Last Glacial Maximum led to community-wide population expansion in a montane songbird radiation in highland Papua New Guinea
Quaternary climate fluctuations are an engine of biotic diversification. Global cooling cycles, such as the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), are known to have fragmented the ranges of higher-latitude fauna and flor... (Source: BMC Evolutionary Biology)
Source: BMC Evolutionary Biology - July 11, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Kritika M. Garg, Balaji Chattopadhyay, Bonny Koane, Katerina Sam and Frank E. Rheindt Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Oral cancer in Papua New Guinea: looking back and looking forward
Oral diseases, including cancers, affect 3.5 billion people globally and remain largely untreated in low- to middle-income countries because of lack of resources. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), oral cancer has, for many decades, been identified as the most common cancer in men, but as the GLOBOCAN 2018 data are estimates extrapolated from surrounding countries, the real prevalence of this disease is not known. The PNG National Health Plan (2011 –2020) highlights the need to improve health care, but oral health is not identified as a priority. (Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics)
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics - July 11, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Rose Andrew Kelwaip, Seth Fose, Mahmood S. Siddiqui, Charles P. Molumi, Laurence M. Apaio, David I. Conway, Newell W. Johnson, Steve J. Thomas, Daniel W. Lambert, Keith D. Hunter Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Learning and memory retention deficits in prepubertal guinea pigs prenatally exposed to low levels of the organophosphorus insecticide malathion
Publication date: Available online 9 July 2020Source: Neurotoxicology and TeratologyAuthor(s): Eric W. Lumsden, Lillian McCowan, Joseph D. Pescrille, William P. Fawcett, Hegang Chen, Edson X. Albuquerque, Jacek Mamczarz, Edna F.R. Pereira (Source: Neurotoxicology and Teratology)
Source: Neurotoxicology and Teratology - July 10, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicological and Pharmacological Activities of Leptohyptis macrostachys (Benth.) Harley and J.F.B.Pastore (Lamiaceae) on Intestinal Smooth Muscle
Leptohyptis macrostachys, previously known as Hyptis macrostachys Benth., is used in folk medicine to relieve the symptoms of asthma, cough, and bronchitis. Recently, we showed that the ethanol extract obtained from Leptohyptis macrostachys has selective spasmolytic activity on guinea pig ileum. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the spasmolytic mechanism of this extract, investigated whether it presents toxicological and antidiarrheal activities. Therefore, the crude ethanolic extract of Leptohyptis macrostachys was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatographic-diode array detection (HPLC–DAD...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - July 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Adenovirus-Vectored Capsid Proteins of the Serotype A Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Protect Guinea Pigs Against Challenge
Type A foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been detected on China’s pig farms since 2015, and all suspected samples have been strain A/GDMM/CHA/2013. To overcome the shortcomings of inactive FMDV vaccines, we expressed the capsid protein precursor P1-2A and mutated viral 3C protease of FMDV strain A/GDMM/CHA/2013 in a replication-deficient human adenovirus type 5 vector in this study. A significant humoral immune response, T-cell-mediated antiviral response, and mucosa-mediated antiviral response were induced by the adenovirus-vectored FMDV vaccines in BALB/c mice. Immunization of guinea pigs with the adenovirus-...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - July 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Genetic diversity and neutral selection in < i > Plasmodium vivax < /i > erythrocyte binding protein correlates with patient antigenicity
In this study, we focus on another member of EBL protein family,P.vivax erythrocyte binding protein (PvEBP). PvEBP was first identified in Cambodian (C127) field isolates and has subsequently been showed its preferences for binding reticulocytes which is directly inhibited by antibodies. We analysed PvEBP sequence from 316 vivax clinical isolates from eight countries including China (n = 4), Ethiopia (n = 24), Malaysia (n = 53), Myanmar (n = 10), Papua New Guinea (n = 16), Republic of Korea (n = 10), Thailand (n = 174), and Vietnam (n = 25). PvEBP gene exhibited four different phenotypic clusters based on the insertion/del...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 9, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jin-Hee Han Source Type: research

Chemical footprints of harmattan dust and traffic corridor particulates monitored at two environmentally distinct geopolitical zones in Nigeria.
This study found that chemical footprints (Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, and Fe) of harmattan-related dust were more correlated (r2 between 0.88 and 0.99) than those attributed to dust re-suspension at the traffic location. PMID: 32642902 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International)
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - July 9, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Abiye OE, Matthew OJ, Rabiu AB, Ezeh GC, Akinola OE, Gerelmaa G, Ugwumadu CE, Latif MB Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

Approaches to High-Throughput Analysis of Cardiomyocyte Contractility
We describe a new approach to these experiments made possible with a new piece of instrumentation, the CytoCypher High-Throughput System (CC-HTS). We can assess the shortening of sarcomeres, cell length, Ca2+ handling, and cellular morphology of almost 4 cells per minute. This increase in productivity means that batch-to-batch variation can be identified as a major source of variability. The speed of acquisition means that sufficient numbers of cells in each preparation can be assessed for multiple conditions reducing these batch effects. We demonstrate the different temporal scales over which the CC-HTS can acquire data. ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - July 8, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Avian Metapneumovirus subtype B around Europe: a phylodynamic reconstruction
AbstractAvian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) has been recognized as a respiratory pathogen of turkey and chickens for a long time. Recently, a crescent awareness of aMPV, especially subtype B, clinical and economic impact has risen among European researchers and veterinarians. Nevertheless, the knowledge of its epidemiology and evolution is still limited. In the present study, the broadest available collection of partial G gene sequences obtained from European aMPV-B strains was analyzed using different phylodynamic and biostatistical approaches to reconstruct the viral spreading over time and the role of different hosts on its ev...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 8, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Sex differences and the effects of intrauterine hypoxia on growth and in vivo heart function of fetal guinea pigs.
CONCLUSIONS: Early and late onset HPX induce placental insufficiency, fetal growth restriction, and increase diastolic filling depending on the sex, with female fetuses having a greater capacity than males to compensate to intrauterine hypoxia. PMID: 32639864 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - July 8, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Thompson LP, Turan S, Aberdeen GW Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research

Water-filtered Infrared A and visible light (wIRA/VIS) treatment reduces Chlamydia caviae-induced ocular inflammation and infectious load in a Guinea pig model of inclusion conjunctivitis
Publication date: Available online 5 July 2020Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: BiologyAuthor(s): Aleksandra Inic-Kanada, Marijana Stojanovic, Radmila Miljkovic, Elisabeth Stein, Ana Filipovic, Antonia Frohns, Nadja Zöller, Jasmin Kuratli, Talin Barisani-Asenbauer, Nicole Borel (Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology)
Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology - July 6, 2020 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 732: Phylogenetic and Timescale Analysis of Barmah Forest Virus as Inferred from Genome Sequence Analysis
ith Allison Imrie Barmah Forest virus (BFV) is a medically important mosquito-borne alphavirus endemic to Australia. Symptomatic disease can be a major cause of morbidity, associated with fever, rash, and debilitating arthralgia. BFV disease is similar to that caused by Ross River virus (RRV), the other major Australian alphavirus. Currently, just four BFV whole-genome sequences are available with no genome-scale phylogeny in existence to robustly characterise genetic diversity. Thirty novel genome sequences were derived for this study, for a final 34-taxon dataset sampled over a 44 year period. Three distinct BFV ge...
Source: Viruses - July 6, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Alice Michie Timo Ernst I-Ly Joanna Chua Michael D. A. Lindsay Peter J. Neville Jay Nicholson Andrew Jardine John S. Mackenzie David W. Smith Allison Imrie Tags: Article Source Type: research

Urinary bladder smooth muscle ion channels: expression, function, and regulation in health and disease.
Abstract The urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM), also known as detrusor smooth muscle, forms the bladder wall and ultimately determines the two main attributes of the organ: urine storage and voiding. The two functions are facilitated by UBSM relaxation and contraction, respectively, which depend on UBSM excitability shaped by multiple ion channels. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of key ion channels establishing and regulating UBSM excitability and contractility. They include excitation-enhancing voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV) and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, excitation-reducing...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 6, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Malysz J, Petkov GV Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Stem Cell Factor-Inducible MITF-M Expression in Therapeutics for Acquired Skin Hyperpigmentation
Conclusion: We propose the targeting of SCF/KIT-inducible MITF-M expression as a strategy in the therapeutics for acquired pigmentary disorders. (Source: Theranostics)
Source: Theranostics - July 3, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Cheong-Yong Yun, Eunmiri Roh, Song-Hee Kim, Jinhe Han, Jiyeon Lee, Da-Eun Jung, Ga Hyeon Kim, Sang-Hun Jung, Won-Jea Cho, Sang-Bae Han, Youngsoo Kim Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Systemic Iron Overload Exacerbates Osteoarthritis in the Strain 13 Guinea Pig
Iron is emerging as a key player in aging-associated diseases due to its propensity for driving free radical formation. Studies examining the role of iron in the pathogenesis of primary osteoarthritis (OA) are limited. Our objective was to establish a direct relationship between excess iron and OA by administering iron dextran to a guinea pig strain with decreased propensity for developing OA. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)
Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage - July 3, 2020 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Lindsey H. Burton, Lauren B. Radakovich, Angela J. Marolf, Kelly S. Santangelo Source Type: research

Dilated Cardiomyopathy Mutations in Thin Filament Regulatory Proteins Reduce Contractility, Suppress Systolic Ca2+ & Activate NFAT & AKT Signalling.
Dilated Cardiomyopathy Mutations in Thin Filament Regulatory Proteins Reduce Contractility, Suppress Systolic Ca2+ & Activate NFAT & AKT Signalling. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2020 Jul 03;: Authors: Robinson P, Sparrow AJ, Patel S, Malinowska M, Reilly SN, Zhang YH, Casadei B, Watkins H, Redwood C Abstract Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is clinically characterised by dilated ventricular cavities and reduced ejection fraction, leading to heart failure and increased thromboembolic risk. Mutations in thin filament regulatory proteins can cause DCM and have been shown in vitro to reduce contra...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - July 3, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Robinson P, Sparrow AJ, Patel S, Malinowska M, Reilly SN, Zhang YH, Casadei B, Watkins H, Redwood C Tags: Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol Source Type: research

Novel airway smooth muscle-mast cell interactions and a role for the TRPV4-ATP axis in non-atopic asthma
This study delineates a novel mast cell–ASM interaction and TRPV4 as a driver of IgE-independent mast cell-dependent bronchospasm. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - July 2, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bonvini, S. J., Birrell, M. A., Dubuis, E., Adcock, J. J., Wortley, M. A., Flajolet, P., Bradding, P., Belvisi, M. G. Tags: Lung biology and experimental studies, Asthma and allergy Original Articles: Asthma and basic science Source Type: research

The endemic New Guinean genus Murexia (Dasyuromorphia:Dasyuridae). How many species? An analysis based on morphological, distributional and molecular data
Patricia A. Woolley, Carey Krajewski, Michael Westerman (Source: Australian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Australian Journal of Zoology - July 2, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Patricia A. Woolley Carey Krajewski Michael Westerman Source Type: research

Relationship between redox potential of glutathione and DNA methylation level in liver of newborn guinea pigs
. (Source: Epigenetics)
Source: Epigenetics - June 28, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Angela Mungala Lengo Cl émence Guiraut Ibrahim Mohamed Jean-Claude Lavoie Source Type: research

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Regulates Scleral Remodeling in a Guinea Pig Model of Form-Deprivation Myopia.
Conclusions: ER stress was an important modulator which could influence the expression of the scleral collagen. CRT might be a new target for the intervention of the FDM scleral remodeling process. PMID: 32587758 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: Journal of Ophthalmology - June 27, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: J Ophthalmol Source Type: research

Health Effects of Trimellitic Anhydride Occupational Exposure: Insights from Animal Models and Immunosurveillance Programs
AbstractAcid anhydrides are used by chemical industries as plasticizers. Trimellitic acid (TMA) is an acid anhydride widely utilized in factories to produce paints, varnishes, and plastics. In addition to causing direct irritant effects, TMA can augment antibody responses in exposed factory workers leading to occupational asthma. Therefore, industries producing TMA have implemented occupational immunosurveillance programs (OISPs) to ensure early diagnosis and medical management, involving exposure reduction/ complete removal of sensitized workers from exposure areas. Multiple animal models (mice strains, rat stains, guinea...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The presence of microcystins in the coastal waters of Nigeria, from the Bights of Bonny and Benin, Gulf of Guinea.
In this study, we investigated the composition of cyanobacteria and the presence of microcystins (MCs) in several coastal aquatic ecosystems of Nigeria. Direct morphological analysis revealed that members of the genus Oscillatoria were dominant with five species, followed by Trichodesmium with two species in Nigerian coastal waters. Oso Ibanilo had the highest cyanobacterial biomass (998 × 103 cells/L), followed by Rivers Ocean (156 × 103 cells/L). Except for the Cross River Ocean, cyanobacteria were present in all the investigated aquatic ecosystems. Ten (10) out of twenty water bodies examined had detectable ...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - June 26, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Kadiri MO, Isagba S, Ogbebor JU, Omoruyi OA, Unusiotame-Owolagba TE, Lorenzi AS, Bittencourt-Oliveira MDC, Chia MA Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

Improving glucose metabolism in the auditory cortex delays the aging of auditory function of guinea pig
Publication date: Available online 24 June 2020Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Shuyun Liu, Ye Yang, Xuemei Mao, Liqiang Deng, Changjuan Shuai, Yu Yao, Yuling Shi, Zedeng Yin (Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development)
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - June 25, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Out-of-school children in Guinea-Bissau: A mixed-methods analysis
Publication date: September 2020Source: International Journal of Educational Development, Volume 77Author(s): Jeffery H. Marshall, Mathilde Nicolai, Rui da Silva (Source: International Journal of Educational Development)
Source: International Journal of Educational Development - June 24, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Betel Nut Use in Vanuatu: Investigating Opportunities to Reduce Harms to Health.
Conclusion: Betel nut use may be growing in popularity in Vanuatu, where there are potential policy options to minimize harm. The MPOWER model for tobacco control may be a useful framework to help the Vanuatu government to deliver a comprehensive approach to reducing harm from betel nut use. PMID: 32569537 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Substance Use and Misuse)
Source: Substance Use and Misuse - June 24, 2020 Category: Addiction Tags: Subst Use Misuse Source Type: research

An Overview on Betel Quid and Areca Nut Practice and Control in Selected Asian and South East Asian Countries.
Conclusions: The prevalence, and the interventional policies related to BQ and AN chewing habits varies widely among the selected countries. With the increasing awareness and association of BQ with oral cancer, there is a need to have better awareness, prevention and interventional strategies in place. We also found considerable variation in the use of terminologies associated with BQ. PMID: 32569533 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Substance Use and Misuse)
Source: Substance Use and Misuse - June 24, 2020 Category: Addiction Tags: Subst Use Misuse Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of artesunate –amodiaquine and artemether–lumefantrine and prevalence of molecular markers associated with resistance, Guinea: an open-label two-arm randomised controlled trial
This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of artesunate –amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether–lumefantrine (AL) in the management o... (Source: Malaria Journal)
Source: Malaria Journal - June 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Abdoul Habib Beavogui, Alioune Camara, Alexandre Delamou, Mamadou Saliou Diallo, Abdoulaye Doumbouya, Karifa Kourouma, Patrice Bouedouno, Timoth ée Guilavogui, Samaly dos Santos Souza, Julia Kelley, Eldin Talundzic, Aissata Fofana and Mateusz M. Plucinsk Tags: Research Source Type: research

Outbreak of covid-19 in a nursing home in madrid
We read with interest the study by Wang and colleagues recently reporting a high proportion of severe to critical cases associated to a high mortality in elderly hospitalized patients with COVID-19, what is in line with other reports.1-7 In nursing homes it is of paramount importance to know the situation of the residents and staff members, which would allow health care workers and surviving residents to be presumed as "protected" or "exposed ” to the disease. There are only a few COVID-19 outbreaks reported in nursing homes. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - June 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Emilio Bouza, Mar ía Jesús Pérez-Granda, Pilar Escribano, Rocío Fernández-del Rey, Ignacio Pastor, Zaira Moure, Pilar Catalán, Roberto Alonso, Patricia Muñoz, Jesús Guinea, the Senex-COVID-19 Study Group Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Marital sexual violence and conjugality in highlands Papua New Guinea.
Abstract Many male coffee farmers in the highlands of Papua New Guinea believe they have a right to sex with their spouse without regard to her wishes. Drawing on quantitative and qualitative data, I argue that such sexual violence is best framed within local understandings of what marriage involves - an implicit contract which conveys rights and responsibilities to each partner in a marriage. Changes brought by modernity are transforming traditional understandings of conjugality, causing some discrepancies in partners' understanding of what they have agreed to. Too many women continue to endure marital rape, but ...
Source: Culture, Health and Sexuality - June 24, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Eves R Tags: Cult Health Sex Source Type: research

Fadolmidine - Favourable adverse effects profile for spinal analgesia suggested by in vitro and in vivo models.
n U Abstract Fadolmidine is an α2-adrenoceptor full agonist developed for spinal analgesia with a local mode of action. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the safety of fadolmidine on known α2-adrenoceptor-related effects: kidney function, urodynamics and cardiovascular variables. Furthermore, the binding affinity of fadolmidine for the 5-HT3 receptor prompted functional studies on 5-HT3. According to the binding affinity data, fadolmidine demonstrated partial agonism on the 5-HT3 receptor in transfected cells and in guinea pig ileum preparation. However, intravenous (IV) fadolmidine did not ...
Source: European Journal of Pharmacology - June 24, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Leino T, Lehtimäki J, Koivisto A, Haapalinna A, Pesonen U Tags: Eur J Pharmacol Source Type: research

Tuning of feedforward control enables stable muscle force-length dynamics after loss of autogenic proprioceptive feedback
Animals must integrate feedforward, feedback and intrinsic mechanical control mechanisms to maintain stable locomotion. Recent studies of guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) revealed that the distal leg muscles rapidly modulate force and work output to minimize perturbations in uneven terrain. Here we probe the role of reflexes in the rapid perturbation responses of muscle by studying the effects of proprioceptive loss. We induced bilateral loss of autogenic proprioception in the lateral gastrocnemius muscle (LG) using self-reinnervation. We comparedin vivo muscle dynamics and ankle kinematics in birds with reinnervated and int...
Source: eLife - June 23, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Neuroscience Physics of Living Systems Source Type: research

Freshwater insects of different feeding guilds ingest microplastics in two Gulf of Guinea tributaries in Nigeria.
Abstract Plastic pollution has enormous impacts on freshwater and marine ecosystem health, and it is one of the topmost environmental concerns of the current geological period (i.e. the Anthropocene). Thus, the goal of our study was to provide baseline information and bridge the information gap on the occurrence of microplastics (MPs) in African freshwater systems, using two tributaries of the Gulf of Guinea (Ogun and Osun Rivers) in Nigeria as a case study and three freshwater insect species of different feeding guilds as bioindicators. A total of 29 individuals of the insect species were chemically digested and ...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - June 23, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Akindele EO, Ehlers SM, Koop JHE Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

Oral cancer in Papua New Guinea: looking back and looking forward
Publication date: Available online 20 June 2020Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral RadiologyAuthor(s): R.A. Kelwaip, S. Fose, M. Siddiqui, C.P. Molumi, K.L.M. Apaio, D.I. Conway, N.W. Johnson, S. Thomas, D.W. Lambert, K.D. Hunter (Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology)
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology - June 22, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Experimental direct-contact transmission of influenza A/H9N2 virus in the guinea pig model in Iran
Future Virology, Ahead of Print. (Source: Future Virology)
Source: Future Virology - June 22, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Soad Ghabeshi Esmaeil Ebrahimie Vahid Salimi Arash Ghanizadeh Farshad Khodakhah Jila Yavarian Zahra Norouzbabaei Farhang Sasani Farhad Rezaie Talat Mokhtari Azad Source Type: research

Awareness of personal height and weight among community-dwelling people in West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea.
Abstract We investigated the accessibility of height- and weight-measurement tools and the awareness of one's own height and weight in a specific population in West New Britain Province (WNBP), Papua New Guinea, where obesity is prevalent. Of 558 participants (mean age 34.8 ± 14.0 years, 48.2% women, average body mass index =25.1 ± 4.83 kg/m2), >70% had limited access to measurement scales and 97.5% lacked accurate knowledge of their own height and weight. Our findings imply that increased access to measurement tools and awareness of personal height...
Source: Tropical Doctor - June 19, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Saito T, Bai A, Matsui N, Izawa KP Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Chlorella vulgaris α-L-arabino-α-L-rhamno-α,β-D-galactan structure and mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory and anti-remodelling effects.
Chlorella vulgaris α-L-arabino-α-L-rhamno-α,β-D-galactan structure and mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory and anti-remodelling effects. Int J Biol Macromol. 2020 Jun 18;: Authors: Capek P, Matulová M, Šutovská M, Barboríková J, Molitorisová M, Kazimierová I Abstract Microalgal exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are given great attention due to their potential biotechnology applications. Purified C. vulgaris EPS was subjected to compositional and sugar linkage analyses, and partial acid hydrolysis. Hydrolysate separation by gel chromatogra...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - June 18, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Capek P, Matulová M, Šutovská M, Barboríková J, Molitorisová M, Kazimierová I Tags: Int J Biol Macromol Source Type: research

The HIV care continuum and HIV-1 drug resistance among female sex workers: a key population in Guinea-Bissau.
RE group Abstract Introduction: Female sex workers (FSW) are considered a key group for HIV transmissions in sub-Saharan Africa. The HIV Care Continuum and HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) among FSW has not been well studied in most countries in West Africa. In the current study we describe the HIV Care continuum and prevalence of HIVDR among FSW in Guinea-Bissau. Methods: A venue-based recruitment and peer-referral of FSW was used in seven cities in Guinea-Bissau from October 2014 to September 2017. We administered a questionnaire, performed discriminatory HIV-testing and collected blood specimens for CD4 count, ...
Source: AIDS Research and Therapy - June 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lindman J, Djalo MA, Biai A, Månsson F, Esbjörnsson J, Jansson M, Medstrand P, Norrgren H, SWEGUB CORE group Tags: AIDS Res Ther Source Type: research

Impairment in neurocognitive function following experimental neonatal guinea pig cytomegalovirus infection.
This study examined the impact of neonatal guinea pig CMV (GPCMV) infection on spatial learning and memory in a Morris water maze (MWM) model. METHODS: Newborn pups were challenged intraperitoneally (i.p.) with a pathogenic red fluorescent protein-tagged GPCMV, or sham inoculated. On days 15-19 post infection (p.i.), pups were tested in the MWM. Viral loads were measured in blood and tissue by quantitative PCR (qPCR), and brain samples collected at necropsy were examined by histology and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Viremia (DNAemia) was detected at day 3 p.i. in 7/8 challenged animals. End-organ dissemination ...
Source: Pediatric Research - June 17, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Fernández-Alarcón C, Meyer LE, McVoy MA, Lokensgard JR, Hu S, Benneyworth MA, Anderholm KM, Janus BC, Schleiss MR Tags: Pediatr Res Source Type: research

Health System Costs of Treating Latent Tuberculosis Infection With Four Months of Rifampin Versus Nine Months of Isoniazid in Different Settings.
CONCLUSION: A 4-month rifampin regimen was safer and less expensive than 9 months of isoniazid in all settings. This regimen could be adopted by tuberculosis programs in many countries as first-line therapy for latent tuberculosis infection. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Canadian Institutes of Health Research. PMID: 32539440 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Internal Medicine)
Source: Annals of Internal Medicine - June 16, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Bastos ML, Campbell JR, Oxlade O, Adjobimey M, Trajman A, Ruslami R, Kim HJ, Baah JO, Toelle BG, Long R, Hoeppner V, Elwood K, Al-Jahdali H, Apriani L, Benedetti A, Schwartzman K, Menzies D Tags: Ann Intern Med Source Type: research

Use of the guinea pig model of genital herpes to evaluate vaccines and antivirals: review
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2020Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): David I. Bernstein (Source: Antiviral Therapy)
Source: Antiviral Therapy - June 15, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Effects of increasing concentrations of unamended and gypsum modified bauxite residues on soil microbial community functions and structure - A mesocosm study.
In this study, four kinds of BR were mixed at increasing concentrations with two soils in a mesososm experiment. Unamended BR from Provence (PRO) and Guinea (GUI) bauxite were selected, and Modified Bauxite Residues from PRO and GUI (MBR-PRO and MBR-GUI) were obtained by gypsum application and repeated leaching, in order to reduce their pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP). Several indicators of microbial community functions and structure (growth of culturable bacteria; enzymatic activities; C-sourced substrates degradation (Biolog®); bacteria and fungi PCR-RFLP fingerprints) were m...
Source: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety - June 15, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Fourrier C, Luglia M, Hennebert P, Foulon J, Ambrosi JP, Angeletti B, Keller C, Criquet S Tags: Ecotoxicol Environ Saf Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 4237: Validation of the Spanish Version of Newcastle Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Measure (NEWSQOL)
Conclusion: The Spanish version of the NEWSQOL questionnaire is reliable, valid, and feasible to evaluate quality of life in the Spanish population. (Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - June 14, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Concepci ón Soto-Vidal Soraya Pacheco-da-Costa Victoria Calvo-Fuente Sara Fern ández-Guinea Carlos Gonz ález-Alted Tom ás Gallego-Izquierdo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Use of the guinea pig model of genital herpes to evaluate vaccines and antivirals: review.
Abstract Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) are common throughout the world. Infections are lifelong and may produce both acute and recurrent vesiculoulcerative disease as well as more severe diseases. Despite disappointing results from recent HSV vaccine trials new vaccines and more potent antiviral therapies continue to be developed. These newer approaches require initial evaluations in animal models. In this review I have briefly described some of the models available and then more thoroughly describe the guinea pig model of acute and recurrent genital herpes infections. As ...
Source: Antiviral Research - June 13, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Bernstein DI Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

The HIV care continuum and HIV-1 drug resistance among female sex workers: a key population in Guinea-Bissau
Female sex workers (FSW) are considered a key group for HIV transmissions in sub-Saharan Africa. The HIV Care Continuum and HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) among FSW has not been well studied in most countries in ... (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Source: AIDS Research and Therapy - June 12, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jacob Lindman, Mamadu Aliu Djalo, Ansu Biai, Fredrik M ånsson, Joakim Esbjörnsson, Marianne Jansson, Patrik Medstrand and Hans Norrgren Tags: Research Source Type: research

Anaesthesia/analgesia for manual removal of retained placenta.
CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence from one small study to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of anaesthesia or analgesia during the manual removal of a retained placenta. The quality of the available evidence was very low. We downgraded based on issues of limitations in study design (risk of bias) and imprecision (single study with small sample size, few or no events, and wide confidence intervals). There is a need for well-designed, multi-centre, randomised, controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different types of anaesthesia and analgesia during manual removal of a retained placenta. ...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - June 12, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Kongwattanakul K, Rojanapithayakorn N, Laopaiboon M, Lumbiganon P Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 1505: Capture-based Next-Generation Sequencing Improves the Identification of Immunoglobulin/T-Cell Receptor Clonal Markers and Gene Mutations in Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patients Lacking Molecular Probes
Orietta Spinelli The monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) in Philadelphia-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) requires the identification at diagnosis of immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor (Ig/TCR) rearrangements as clonality markers. Aiming to simplify and possibly improve the patients&amp;rsquo; initial screening, we designed a capture-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel combining the Ig/TCR rearrangement detection with the profiling of relevant leukemia-related genes. The validation of the assay on well-characterized samples allowed us to identify all the known Ig/TCR rearrangements as we...
Source: Cancers - June 9, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Roberta Cavagna Marie L. Guinea Guinea Montalvo Manuela Tosi Michela Paris Chiara Pavoni Tamara Intermesoli Renato Bassan Andrea Mosca Alessandro Rambaldi Orietta Spinelli Tags: Article Source Type: research

Tectorigenin inhibits inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis in allergic asthma model of ovalbumin ‐sensitized guinea pigs
ConclusionsTectorigenin could inhibit pulmonary fibrosis and airway inflammation through TGF ‐β1/Smad signalling pathway and TLR4/NF‐κB signalling pathway. Therefore, tectorigenin might be a promising medicine to treat allergic asthma. (Source: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology - June 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Youpeng Wang, Weichao Jing, Wanying Qu, Zhiwei Liu, Di Zhang, Xiaoyu Qi, Lujia Liu Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Animal Models of Mycobacteria Infection.
Authors: Chan ED, Verma D, Ordway DJ Abstract This manuscript describes the infection of mice and guinea pigs with mycobacteria via various routes, as well as necropsy methods for the determination of mycobacterial loads within target organs. Additionally, methods for cultivating mycobacteria and preparing stocks are described. The protocols outlined are primarily used for M. tuberculosis, but can also be used for the study of other non-tuberculosis mycobacterial species. A wide variety of animal models have been used to test new vaccines, drugs, and the impact of cigarette exposure. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals L...
Source: Current Protocols in Immunology - June 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Curr Protoc Immunol Source Type: research

The epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea, pre- and post-implementation of national malaria control efforts
In the past decade, national malaria control efforts in Papua New Guinea (PNG) have received renewed support, facilitating nationwide distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), as well as imp... (Source: Malaria Journal)
Source: Malaria Journal - June 5, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Johanna H. Kattenberg, Dulcie L. Gumal, Maria Ome-Kaius, Benson Kiniboro, Matthew Philip, Shadrach Jally, Bernadine Kasian, Naomi Sambale, Peter M. Siba, Stephan Karl, Alyssa E. Barry, Ingrid Felger, James W. Kazura, Ivo Mueller and Leanne J. Robinson Tags: Research Source Type: research

Dog keeping at home before and during pregnancy decreased the risk of food allergy in 1-year-old children.
Conclusions: Keeping a dog at home before and during pregnancy decreased the risk of food allergy in 1-year-old children. This effect was eliminated in case of having a cat, hamster, guinea pig, or rabbit. PMID: 32489363 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Dermatology and Allergology)
Source: Advances in Dermatology and Allergology - June 4, 2020 Category: Dermatology Tags: Postepy Dermatol Alergol Source Type: research