Ebola Hinders Polio Surveillance

Polio surveillance in countries affected by the Ebola virus decreased in 2014 compared with 2013, according to poliovirus surveillance data for Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean region, the 2 World Health Organization (WHO) regions with endemic wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission. Polio outbreaks occurred in the Horn of Africa, in Central Africa, and in the Middle East during 2013 to 2014.
Source: JAMA - Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

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A young boy in Pakistan receives an oral polio vaccine (OPV). Over the last 30 years huge progress has been made against polio and it is now only endemic in 2 countries, Afghanistan and Pakistan, with only 33 cases confirmed cases last year. Credit: Ashfaq Yusufzai/IPSBy Tharanga YakupitiyageUNITED NATIONS, May 1 2019 (IPS) Since the introduction of vaccines, diseases such as measles and polio were quickly becoming a thing of the past. However, the world’s progress on immunisation is now being threatened. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), 85 percent of the world’s children received basic va...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Featured Global Headlines Health IPS UN: Inside the Glasshouse North America Population Regional Categories TerraViva United Nations diptheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) human papillomavirus (HPV) Measles Vaccines World Health Organ Source Type: news
Introduction Lassa fever (LF) is a severe acute viral hemorrhagic illness caused by a virus belonging to the family Arenaviridae.1,2 The disease was first discovered in Sierra Leone in the 1950s, but the aetiological agent was first isolated after an outbreak of the disease in a village called Lassa in Borno State, Nigeria claiming the lives of two foreign missionary nurses in 1969.3 The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection, with profuse urinary virus excretion in Mastomys natalensis rodents, which serve as the natural reservoir.1,2 The virus is shed in their excreta (urine and faeces) of the rodent which can...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Global efforts to eradicate polio began in 1988, and four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions currently have achieved poliofree certification. Within the remaining two regions with endemic poliomyelitis (African and Eastern Mediterranean), Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan have never interrupted transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV). The primary means of detecting poliovirus transmission is surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children aged
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
Abstract Global measures to eradicate polio began in 1988; as of 2014, four of six World Health Organization (WHO) regions have been certified polio-free. Within the two endemic regions (African and Eastern Mediterranean), Nigeria, Afghanistan, and Pakistan have never interrupted transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) (1). The primary means of detecting poliovirus transmission is surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children aged
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
Abstract Global efforts to eradicate polio began in 1988, and polio-free certification has been achieved in four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions. Nigeria was removed from WHO's list of countries with endemic polio in September 2015, achieving an important milestone toward interruption of wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission in the African Region (1). Afghanistan and Pakistan, both in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, were the only countries to report WPV cases in 2015. Previously reported outbreaks caused by WPV importation during 2013-2014 have ended (2,3). The primary means for detecting poliovi...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
We’re at the midpoint of the Decade of Vaccines — an intense period marked by efforts to ramp up and extend the benefits of immunization to all people, everywhere. Unfortunately, despite much progress, the world has fallen short. But there is still time to re-think our strategy. It was with this goal in mind that PATH recently joined Health Affairs at the launch of its February issue on Vaccines, which includes a series of articles on global immunization. I moderated a thought-provoking panel of experts from various US agencies to discuss how the US government—as a leader in global immunization—can ...
Source: Health Affairs Blog - Category: Health Management Authors: Tags: Featured Population Health Quality Decade of Vaccines Global Vaccine Action Program Source Type: blogs
Introduction Smallpox is no longer with us. Rinderpest, a measles-like virus of cattle, was formally declared extinct in 2011.1 What other diseases might follow? This paper looks at some clear candidates that were due for eradication this year and explores the chances of success and remaining obstacles for guinea worm and polio. The race is on. The classic fable of Æsop is known almost universally by both children and adults. Somehow the tale of an overconfident hare losing a race to a much maligned and slower tortoise has entered our consciousness, although the exact moral lesson is ambiguous. Should we accept the...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract The World Health Organization, African Region is heading toward eradication of the three types of wild polio virus, from the Region. Cases of wild poliovirus (WPV) types 2 and 3 (WPV2 and WPV3) were last reported in 1998 and 2012, respectively, and WPV1 reported in Nigeria since July 2014 has been the last in the entire Region. This scenario in Nigeria, the only endemic country, marks a remarkable progress. This significant progress is as a result of commitment of key partners in providing the much needed resources, better implementation of strategies, accountability, and innovative approaches. This is ta...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Conclusions POTN is complementary to available tools on densely-sampled data, fails gracefully on under-sampled data and is scalable to accommodate larger datasets. We provide further evidence for the utility of phylogeography for understanding transmission networks of rapidly evolving epidemics. We propose simple heuristic criteria to identify how sampling rates and disease dynamics interact to determine fundamental limitations of phylogeographic inference.
Source: International Health - Category: Global & Universal Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research
Abstract The number of surveillance networks for infectious disease diagnosis and response has been growing. In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network, which has been endorsed by each of the 46 WHO African members since then. Yet, taming the dynamics and plague of the vicious Ebola virus disease (EVD) in African countries has been patchy and erratic due to inadequate surveillance and contact tracing, community defiance and resistance, a lack of detection and response systems, meager/weak knowledge and information on the disease, inadequacies in protect...
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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