The acute effects of hydrocortisone on cardiac electrocardiography, action potentials, intracellular calcium, and contraction: The role of protein kinase C
This study investigated the still unclear effects of hydrocortisone on electrophysiological and biochemical aspects of cardiac excitation–contraction coupling. In guinea pigs’ hearts, hydrocortisone administration reduced the QT interval of ECG and the action potential duration (APD). In guinea pig ventricular myocytes, hydrocortisone reduced contraction and Ca2+ transient amplitudes. These reductions and the effects on APD were prevented by pretreatment with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor staurosporine. In an overexpression system of Xenopus oocytes, hydrocortisone increased hERG K+ currents and reduced ...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology - June 14, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Second Order Segmented Polynomials for Syphilis and Gonorrhea Prevalence and Incidence Trends Estimation: Application to Spectrum ’s Guinea-Bissau and South Africa Data
Journal Name: The International Journal of Biostatistics Issue: Ahead of print (Source: The International Journal of Biostatistics)
Source: The International Journal of Biostatistics - June 13, 2019 Category: Statistics Source Type: research

A liver core needle biopsy technique in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus)
The aim of this study was to describe a core needle biopsy technique in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) and to assess the incidence of complications when applying this method. Biopsies were taken from the right ... (Source: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica)
Source: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica - June 13, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Kamila Gli ńska-Suchocka, Marcin Jankowski, Krzysztof Kubiak, Jolanta Spużak, Pola Borusewicz and Dominika Kubiak-Nowak Tags: Brief communication Source Type: research

Calorie restriction with regular chow, but not a high-fat diet, delays onset of spontaneous osteoarthritis in the Hartley guinea pig model
Obesity is a leading risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA). In contrast, calorie restriction (CR) may lessen OA due to improved systemic inflammatory status and reduced weight-bearing. The aim of this study was ... (Source: Arthritis Research and Therapy)
Source: Arthritis Research and Therapy - June 13, 2019 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Lauren B. Radakovich, Angela J. Marolf, Lauren A. Culver and Kelly S. Santangelo Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Estimating undetected Ebola spillovers
by Emma E. Glennon, Freya L. Jephcott, Olivier Restif, James L. N. Wood The preparedness of health systems to detect, treat, and prevent onward transmission of Ebola virus disease (EVD) is central to mitigating future outbreaks. Early detection of outbreaks is critical to timely response, but estimating detection rates is difficult because unreported spillover events and outbreaks do not generate data. Using three independent datasets available on the distributions of secondary infections during EVD outbreaks across West Africa, in a single district (Western Area) of Sierra Leone, and in the city of Conakry, Guinea, we si...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - June 13, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Emma E. Glennon Source Type: research

Evaluation of the ease of use and acceptability of an innovative device - the 'Episiometer', in ensuring an accurate mediolateral episiotomy: a pilot study.
Authors: Gupta S, Lugt BV, Vangaveti V, Kulkarni M, Rane A, Amoa AB Abstract The present study was undertaken at the Port Moresby General Hospital, Papua New Guinea, to evaluate the ease of use and acceptability of a perineal measuring device (Episiometer) for giving a correct length and angle of a mediolateral episiotomy. An Episiometer was placed on the perineum to guide the angle and length immediately before giving an episiotomy. A feedback survey was collected and the angle and length of the episiotomy were measured at the time of delivery and at 6 weeks postpartum. The length and angle of episiotomy we...
Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - June 12, 2019 Category: OBGYN Tags: J Obstet Gynaecol Source Type: research

Mucosa-Dependent, Stretch-Sensitive Spontaneous Activity in Seminal Vesicle.
Authors: Takeya M, Hayashi T, Hashitani H, Takano M Abstract Seminal vesicles (SVs), a pair of male accessory glands, contract upon sympathetic nerve excitation during ejaculation while developing spontaneous phasic constrictions in the inter-ejaculatory storage phase. Recently, the fundamental role of the mucosa in generating spontaneous activity in SV of the guinea pig has been revealed. Stretching the mucosa-intact but not mucosa-denuded SV smooth muscle evokes spontaneous phasic contractions arising from action potential firing triggered by electrical slow waves and associated Ca2+ flashes. These spontaneous ev...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - June 12, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 2207: An Advanced In Silico Modelling of the Interaction between FSCPX, an Irreversible A1 Adenosine Receptor Antagonist, and NBTI, a Nucleoside Transport Inhibitor, in the Guinea Pig Atrium
ilvassy Gesztelyi In earlier studies, we generated concentration-response (E/c) curves with CPA (N6-cyclopentyladenosine; a selective A1 adenosine receptor agonist) or adenosine, in the presence or absence of S-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBTI, a selective nucleoside transport inhibitor), and with or without a pretreatment with 8-cyclopentyl-N3-[3-(4-(fluorosulfonyl)-benzoyloxy)propyl]-N1-propylxanthine (FSCPX, a chemical known as a selective, irreversible A1 adenosine receptor antagonist), in isolated, paced guinea pig left atria. Meanwhile, we observed a paradoxical phenomenon, i.e. the co-treatment w...
Source: Molecules - June 12, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Szabo Erdei Viczjan Kiss Zsuga Papp Pinter Juhasz Szilvassy Gesztelyi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Prevalence and Predictors of contraceptive use among women of reproductive age in 17 sub-Saharan African countries: A large population-based study
ConclusionThe use of contraceptives is low in sub-Saharan Africa, but varies substantially across countries. Use of contraception is associated with both personal and socioeconomic factors. (Source: Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare)
Source: Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare - June 10, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Protective humoral immunity in guinea pigs induced by PCV2 virus-like particles displaying the B cell linear epitope (228QQITDA233) of PPV1
In conclusion, guinea pigs vaccinated with cVLPs developed effective protective immunity against PCV2 challenge, with some protective immunity against PPV. This study provided valuable research data to pursue molecular design of chimeric epitopes PCV2 VLPs. (Source: Veterinary Microbiology)
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - June 6, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Bradykinin sensitizes the cough reflex via a B2 receptor dependent activation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels through metabolites of cyclooxygenase and 12-lipoxygenase
In this study, using a conscious guinea-pig model ... (Source: Respiratory Research)
Source: Respiratory Research - June 6, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fajer Al-Shamlan and Ahmed Z. El-Hashim Tags: Research Source Type: research

Butylidenephthalide facilitates contractions via nonspecific binding to receptors in isolated guinea-pig vas deferens.
Discussion and conclusions: Bdph action may be through the nonspecific binding of the butylidene group to prejunctional α2- and postjunctional α1-adrenoceptors to reversibly block K+ channels, and irreversibly block VDCCs on the smooth muscle cell membrane, respectively. PMID: 31155999 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmaceutical Biology)
Source: Pharmaceutical Biology - June 5, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Pharm Biol Source Type: research

Therapeutic Effects of Soluble Guanylate Cyclase (sGC) Stimulation on Pulmonary Hemodynamics and Emphysema in Guinea Pigs Chronically Exposed to Cigarette Smoke.
In conclusion, in guinea pigs chronically exposed to CS, sGC stimulation exerts beneficial effects on the lung parenchyma and the pulmonary vasculature, suggesting that sGC stimulators might be a potential alternative for COPD treatment that deserves further evaluation. PMID: 31166128 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - June 5, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Paul T, Blanco I, Aguilar D, Tura-Ceide O, Bonjoch C, Smolders VF, Peinado VI, Barberà JA Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Development and Evaluation of a One-Step Quantitative RT-PCR Assay for Detection of Lassa Virus.
Abstract Lassa fever is a severe viral hemorrhagic illness caused by Lassa virus. Based on estimates, the number of LASV infections ranges from 300,000 to 500,000 cases in endemic areas with a fatality rate of 1%. Development of fast and sensitive tools for the control and prevention of Lassa virus infection as well as for clinical diagnostics of Lassa fever are crucial. Here we reported development and evaluation of a one-step quantitative RT-qPCR assay for the Lassa virus detection - LASV-Fl. This assay is suitable for the detection of lineages I-IV of Lassa virus. The limit of detection of the assay ranged from...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - June 3, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Dedkov VG, Magassouba N, Safonova MV, Naydenova EV, Ayginin AA, Soropogui B, Kourouma F, Camara AB, Camara J, Kritzkiy AA, Tuchkov IV, Shchelkanov MU, Maleev VV Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

Linking cocoa varietals and microbial diversity of Nicaraguan fine cocoa bean fermentations and their impact on final cocoa quality appreciation.
en DS Abstract Nicaraguan cocoa bean fermentations of several single local cocoa varieties originating from the same region (North Highlands of Nicaragua, San Jose de Bocay/El Cuá) were compared to fermentations of blended cocoa varietals from other producing regions of the country (Waslala and Nueva Guinea) making use of High Throughput Sequencing techniques, metabolite target analysis and sensory evaluation of cocoa liquor samples. A succession of the important cocoa-related yeasts Hanseniaspora uvarum/opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and/or Pichia kudriavzevii was seen for single varietals and Nueva Gu...
Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology - June 2, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Papalexandratou Z, Kaasik K, Kauffmann LV, Skorstengaard A, Bouillon G, Espensen JL, Hansen LH, Jakobsen RR, Blennow A, Krych L, Castro-Mejía JL, Nielsen DS Tags: Int J Food Microbiol Source Type: research

Smartphone EEG and Remote Online Interpretation for Children with Epilepsy in the Republic of Guinea: Quality, Characteristics, and Practice Implications
Conclusions: The SBS2 has a moderate sensitivity and high specificity for the detection of epileptiform abnormalities in children with epilepsy in this low-income setting. Use of the SBS2+crowdEEG platform permits specialist input for patients with previously poor access to clinical neurophysiology expertise. (Source: Seizure)
Source: Seizure - June 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The novel caprine parainfluenza virus type 3 showed pathogenicity in Guinea pigs
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2019Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Fei Hao, Zhongyu Wang, Li Mao, Leilei Yang, Wenwen Zhang, Jizong Li, Xuyuan Wang, Wenliang Li, Jieyuan JiangAbstractCaprine parainfluenza virus type 3 (CPIV3) is one of the important viral respiratory tract agents in goats. The pathogenicity of CPIV3 has been examined in goats but it has not been explored in other laboratory animals. In the present study, an experimental infection of guinea pigs with CPIV3 was performed. The virus-inoculated guinea pigs displayed clinical signs related to the respiratory disease at 2–12 days post i...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - June 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Slc:Hartley guinea pigs frequently possess duplication of the caudal vena cava.
In conclusion, Slc:Hartley guinea pigs frequently possess asymptomatic duplicated caudal vena cava in the absence of iliac anastomosis and appear to be a novel and useful animal model for duplicated caudal vena cava in animals and humans. PMID: 31142684 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Animals)
Source: Experimental Animals - June 1, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 502: Current In Vivo Models of Varicella-Zoster Virus Neurotropism
Vicki Traina-Dorge Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), an exclusively human herpesvirus, causes chickenpox and establishes a latent infection in ganglia, reactivating decades later to produce zoster and associated neurological complications. An understanding of VZV neurotropism in humans has long been hampered by the lack of an adequate animal model. For example, experimental inoculation of VZV in small animals including guinea pigs and cotton rats results in the infection of ganglia but not a rash. The severe combined immune deficient human (SCID-hu) model allows the study of VZV neurotropism for human neural sub-populatio...
Source: Viruses - May 31, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Ravi Mahalingam Anne Gershon Michael Gershon Jeffrey I. Cohen Ann Arvin Leigh Zerboni Hua Zhu Wayne Gray Ilhem Messaoudi Vicki Traina-Dorge Tags: Review Source Type: research

Smartphone EEG and Remote Online Interpretation for Children with Epilepsy in the Republic of Guinea: Quality, Characteristics, and Practice Implications
There are>40 million people with epilepsy (PWE) living in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). [1] The incidence of active epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa is particularly high, especially in children. [2,3] EEG can help classify an epilepsy syndrome and guide medication choice and is one of the basic care metrics set out in the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) epilepsy guidelines. [4] Large disparities exist in the availability of EEG for PWE between high-income countries compared to LMICs. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jennifer Williams, Fod é Abass Cisse, Mike Schaekermann, Foksuna Sakadi, Nana Rahamatou Tassiou, Gladia C. Hotan, Aissatou Kenda Bah, Abdoul Bachir Djibo Hamani, Andrew Lim, Edward C.W. Leung, Tadeu A. Fantaneau, Tracey Milligan, Vidita Khatri, Daniel B. Source Type: research

The effect of melatonin on hearts in ischemia/reperfusion experiments without and with HTK cardioplegia.
Abstract Our aim was to investigate if the cardioplegic solution HTK can be improved by the addition of the ROS scavenger melatonin. 158 guinea pig hearts without (UI80) or with HTK protection (HTK80) were investigated in ischemia/reperfusion experiments. Ischemia lasted 80 min at 30 °C. Melatonin was given before ischemia (UI80 + M1, HTK80 + M1) or before and after ischemia (UI80 + M2, HTK80 + M2). We measured the left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), diastolic pressure (LVPmin), cardiac rhythm (VC-RR), time of electrical cell uncoupling (t-in) and recovery (t-ret), intracellular Ca+...
Source: Bioelectrochemistry - May 31, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Schaefer M, Gebhard MM, Gross W Tags: Bioelectrochemistry Source Type: research

The effects of tree spacing regime and tree species composition on mineral nutrient composition of cocoa beans and canarium nuts in 8-year-old cocoa plantations.
This study explored the nutrient concentrations of cocoa beans in response to both tree-shade species and shade-tree spacing regime. The study also investigated the extent to which C. indicum tree spacing altered the nutrient concentrations of canarium kernels. G. sepium trees in the study had a final spacing of 12 m × 12 m while the spacing regimes of either 8 m × 8 m or 8 m × 16 m used for C. indicum. The calcium (Ca) concentrations of cocoa beans did not differ significantly between plants located next to G. sepium and plants locat...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - May 29, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Hosseini-Bai S, Trueman SJ, Nevenimo T, Hannet G, Randall B, Wallace HM Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

Comparative Susceptibility of Different Populations of Amblyomma sculptum to Rickettsia rickettsii
The bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii is the etiological agent of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF), which is transmitted in Brazil mainly by the tick Amblyomma sculptum. Herein, larvae and nymphs of six populations of A. sculptum were exposed to R. rickettsii by feeding on needle-inoculated guinea pigs, and thereafter reared on uninfected guinea pigs or rabbits. Two tick populations were exposed to autochthone R. rickettsii strains, whereas four tick populations were exposed to non- autochthone strains. The six geographically different populations of A. sculptum showed different susceptibilities to R. rickettsii, higher among t...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - May 28, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

A combination of metabolic resistance and high frequency of the 1014F kdr mutation is driving pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles coluzzii population from Guinea savanna of Cameroon
The scale-up in the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying has significantly reduced malaria burden and mortality. However, insecticide resistance, among other fact... (Source: Parasites and Vectors)
Source: Parasites and Vectors - May 27, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Amen N. Fadel, Sulaiman S. Ibrahim, Magellan Tchouakui, Ebai Terence, Murielle J. Wondji, Micareme Tchoupo, Samuel Wanji and Charles S. Wondji Tags: Research Source Type: research

Progress Toward Polio Eradication - Worldwide, January 2017-March 2019.
This report describes global progress toward poliomyelitis eradication during January 1, 2017-March 31, 2019, and updates previous reports (1,2). Afghanistan and Pakistan reported their lowest annual number of WPV cases (22) in 2017; however, 33 WPV1 cases were reported in 2018. During January-March 2019 (as of May 3), 12 WPV1 cases had been reported worldwide, four more than the eight reported during the corresponding period in 2018. The occurrence of polio cases caused by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) is rare and occurs where oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) coverage has been low and vaccine virus reverts t...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - May 24, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Greene SA, Ahmed J, Datta SD, Burns CC, Quddus A, Vertefeuille JF, Wassilak SGF Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

One size does not fit all: HIV prevalence and correlates of risk for men who have sex with men, transgender women in multiple cities in Papua New Guinea
Biobehavioral data about men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) in Papua New Guinea (PNG) are limited to those who sell sex. Information about those MSM and TGW who do not sell sex is nece... (Source: BMC Public Health)
Source: BMC Public Health - May 22, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Avi J. Hakim, Kelsey Coy, Steven G. Badman, Barne Willie, Rebecca Narokobi, Josephine Gabuzzi, Simon Pekon, Martha Kupul, Parker Hou, Herick Aeno, Ruthy Neo Boli, Joshua Nembari, Sophie Ase, Angelyne Amos, Nick Dala, Damian Weikum & hellip; Tags: Research article Source Type: research

[Descriptive study of malaria cases in the paediatric population in a reference hospital in Valencia, Spain, between 1993 and 2015].
CONCLUSIONS: Malaria is still a prevalent disease in this population, a consequence of immigration, and tourism to endemic countries. Malaria should be considered as a likely diagnosis in a febrile child who comes from, or has travelled to, an endemic region in the past year. PMID: 31129028 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anales de Pediatria)
Source: Anales de Pediatria - May 22, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ramírez Cuentas JH, Urtasun Erburu A, Roselló Guijarro M, Garrido Jareño M, Peman García J, Otero Reigada MDC Tags: An Pediatr (Barc) Source Type: research

Evaluating Cholinergic Receptor Expression in Guinea Pig Primary Auditory and Rostral Belt Cortices After Noise Damage Using [3H]Scopolamine and [18F]Flubatine Autoradiography.
Authors: Forrest TJ, Desmond TJ, Issa M, Scott PJH, Basura GJ Abstract Noise-induced hearing loss leads to anatomic and physiologic changes in primary auditory cortex (A1) and the adjacent dorsal rostral belt (RB). Since acetylcholine is known to modulate plasticity in other cortical areas, changes in A1 and RB following noise damage may be due to changes in cholinergic receptor expression. We used [3H]scopolamine and [18F]flubatine binding to measure muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expression, respectively, in guinea pig A1 and RB 3 weeks following unilateral,...
Source: Molecular Imaging - May 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Mol Imaging Source Type: research

Pregnancy Promotes Maternal Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Guinea Pigs.
Abstract Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) modulates cognition and behavior in mammals, while motherhood is associated with cognitive and behavioral changes essential for the care of the young. In mice and rats, hippocampal neurogenesis is reported to be reduced or unchanged during pregnancy, with few data available from other species. In guinea pigs, pregnancy lasts ~9 weeks; we set to explore if hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in these animals, relative to gestational stages. Time-pregnant primigravidas (3-5 months old) and age-matched nonpregnant females were examined, with neurogenic...
Source: Neural Plasticity - May 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wan L, Tu T, Zhang QL, Jiang J, Yan XX Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Comparing the superficial vasculature of the central nervous system in six laboratory animals: a hypothesis about the role of the 'Circle of Willis'.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31087813 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anatomical Record)
Source: Anatomical Record - May 14, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Kim YY, Chao JR, Kim C, Jung H, Kim B, Kang TC, Chang J, Park HS, Suh JG, Lee JH Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research

Genomic analysis of Indian strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi indicates novel genetic repertoire for pathogenicity and adaptations.
This study highlights the presence of potential genes as molecular targets to overcome the future endemic outbreaks in India. PMID: 31089918 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Molecular Biology Reports)
Source: Molecular Biology Reports - May 14, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Sekhon PK, Chander AM, Mayilraj S, Rishi P Tags: Mol Biol Rep Source Type: research

Different rates of endocytic activity and vesicle transport from the apical and synaptic poles of the outer hair cell.
CONCLUSION: The larger endocytic fluorescent signals in the synaptic pole and the faster basoapical trafficking imply that membrane internalization and vesicle trafficking are more efficient at the synaptic pole than at the apical pole of the OHC. PMID: 31073640 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: HNO)
Source: HNO - May 12, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: HNO Source Type: research

Domesticated Animals on Exhibit at the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 1900-1928.
Abstract In 1905 the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University began planning for a new domesticated animals exhibition in honor of the 100th anniversary of the birth of its founder Louis Agassiz. The resulting displays of variation and heredity in poultry, pigeons, rabbits, mice, and guinea pigs proved surprisingly popular to museumgoers. Some of these specimens still exist in the museum's storage facilities, namely a series of poultry donated by the biologist Charles B. Davenport and an elaborate set of guinea pigs from the experimental evolutionist William E. Castle. Situating these domesticated anima...
Source: Endeavour - May 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Tonn J Tags: Endeavour Source Type: research

Evaluation of the residual effectiveness of Fludora ™ fusion WP-SB, a combination of clothianidin and deltamethrin, for the control of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.
Evaluation of the residual effectiveness of Fludora™ fusion WP-SB, a combination of clothianidin and deltamethrin, for the control of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. Acta Trop. 2019 May 08;: Authors: Fuseini G, Phiri WP, von Fricken ME, Smith J, Garcia GA Abstract Over the past decade, insecticide resistance to malaria vectors has been identified in 71 malaria endemic countries. This has posed a major global health challenge in the fight against malaria, with declining rates of indoor residual spraying coverage attributed to pyrethroid-resistance. As part...
Source: Acta Tropica - May 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fuseini G, Phiri WP, von Fricken ME, Smith J, Garcia GA Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Quality of Malaria Case Management and Reporting at Public Health Facilities in Six Health Districts in Guinea, 2018.
Abstract Data on fever and malaria cases reported by health facilities are used for tracking incidence and quantification of malaria commodity needs in Guinea. Periodic assessments of the quality of malaria case management and routine data are a critical activity for the malaria program. In May-June 2018, survey teams visited 126 health facilities in six health districts purposefully selected to represent a spectrum (Stratum 1-high, Stratum 2-intermediate, and Stratum 3-low) of perceived quality of case management and reporting, as assessed from an a priori analysis of routine data. Surveyors performed exit interv...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - May 6, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Davlantes E, Camara A, Guilavogui T, Fofana A, Balde M, Diallo T, Bah I, Florey L, Sarr A, Butts J, Plucinski MM Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

T-cell and B-cell perturbations identify distinct differences in HIV-2 compared with HIV-1-induced immunodeficiency
Conclusion: HIV-2 is characterized by lower viral load, and lower T-cell activation, which may account for the slower disease progression. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - May 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

T-cell and B-cell perturbations are similar in ART-naive HIV-1 and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients
Conclusion: HIV-1/2 was not associated with less immune perturbations than for HIV-1 infection. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - May 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Ocular size and shape in lens-induced Myopization in young Guinea pigs
Lens-induced myopization in guinea pigs has been used as model for the process of myopization in humans. It has not been explored yet whether the change in globe shape in eyes undergoing myopization is similar... (Source: BMC Ophthalmology)
Source: BMC Ophthalmology - May 3, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Li Dong, Xu Han Shi, Yi Kun Kang, Wen Bin Wei, Ya Xing Wang and Jost B. Jonas Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Anti-Asthma effect of an active components group from decoction of Pheretima Aspergillum and ...
The decoction of Pheretima aspergillum is used as a traditional medicine for treatment of asthma in China with a long clinical history. The aim of the study was to investigate the anti-asthma activities of an active components group obtained from the decoction of Pheretima aspergillum in histamine and ovalubumin induced asthma guinea pigs. The incubation period of asthma, serum IFN-γ, IL-4 and LTB4 levels were tested and determined. As a result, the significant increase of asthma incubation period, serum IFN-γ level were observed in the asthma guinea pigs treated with the active components group. In addition, t...
Source: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research - April 30, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Harderian gland-derived stem cells as a cytotherapy in a guinea pig model of carboplatin-induced Hearing loss
ConclusionThe isolated HG-SCs were proved to restore structure and function of cochlea in guinea pig model of hearing loss.Graphical Abstract (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - April 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Oligonucleotide Microarrays Identified Potential Regulatory Genes Related to Early Outward Arterial Remodeling Induced by Tissue Plasminogen Activator
Olga Plekhanova1,2*, Yelena Parfyonova1,2, Irina Beloglazova1,2, Bradford C. Berk3 and Vsevolod Tkachuk1,2 1Faculty of Medicine, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia 2National Medical Research Center of Cardiology, Moscow, Russia 3Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States Constrictive vascular remodeling limiting blood flow, as well as compensatory outward remodeling, has been observed in many cardiovascular diseases; however, the underlying mechanisms regulating the remodeling response of the vessels remain unclear. Plasminogen acti...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 30, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Important Trends in UCP3 Investigation
Elena E. Pohl1*†, Anne Rupprecht1,2*†, Gabriel Macher1 and Karolina E. Hilse1 1Institute of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Biophysics, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria 2Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rostock University Medical Center, Rostock, Germany Membrane uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), a member of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein family, was discovered in 1997. UCP3′s properties, such as its high homology to other mitochondrial carriers, especially to UCP2, its short lifetime and low specificity of UCP3 antibodies, have hindered progress in understanding i...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 30, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

RUTI Vaccination Enhances Inhibition of Mycobacterial Growth ex vivo and Induces a Shift of Monocyte Phenotype in Mice
In this study, we investigated the potential of RUTI vaccine to control mycobacterial growth ex vivo and demonstrated the capacity of MGIA to aid the identification of essential immune mechanism. We found an association between the peak response of vaccine-induced growth inhibition and a shift in monocyte phenotype following RUTI vaccination in healthy mice. The vaccination significantly increased the frequency of non-classical Ly6C− monocytes in the spleen after two doses of RUTI. Furthermore, mRNA expressions of Ly6C−-related transcripts (Nr4a1, Itgax, Pparg, Bcl2) were upregulated at the peak vaccine respons...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - April 30, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Distribution Patterns of Three Molecularly Defined Classes of GABAergic Neurons Across Columnar Compartments in Mouse Barrel Cortex
This study was carried out in accordance with the principles of the Basel Declaration and German laws on animal research (TierSchG and TierSchVersV, 2013). The protocol was approved by the LAVES (Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit). Tissue Preparation and Immunocytochemistry The animals were anesthetized with an overdose of ketamin (Essex Tierarznei) and transcardially perfused with 0.9% NaCl solution to remove blood from vessels, followed by 4% paraformaldehyde dissolved in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (PB, pH 7.4). The brains were removed and the two hemispheres separated. ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - April 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The immunogenicity of the secretory GΔTM protein of bovine ephemeral fever virus stably expressed by mammalian cells
In this study, we developed a recombinant lentivirus to produce mammalian stable cells expressing histidine-tagged BEFV G protein with a deleted transmembrane domain (GΔTM) as a secretory protein. In addition, guinea pigs were immunised with the purified GΔTM protein and booster immunised at a 3-week interval. The mammalian stable cells were able to continuously produce GΔTM protein for a minimum of 25 passages. All of the mammalian stable cells expressing GΔTM protein could react specifically with a BEFV convalescent bovine serum. Serum samples from the immunised guinea pigs could react strongly an...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Phenotypic distinctions between the nodose and jugular TRPV1-positive vagal sensory neurons in the cynomolgus monkey
Vagal capsaicin-sensitive afferent C-fibers play an important role in the maintenance of visceral homeostasis and contribute to symptoms in visceral diseases. Based on their developmental origin two functionally distinct types of vagal C-fibers are recognized: those with neurons in the vagal nodose ganglia (derived from epibranchial placodes) and in the vagal jugular ganglia (from neural crest). Studies in nonprimate species demonstrated that the vagal nodose and jugular C-fibers differ in activation profile, neurotrophic regulation, and expression of neurotransmitters. We hypothesized that the expression of selected marke...
Source: NeuroReport - April 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS Source Type: research

In silico Selection of Amplification Targets for Rapid Polymorphism Screening in Ebola Virus Outbreaks
Discussion Genome comparison of over 1,230 non-redundant, high quality EBOV full-length sequences within the Zaire lineage revealed both conserved and highly variable regions (Figure 1). The latter were concentrated in non-coding sequences, which were also more AT-rich than coding sequences, an observation that has also been made for other virus species, for instance Hepatitis B virus (González et al., 2018). The AT-content of coding sequences was most likely lower due to codon constraints, though we observe that the gene for RNA polymerase is richer in AT than the other EBOV genes. The analysis further identified ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Exploring the Potential Role of Moonlighting Function of the Surface-Associated Proteins From Mycobacterium bovis BCG Moreau and Pasteur by Comparative Proteomic
In this study, the proteomic profile of the surface-associated proteins from M. bovis BCG Moreau was compared to the BCG Pasteur reference strain. The methodology used was 2DE gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry techniques (MALDI-TOF/TOF), leading to the identification of 115 proteins. Of these, 24 proteins showed differential expression between the two BCG strains. Furthermore, 27 proteins previously described as displaying moonlighting function were identified, 8 of these proteins showed variation in abundance comparing BCG Moreau to Pasteur and 2 of them presented two different domain hits. Moonlighting ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - April 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Human, Nonhuman Primate, and Bat Cells Are Broadly Susceptible to Tibrovirus Particle Cell Entry
Yíngyún Caì1†, Shuǐqìng Yú1†, Rohit K. Jangra2, Elena N. Postnikova1, Jiro Wada1, Robert B. Tesh3, Sean P. J. Whelan4, Michael Lauck5, Michael R. Wiley6, Courtney L. Finch1, Sheli R. Radoshitzky6, David H. O’Connor5, Gustavo Palacios6, Kartik Chandran2, Charles Y. Chiu7 and Jens H. Kuhn1* 1Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD, United States 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, United States 3Depart...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Clinical Imaging Findings of Vestibular Aqueduct Trauma in a Patient With Posttraumatic Meniere's Syndrome
In conclusion, for the radiological assessment of TB fractures, the entire VA should be regarded as a part of the otic capsule, and delayed inner ear sequelae should be anticipated for retrolabyrinthine fracture lines that course into or through the VA. When considering treatment options in cases similar to the present, our findings suggest that surgical interventions targeting the eES (ES shunting/decompression procedures (31–33), which are used in MD with the intention to drain the hydropic endolymphatic fluid space, or to improve the fluid resorptive functions of the eES, respectively, most likely cannot work as p...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research