA nasopharyngeal carcinoma in an endemic region and its influence on liquid biopsy screening programmes
Source: British Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
(Natural News) Antrodia cinnamomea, also known as camphor fungus, is a parasitic fungus that thrives in the inner cavity of Cinnamomum kanehirae, a tree endemic to Taiwan. It is considered a medicinal mushroom and is used by Taiwanese people to treat liver disease, in particular, liver injury caused by excessive alcohol drinking. In a recent study, researchers from National...
Source: NaturalNews.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: Hypocaloric, plant-based short-term dietary oatmeal interventions significantly reduced mean blood glucose levels and mean required daily insulin doses in a critically ill and septic patient on the intensive care unit. PMID: 31519290 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Complementary Therapies in Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Tags: Complement Ther Med Source Type: research
The baseline endemicity profile of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a key benchmark for planning control programmes, monitoring their impact on transmission and assessing the feasibility of achieving elimination. ...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
ConclusionIn summary while our hospital is succeeding in getting the vast majority of diagnosed strokes into our stroke unit we are not currently meeting the UK target for early swallow screening. We aim to roll out an education and training programme targeting nurses and doctors in our stroke unit regarding early swallow screening and re-audit this in 6-12 month ’s time.
Source: Age and Ageing - Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research
Conclusion This study revealed that Enterococcus species with biofilm potentials and extracellular virulence properties extensively occur in retail RTE shrimps. A significant number of isolated strains are resistant to antibiotics and harbor resistant and virulent genes, denoting a significant route of resistance and virulence dissemination to bacteria in humans. There is an inadequate understanding of the intricacies of antibiotic-resistant enterococci of food origin that belong to enterococci aside from E. faecium and E. faecalis. Findings from this study reveal detailed antibiotic resistance of E. durans, E. casselifla...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract Hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink is a fatal disease caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Very little is known about P. aeruginosa in relation to genotype and the mechanisms underlying antimicrobial resistance in mink. A total of 110 P. aeruginosa samples were collected from mink from Chinese mink farms between 2007 and 2015. Samples underwent molecular genotyping using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), antimicrobial susceptibility and its mechanism were investigated at the molecular level. The PFGE identified 73 unique types and 15 clusters, while MLST identified 43...
Source: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Can J Vet Res Source Type: research
Acinetobacter baumannii has become a troublesome emerging pathogen because of its wide range of resistance determinants and its environmental resilience [1]. It is responsible for severe nosocomial infections in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, mainly ventilator associated pneumonia, bacteremia, and central nervous system infections [2,3]. Most of A. baumannii strains are multidrug-resistant (MDR) [1] and have become endemic in several healthcare environments, often causing sustained outbreaks.
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract ObjectivesTyphoid fever is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in typhoid endemic countries like Bangladesh. However, data on the clinical and microbiological profile as well as factors associated with complications of typhoid in Bangladesh are scarce. We intended to characterize the clinical and microbiological profile of culture‐proven typhoid fever and to identify factors associated with complications. MethodologyRetrospective analysis of clinical data from 431 patients with culture‐confirmed typhoid fever admitted to Dhaka hospital of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Ban...
Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Authors: Metan G, Kaynar L, Yozgat N, Elmali F, Kürkçüoglu CA, Alp E, Çetin M Abstract After experiencing a high rate of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli infections in febrile neutropenic patients, a two-stage intervention was introduced in the haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) centre. During the first eight months of 2014, carbapenems remained the first choice for the empirical treatment of febrile neutropenia while the use of piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) was encouraged in patients with stable clinical condition. When blood cultures were reported as negative and the...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infez Med Source Type: research
More News: Endemics | Epidemiology | Intensive Care | Multidrug Resistance | Pneumonia