Epitopes of Naturally Acquired and Vaccine-induced Anti-Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Antibodies in Single Amino Acid Resolution.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 32463974 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biotechnology Journal)
Source: Biotechnology Journal - May 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Heidepriem J, Krähling V, Dahlke C, Wolf T, Klein F, Addo MM, Becker S, Loeffler FF Tags: Biotechnol J Source Type: research

Available Evidence and Ongoing Clinical Trials of Remdesivir: Could It Be a Promising Therapeutic Option for COVID-19?
The novel coronavirus strain, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, the causative agent of COVID-19 emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and is skyrocketing throughout the globe and become a global public health emergency. Despite promising preventive measures being taken, there is no vaccine or drug therapy officially approved to prevent or treat the infection. Everybody is waiting the findings of ongoing clinical trials in various chemical and biological products. This review is specifically aimed to summarize the available evidence and ongoing clinical trials of remdesivir as a potential therapeutic opti...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - May 26, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Remdesivir for the Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review of the Literature
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the spread of SARS-CoV-2 a global pandemic. To date, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has spread to over 200 countries, leading to over 1.6 million cases and over 99,000 deaths. Given that there is neither a vaccine nor proven treatment for COVID-19, there is currently an urgent need for effective pharmacotherapy. To address the need for an effective treatment of SARS-CoV-2 during the worldwide pandemic, this systematic review of intravenous (IV) remdesivir was performed. Remdesivir, an anti-viral prodrug originally developed to treat Ebola virus disease, has shown b...
Source: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine - May 20, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 3464: Studying Public Perception about Vaccination: A Sentiment Analysis of Tweets
This study uses a sample of 9581 vaccine-related tweets in the period January 1, 2019 to April 5, 2019. The time period is of the essence because during this time, a measles outbreak was prevalent throughout the United States and a public debate was raging. Sentiment analysis is applied to the sample, clustering the data into topics using the term frequency–inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) technique. The analyses suggest that most (about 77%) of the tweets focused on the search for new/better vaccines for diseases such as the Ebola virus, human papillomavirus (HPV), and the flu. Of the remainder, about hal...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - May 15, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Raghupathi Ren Raghupathi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Exploiting the reverse vaccinology approach to design novel subunit vaccines against Ebola virus.
In this study, approaches of reverse vaccinology were utilized in combination with different tools of immunoinformatics to design subunit vaccines against Ebola virus strain Mayinga-76. Three potential antigenic proteins of this virus i.e., matrix protein VP40, envelope glycoprotein and nucleoprotein were selected to construct the subunit vaccine. The MHC class-I, MHC class-II and B-cell epitopes were determined initially and after some robust analysis i.e., antigenicity, allergenicity, toxicity, conservancy and molecular docking study, EV-1, EV-2 and EV-3 were constructed as three potential vaccine constructs. These vacci...
Source: Immunobiology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ullah MA, Sarkar B, Islam SS Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Tolcapone Potently Inhibits Seminal Amyloid Fibrils Formation and Blocks Entry of Ebola Pseudoviruses
In this study, we repurpose tolcapone, a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved agent for Parkinson’s disease, as a potent inhibitor of seminal amyloid fibrils, among which semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEVI) is the best-characterized. Tolcapone binds to the amyloidogenic region of the SEVI precursor peptide (PAP248–286) and inhibits PAP248–286 aggregation by disrupting PAP248–286 oligomerization. In addition, tolcapone interacts with preformed SEVI fibrils and influences the activity of SEVI in promoting infection of pseudovirus (PsV) carrying the envelope glycoprotein (GP) of ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

New paths for sustainable solutions to tackle global and emerging infectious threats.
Abstract With the dramatic background of a newly emerged virus (SARS-CoV-2) spreading around the world, Coronavirus and other infectious health threats for the human and animal populations were illustrated and debated in excellent presentations at the IABS meeting 26-28 of February 2020. Historical evidence of pandemics and lessons learned from recent epidemics or epizootics caused by many pathogens (e.g., Ebola, Zika, and African Swine Fever viruses) illustrated the overarching need for close international cooperation. New and old technologies in vaccine development and their use were presented, resulting in a ca...
Source: Biologicals : Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization - April 20, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Holm A Tags: Biologicals Source Type: research

COVID-2019: update on epidemiology, disease spread and management.
Authors: Sahu KK, Mishra AK, Lal A Abstract With each passing day, more cases of Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) are being detected and unfortunately the fear of novel corona virus 2019 (2019-nCoV) becoming a pandemic disease has come true. Constant efforts at individual, national, and international level are being made in order to understand the genomics, hosts, modes of transmission and epidemiological link of nCoV-2019. As of now, whole genome sequence of the newly discovered coronavirus has already been decoded. Genomic characterization nCoV-2019 have shown close homology with bat-derived severe acute respirat...
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - April 17, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research

Coronavirus COV-19/SARS-CoV-2 affects women less than men: clinical response to viral infection.
Authors: Conti P, Younes A Abstract CoV-19/SARS-CoV-2 is a highly pathogenic virus that causes coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) an acute respiratory distress syndrome which provokes serious problems for global health. Studies suggest that there are many differences between men and women in the immune response to CoV-19 infection and inflammatory diseases. Women, compared to men, are less susceptible to viral infections based on a different innate immunity, steroid hormones and factors related to sex chromosomes. The presence of two X chromosomes in women emphasize the immune system even if one is inactive. The imm...
Source: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents - April 8, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Biol Regul Homeost Agents Source Type: research

Current Drugs with Potential for Treatment of COVID-19: A Literature Review.
CONCLUSION: All examined treatments, although potentiality effective against COVID-19, need either appropriate drug development or clinical trial to be suitable for clinical use. PMID: 32251618 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: J Pharm Pharm Sci)
Source: J Pharm Pharm Sci - April 7, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Md Insiat Islam Rabby Tags: J Pharm Pharm Sci Source Type: research

Potent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against Ebola virus isolated from vaccinated donors
Volume 12, Issue 1, January-December 2020 . (Source: mAbs)
Source: mAbs - March 26, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Pengfei Fan Xiangyang Chi Guodong Liu Guanying Zhang Zhengshan Chen Yujiao Liu Ting Fang Jianmin Li Logan Banadyga Shihua He Changming Yu Xiangguo Qiu Wei Chen Source Type: research

A model for establishment, maintenance and reactivation of the immune response after vaccination against Ebola virus
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2020Source: Journal of Theoretical BiologyAuthor(s): Irene Balelli, Chloé Pasin, Mélanie Prague, Fabien Crauste, Thierry Van Effelterre, Viki Bockstal, Laura Solforosi, Rodolphe Thiébaut (Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology)
Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology - March 21, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Challenges and opportunities for China entering global research and development for emerging infectious diseases: a case study from Ebola experience
ConclusionsChina has started to emphasize the importance of medical product innovation as one of the solutions for tackling emerging infectious diseases. Continuing research on the development of regulatory and market incentives, as well as a multilateral collaboration mechanism that unifies cross-channel supports, would advance the process for China to enter global R&D market more effectively. (Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty)
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - March 12, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Ebola Virus Glycoprotein-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies and Uses Thereof
Ebola virus is a large, negative-strand RNA virus composed of 7 genes encoding viral proteins, including a single glycoprotein (GP). The virus is responsible for causing Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), in humans. In particular, Bundibugyo (BDBV), Zaire (EBOV), and Sudan (SUDV) species have been associated with large outbreaks of EVD in Africa and reported case fatality rates of up to 90%. Transmission of Ebola virus to humans is not yet fully understood but is likely due to incidental exposure to infected animals. EVD spreads through human-to-human transmission, with infection re...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - March 9, 2020 Category: Research Authors: ajoyprabhu3 Source Type: research

Intradermal Immunization of EBOV VLPs in Guinea Pigs Induces Broader Antibody Responses Against GP Than Intramuscular Injection
Ebolavirus (EBOV) infection in humans causes severe hemorrhagic fevers with high mortality rates that range from 30 to 80% as shown in different outbreaks. Thus the development of safe and efficacious EBOV vaccines remains an important goal for biomedical research. We have shown in early studies that immunization with insect cell-produced EBOV virus-like particles (VLPs) is able to induce protect vaccinated mice against lethal EBOV challenge. In the present study, we investigated immune responses induced by Ebola VLPs via two different routes, intramuscular and intradermal immunizations, in guinea pigs. Analyses of antibod...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - February 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Titration methods for rVSV-based vaccine manufacturing
In this study, we describe the titration tools elaborated to assess the titre of rVSV-ZEBOV productions.- A streamlined Median Tissue Culture Infectious Dose (TCID50) assay to determine the infectious titer of this vaccine was established.- A digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) assay to assess the total number of viral particles present in cell-free culture supernatants of rVSV productions was developed.- These assays are used to titre rVSV-ZEBOV samples and characterize the ratio of total particles to infectious units for monitoring process robustness and product quality attributes and can be used to titre samples ge...
Source: MethodsX - February 20, 2020 Category: Science Source Type: research

The year's new drugs and biologics 2019.
Authors: Graul AI, Pina P, Tracy M, Sorbera L Abstract Highlights of our annual review of new approvals and launches on global drug markets include the approval and launch of Trikafta, the most widely applicable treatment to date for cystic fibrosis; approval of the first Ebola vaccine for general (rather than emergency) use; the pilot rollout in three African countries of the world's first malaria vaccine; approval of a new treatment option for multidrug-resistant bacterial infections; and the approval and launch in China of the first new drug to treat Alzheimer's disease in more than a decade. Several new immune ...
Source: Drugs of Today - February 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drugs Today (Barc) Source Type: research

Treatment of Ebola-related critical illness
ConclusionWith advanced training and adherence to infection prevention and control practices, clinical interventions, including critical care, are feasible and safe to perform in critically ill patients. With specific anti-Ebola medications, most patients can survive Ebola virus infection. (Source: Intensive Care Medicine)
Source: Intensive Care Medicine - February 13, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research

Longitudinal Human Antibody Repertoire against Complete Viral Proteome from Ebola Virus Survivor Reveals Protective Sites for Vaccine Design.
This study reveals markers of viral persistence and provides promising approaches for development and evaluation of vaccines and therapeutics. PMID: 32053790 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - February 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Khurana S, Ravichandran S, Hahn M, Coyle EM, Stonier SW, Zak SE, Kindrachuk J, Davey RT, Dye JM, Chertow DS Tags: Cell Host Microbe Source Type: research

Safety, immunogenicity and risk –benefit analysis of rVSV-ΔG-ZEBOV-GP (V920) Ebola vaccine in Phase I–III clinical trials across regions
Future Microbiology, Ahead of Print. (Source: Future Microbiology)
Source: Future Microbiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bache Emmanuel Bache Martin P Grobusch Selidji Todagbe Agnandji Source Type: research

Pregnancy Outcomes among Women Receiving rVSV Δ-ZEBOV-GP Ebola Vaccine during the Sierra Leone Trial to Introduce a Vaccine against Ebola
J. K. Legardy-Williams et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - February 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Serum-free production of rVSV-ZEBOV in Vero cells: microcarrier bioreactor versus scale-X™ hydro fixed-bed
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: Journal of BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Sascha Kiesslich, José Pedro Vila-Chã Losa, Jean-François Gélinas, Amine A. KamenAbstractEbola virus disease outbreaks have repeatedly occurred on the African continent over the last decades, with more serious outbreaks in recent years. Being highly transmissible and associated to high fatality rates, it constitutes a serious threat to public health. Vaccination, however, may allow for efficient control of its propagation. The most promising Ebola vaccine candidate to date, rVSV-ZEBOV, relies on a recomb...
Source: Journal of Biotechnology - January 30, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Cytomegalovirus-vectored vaccines for HIV and other pathogens
The use of cytomegalovirus (CMV) as a vaccine vector to express antigens against multiple infectious diseases, including simian immunodeficiency virus, Ebola virus, plasmodium, and mycobacterium tuberculosis, in rhesus macaques has generated extraordinary levels of protective immunity against subsequent pathogenic challenge. Moreover, the mechanisms of immune protection have altered paradigms about viral vector-mediated immunity against ectopically expressed vaccine antigens. Further optimization of CMV-vectored vaccines, particularly as this approach moves to human clinical trials will be augmented by a more complete unde...
Source: AIDS - January 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL REVIEW Source Type: research

The use of mice lacking type I or both type I and type II interferon responses in research on hemorrhagic fever viruses. Part 2: Vaccine efficacy studies
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Marko Zivcec, Christina F. Spiropoulou, Jessica R. SpenglerAbstractFor more than 20 years, researchers have used laboratory mice lacking type I or both type I and II interferon (IFN) responses to study high-containment viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers (HF) in humans. With the exception of Rift Valley fever virus, agents that cause viral HF in humans, such as Ebola and Lassa virus, do not cause disease in mature immunocompetent mice. In contrast, IFN-deficient mice typically develop severe or fatal disease when inoculated with these ...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - January 23, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Designing a Study of Correlates of Risk for Ebola Vaccination.
Abstract The rVSV Ebola vaccine was shown to be very efficacious in a novel ring vaccination trial in Guinea. However, no correlates of vaccine protection have been established for Ebola vaccines. Several Ebola vaccine candidates are available, but conducting randomized trials of additional candidates in outbreaks is difficult. Establishing correlates of vaccine protection is essential. Here we explore power and sample size calculations to evaluate potential correlates of risk during an Ebola vaccination campaignin an outbreak. The method requires a blood draw be made at a predetermined time after vaccination. The...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 23, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Halloran ME, Longini IM, Gilbert PB Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The use of mice lacking type I or both type I and type II interferon responses in research on hemorrhagic fever viruses. Part 2: Vaccine efficacy studies.
Abstract For more than 20 years, researchers have used laboratory mice lacking type I or both type I and II interferon (IFN) responses to study high-containment viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers (HF) in humans. With the exception of Rift Valley fever virus, agents that cause viral HF in humans, such as Ebola and Lassa virus, do not cause disease in mature immunocompetent mice. In contrast, IFN-deficient mice typically develop severe or fatal disease when inoculated with these agents. The sensitivity of IFN-deficient mice to disease has led to their widespread use in biocontainment laboratories to assess the ef...
Source: Antiviral Research - January 22, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Zivcec M, Spiropoulou CF, Spengler JR Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

Nonclinical safety assessment of repeated administration and biodistribution of ChAd3 ‐EBO‐Z Ebola candidate vaccine
In conclusion, the vaccine was locally and systemically well‐tolerated and the viral vector was partially or totally cleared from the organs where it disseminated, supporting the clinical development of the vaccine. (Source: Journal of Applied Toxicology)
Source: Journal of Applied Toxicology - January 21, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Camille Planty, Guillaume Chevalier, Marie ‐Ève Duclos, Clémentine Chalmey, Catherine Thirion‐Delalande, Cécile Sobry, Ann‐Muriel Steff, Eric Destexhe Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Meeting report: WHO consultation on accelerating Lassa fever vaccine development in endemic countries, Dakar, 10-11 September 2019.
Abstract At the time of writing in 2019, there have been 754 confirmed cases of Lassa fever in Nigeria, 21% of whom have died. Lassa is on the priority pathogen list for WHO's R&D Blueprint for Action to Prevent Epidemics. In September 2019, WHO convened 67 scientists, regulators, ethicists, public health officials, funders and vaccine developers to discuss the end-to-end clinical development plan for Lassa fever vaccines. The substantial increases in vaccine trial capacity in Africa were reviewed, together with lessons learned from the evaluation of vaccines against HIV, TB, malaria, and Ebola in Africa. Part...
Source: Vaccine - January 14, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Salami K, Gsell PS, Olayinka A, Maiga D, Formenty P, Smith PG, Moorthy V Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

The use of mice lacking type I or both type I and type II interferon responses in research on hemorrhagic fever viruses. Part 1: Potential effects on adaptive immunity and response to vaccination
Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Elizabeth C. Clarke, Steven B. BradfuteAbstractFor more than 20 years, researchers have used laboratory mice lacking type I or both type I and type II interferon (IFN) responses to study viruses that cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) in humans. Whereas immunocompetent mice do not become ill when infected with Ebola, Lassa, dengue and other HF viruses, IFN-deficient mice typically develop severe or fatal disease when inoculated with these pathogens. The ease of employment of these “mouse models” has led to their extensive use in bi...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - January 11, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The use of mice lacking type I or both type I and type II interferon responses in research on hemorrhagic fever viruses. Part 1: Potential effects on adaptive immunity and response to vaccination.
Abstract For more than 20 years, researchers have used laboratory mice lacking type I or both type I and type II interferon (IFN) responses to study viruses that cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) in humans. Whereas immunocompetent mice do not become ill when infected with Ebola, Lassa, dengue and other HF viruses, IFN-deficient mice typically develop severe or fatal disease when inoculated with these pathogens. The ease of employment of these "mouse models" has led to their extensive use in biocontainment laboratories to assess the efficacy of novel vaccines, often without consideration of whether adaptive im...
Source: Antiviral Research - January 10, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Clarke EC, Bradfute SB Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

FDA approves its first Ebola vaccine
(Source: Chemical and Engineering News)
Source: Chemical and Engineering News - January 3, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Megha Satyanarayana Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 64: A Chimeric Sudan Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Candidate Produced by a Recombinant Baculovirus System Induces Specific Immune Responses in Mice and Horses
In this study, we generated recombinant baculoviruses (rBV) expressing the Sudan virus (SUDV) matrix structural protein (VP40) (rBV-VP40-VP40) or the SUDV glycoprotein (GP) (rBV-GP-GP), and SUDV virus-like particles (VLPs) were produced by co-infection of Sf9 cells with rBV-SUDV-VP40 and rBV-SUDV-GP. The expression of SUDV VP40 and GP in SUDV VLPs was demonstrated by IFA and Western blot analysis. Electron microscopy results demonstrated that SUDV VLPs had a filamentous morphology. The immunogenicity of SUDV VLPs produced in insect cells was evaluated by the immunization of mice. The analysis of antibody responses showed t...
Source: Viruses - January 3, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Wu Zhang Zhang Mo Yan Wang Wong Chi Wang Feng Gao Xia Zhao Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Ebola virus disease in children in Conakry and Coyah Ebola treatment centers and risk factors associated with death.
CONCLUSION: EVD remains serious especially in children, with high case fatality. Risk factors independently associated with death were young age, diarrhea, hemorrhage, and fever. Particular attention to these risk factors and vaccination will contribute to improving the prognosis of EVD in children. PMID: 31874716 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses)
Source: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses - December 27, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Med Mal Infect Source Type: research

On the Regional Control of a Reaction-Diffusion System SIR.
Abstract This paper presents a study of regional optimal control strategies of a spatiotemporal SIR epidemic model which is formulated from existing SIR epidemic models by including a diffusion term. Our main objective is to characterize the two optimal controls that minimize the number of infected individuals, the corresponding vaccination and treatment costs. For that matter, we prove the existence of a pair of control and provide a characterization of optimal controls in terms of state and adjoint functions. Finally, we present numerical simulations on data concerning the evolution of the zoonotic Ebola virus i...
Source: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology - December 23, 2019 Category: Bioinformatics Authors: El Alami Laaroussi A, Rachik M Tags: Bull Math Biol Source Type: research

The Joint Mobile Emerging Disease Clinical Capability (JMEDICC) laboratory approach: Capabilities for high-consequence pathogen clinical research
by Prossy Naluyima, Willy Kayondo, Chi Ritchie, Joseph Wandege, Sharon Kagabane, Lydia Tumubeere, Brenda Kusiima, Daniel Kibombo, Sharon Atukunda, Christine Nanteza, Harriet Nabirye, Francis Bunjo Mugabi, Sarah Namuyanja, Christopher Hatcher, Hypaitia Rauch, Moses Mukembo, Patrick Musinguzi, JMEDICC Consortium , Nathan Sanders, Elizabeth Turesson, Christian Cando, Richard Walwema, Derrick Mimbe, Janice Hepburn, Danielle Clark, Mohammed Lamorde, Hannah Kibuuka, Saima Zaman, Anthony P. Cardile, Karen A. Martins Following the 2013–2016 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, numerous groups advocated for the importance of...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - December 19, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Prossy Naluyima Source Type: research

IL-4/IL-13 polarization of macrophages enhances Ebola virus glycoprotein-dependent infection
by Kai J. Rogers, Bethany Brunton, Laura Mallinger, Dana Bohan, Kristina M. Sevcik, Jing Chen, Natalie Ruggio, Wendy Maury BackgroundEbolavirus (EBOV) outbreaks, while sporadic, cause tremendous morbidity and mortality. No therapeutics or vaccines are currently licensed; however, a vaccine has shown promise in clinical trials. A critical step towards development of effective therapeutics is a better understanding of factors that govern host susceptibility to this pathogen. As macrophages are an important cell population targeted during virus replication, we explore the effect of cytokine polarization on macrophage infectio...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - December 11, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kai J. Rogers Source Type: research

Quadrivalent VesiculoVax vaccine protects nonhuman primates from viral-induced hemorrhagic fever and death
Recent occurrences of filoviruses and the arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV) in overlapping endemic areas of Africa highlight the need for a prophylactic vaccine that would confer protection against all of these viruses that cause lethal hemorrhagic fever (HF). We developed a quadrivalent formulation of VesiculoVax that contains recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vectors expressing filovirus glycoproteins and that also contains a rVSV vector expressing the glycoprotein of a lineage IV strain of LASV. Cynomolgus macaques were vaccinated twice with the quadrivalent formulation, followed by challenge 28 days after the b...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - December 10, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Robert W. Cross, Rong Xu, Demetrius Matassov, Stefan Hamm, Theresa E. Latham, Cheryl S. Gerardi, Rebecca M. Nowak, Joan B. Geisbert, Ayuko Ota-Setlik, Krystle N. Agans, Amara Luckay, Susan E. Witko, Lena Soukieh, Daniel J. Deer, Chad E. Mire, Heinz Feldma Source Type: research

Molecular docking enabled updated screening of the matrix protein VP40 from Ebola virus with millions of compounds in the MCULE database for potential inhibitors.
We report a candidate lead (compound #5: ((10R)-10-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-11,12,14,16-tetraazatetracyclo[7.7.0.02,7.011,15] hexadeca-1(16), 2(7),3,5,8,12,14-heptaen-8-ol)) with high drug-likeness score, promising lead-likeness behaviour and high median lethal dose. The candidate lead compound #5 engages in hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions with VP40 active site residues. Thus, the lead compound #5 is recommended for further in vitro and in vivo validations for further consideration. PMID: 31787811 [PubMed] (Source: Bioinformation)
Source: Bioinformation - December 4, 2019 Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Odhar HA, Rayshan AM, Ahjel SW, Hashim AA, Albeer AAMA Tags: Bioinformation Source Type: research

Ebola vaccines were put to the test in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
As the outbreak wanes, one vaccine has been approved and another has entered the next phase of testing (Source: Chemical and Engineering News)
Source: Chemical and Engineering News - December 2, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Megha Satyanarayana Source Type: research

Developing vaccines against epidemic-prone emerging infectious diseases.
, Norheim G Abstract Today's world is characterized by increasing population density, human mobility, urbanization, and climate and ecological change. This global dynamic has various effects, including the increased appearance of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), which pose a growing threat to global health security.Outbreaks of EIDs, like the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa or the current Ebola outbreak in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), have not only put populations in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) at risk in terms of morbidity and mortality, but they also have had a significant impa...
Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz - November 27, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Bernasconi V, Kristiansen PA, Whelan M, Román RG, Bettis A, Yimer SA, Gurry C, Andersen SR, Yeskey D, Mandi H, Kumar A, Holst J, Clark C, Cramer JP, Røttingen JA, Hattchet R, Saville M, Norheim G Tags: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz Source Type: research

The exacerbation of Ebola outbreaks by conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo [Population Biology]
The interplay between civil unrest and disease transmission is not well understood. Violence targeting healthcare workers and Ebola treatment centers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has been thwarting the case isolation, treatment, and vaccination efforts. The extent to which conflict impedes public health response and contributes to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - November 26, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Chad R. Wells, Abhishek Pandey, Martial L. Ndeffo Mbah, Bernard–A. Gauzere, Denis Malvy, Burton H. Singer, Alison P. Galvani Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers in Pregnant Women and the Vaccine Landscape: Comparisons Between Yellow Fever, Ebola, and Lassa Fever
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAs research efforts have advanced to understand the pathophysiology of viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) and other epidemic viral infections and develop medical countermeasures such as vaccines, pregnant women have remained an underexamined subgroup. To better understand the implications of future outbreaks of VHF for pregnant women amidst an evolving vaccine landscape, we examine three pathogens —yellow fever, Ebola, and Lassa fever—each with different levels of evidence and understanding of disease in pregnancy and at varying stages of vaccine development.Recent FindingsThere are very li...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - November 26, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Maternal and Infant Death and the rVSV-ZEBOV Vaccine Through Three Recent Ebola Virus Epidemics-West Africa, DRC Équateur and DRC Kivu: 4 Years of Excluding Pregnant and Lactating Women and Their Infants from Immunization
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEbola virus infection has one of the highest overall case fatality rates of any viral disease. It has historically had an especially high case mortality rate among pregnant women and infants —greater than 90% for pregnant women in some outbreaks and close to 100 % in fetuses and newborns. The Merck recombinant vaccine against Ebola virus, termed rVSV-ZEBOV, underwent clinical trials during the 2013–2015 West Africa Ebola epidemic where it was found to be 100% efficacious. It was sub sequently used during the 2018 DRC Équateur outbreak and in the 2018 DRC Kivu Ebola which is still...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - November 26, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Ebola virus vaccine receives prequalification
Publication date: 23–29 November 2019Source: The Lancet, Volume 394, Issue 10212Author(s): Talha Burki (Source: The Lancet)
Source: The Lancet - November 23, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 4638: Exit and Entry Screening Practices for Infectious Diseases among Travelers at Points of Entry: Looking for Evidence on Public Health Impact
Hadjichristodoulou A scoping search and a systematic literature review were conducted to give an insight on entry and exit screening referring to travelers at points of entry, by analyzing published evidence on practices, guidelines, and experiences in the past 15 years worldwide. Grey literature, PubMed. and Scopus were searched using specific terms. Most of the available data identified through the systematic literature review concerned entry screening measures at airports. Little evidence is available about entry and exit screening measure implementation and effectiveness at ports and ground crossings. Exit screen...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - November 21, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Mouchtouri Christoforidou an der Heiden Lemos Fanos Rexroth Grote Belfroid Swaan Hadjichristodoulou Tags: Review Source Type: research

Vaccination strategies to control Ebola epidemics in the context of variable household inaccessibility levels
by Gerardo Chowell, Amna Tariq, Maria Kiskowski Despite a very effective vaccine, active conflict and community distrust during the ongoing DRC Ebola epidemic are undermining control efforts, including a ring vaccination strategy that requires the prompt immunization of close contacts of infected individuals. However, in April 2019, it was repo rted 20% or more of close contacts cannot be reached or refuse vaccination, and it is predicted that the ring vaccination strategy would not be effective with such a high level of inaccessibility. The vaccination strategy is now incorporating a “third ring” community-le...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - November 21, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gerardo Chowell Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 1067: Efficient Expression and Processing of Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Induces Morphological Changes in BmN Cells but Cannot Rescue Deficiency of Bombyx Mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus GP64
This study provides a better understanding of GP expression and processing in BmN cells, which may lay a foundation for EBOV-GP expression using the BmNPV baculovirus expression system. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - November 15, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Jinshan Huang Na Liu Fanbo Xu Ellen Ayepa Charles Amanze Luping Sun Yaqin Shen Miao Yang Shuwen Yang Xingjia Shen Bifang Hao Tags: Article Source Type: research

A big week for Ebola vaccines
Merck's Ebola vaccine gets approved while public health workers deploy Janssen's (Source: Chemical and Engineering News)
Source: Chemical and Engineering News - November 14, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Megha Satyanarayana Source Type: research

Ebola is now “preventable and treatable,” says WHO after approving vaccine in record time
(Source: BMJ News)
Source: BMJ News - November 13, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research