Drug resistance in Giardia duodenalis.

Drug resistance in Giardia duodenalis. Biotechnol Adv. 2015 Apr 25; Authors: Ansell BR, McConville MJ, Ma'ayeh SY, Dagley MJ, Gasser RB, Svärd SG, Jex AR Abstract Giardia duodenalis is a microaerophilic parasite of the human gastrointestinal tract and a major contributor to diarrheal and post-infectious chronic gastrointestinal disease world-wide. Treatment of G. duodenalis infection currently relies on a small number of drug classes. Nitroheterocyclics, in particular metronidazole, have represented the front line treatment for the last 40 years. Nitroheterocyclic-resistant G. duodenalis have been isolated from patients and created in vitro, prompting considerable research into the biomolecular mechanisms of resistance. This class of compounds are redox-active and are believed to cause damage to protein and DNA after being activated by oxidoreductase enzymes in metabolically active cells. In this review, we explore the molecular phenotypes of nitroheterocyclic-resistant G. duodenalis described to date in the context of the protist's unusual glycolytic and antioxidant systems. We propose that resistance mechanisms are likely to extend well beyond currently described resistance-associated enzymes (i.e., pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductases and nitroreductases), to include NAD(P)H- and flavin-generating pathways, and possibly redox-sensitive epigenetic regulation. Mechanisms that allow G. duodenalis to tolerate oxidative stress may lead to resistance ag...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

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, Quílez J Abstract Giardia duodenalis is one of the most prevalent human intestinal parasite, with children living in developing countries being particularly at risk of infection. The occurrence and molecular diversity of G. duodenalis was investigated in stools specimens from 307 individuals aged one to nineteen years in Colombia. Samples were collected in three educational establishments (n: 163) and two hospital laboratories (n: 144) from urban and rural areas. Feces were concentrated using a biphasic sedimentation method and wet mounts of the sediment were examined by light microscopy. G. duodenalis as...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
ConclusionOur finding suggests that Giardia ssp. via enhancement or reduction of mast cell protease activity may modulate mast cell-driven intestinal immune responses. ESP-mediated modulation of the mast cell specific proteases may also increase degradation of tight junctions, which may be beneficial for Giardia ssp. during infection.
Source: Molecular Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Although the distribution of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in humans has been increasingly reported in recent years, data on possible differences in pathogen transmission between age groups and virulence between g...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
This study provides the first insight into Giardia infection in slaughtered livestock in Iran. Although the prevalence of infection with Giardia in this hot-arid area of Iran was low, educating people about direct contact with livestock such as farmers and abattoirs workers about this zoonotic infection is important. PMID: 31494270 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Abstract Celiac disease is a complex autoimmune enteropathy of the small intestine that commonly occurs in genetically predisposed individuals due to intake of gluten and related proteins. Gluten consumption, duration of breast-feeding, various infections, especially frequent intestine infections, vaccinations and use of antibiotics can be linked to celiac disease. It is predicted that it affects 1% of the global population and its incidence rate is increasing. Celiac disease is closely related to Turner's syndrome, type I diabetes mellitus, Down's syndrome, and other autoimmune conditions and most people with the...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research
Abstract Pathogen contamination of fresh produce presents a health risk for consumers; however, the produce industry still lacks adequate tools for simultaneous detection of protozoan parasites. Here, a simple multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay was developed for detection of protozoan (oo)cysts and compared with previously published real-time PCR assays and microscopy methods. The assay was evaluated for simultaneous detection of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Toxoplasma gondii followed by parasite differentiation via either a nested specific PCR or a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)...
Source: Food Microbiology - Category: Food Science Authors: Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research
a D Abstract BACKGROUND: Gut parasites exert an important influence on the gut microbiome, with many studies focusing on the human gut microbiome. It has, however, undergone severe richness depletion. Hygienic lifestyle, antimicrobial treatments and altered gut homeostasis (e.g., chronic inflammation) reduce gut microbiome richness and also parasite prevalence; which may confound results. Studying species closely related to humans could help overcome this problem by providing insights into the ancestral relationship between humans, their gut microbiome and their gut parasites. Chimpanzees are a particularly promis...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
AbstractIndigenous Mayangna and Miskitu inhabit Nicaragua ’s remote Bosawás Biosphere Reserve, located in the North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region. They are sedentary horticulturists who supplement their diet with wild game, hunting with the assistance of dogs. To test whether hunting dogs increased the risk of human exposure to protozoal zoonotic ne glected tropical diseases (NTDs), we sampled dogs from three communities varying in population size and level of contact with other communities. We screened dog feces (n  =  58) forGiardia andCryptosporidium DNA and sera (n  =  78) f...
Source: EcoHealth - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 August 2019Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug ResistanceAuthor(s): Mirjana Drinić, Adriane Raninger, Andrea Zraunig, Florian Astelbauer, David Leitsch, Andreas Obwaller, Julia Walochnik, Harald Greger, Michael DuchêneAbstractEntamoeba histolytica and Giardia duodenalis are widespread intestinal protozoan parasites which both spread via cysts that have to be ingested to infect a new host. Their environment, the small intestine for G. duodenalis and the colon for E. histolytica, contains only very limited amounts of oxygen, so both parasites generate en...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Abstract Multiplex PCR platforms have enhanced understanding of intestinal pathogens in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, few such studies have been performed in Latin America, where poverty, poor sanitation, and undernutrition persist. Multiplex PCR (BioFire, Salt Lake City, UT) was used to identify viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens in stool collected on day 1 and 31 from children aged 6 to 35 months with acute, non-bloody diarrhea in two locations (rural and urban) in Guatemala. We analyzed correlation between pathogens and clinical, demographic, and socioeconomic variables; described pa...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
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