Maren Pills Improve Constipation via Regulating AQP3 and NF- κB Signaling Pathway in Slow Transit Constipation In Vitro and In Vivo.
Conclusion: These results suggest that the laxative effect of Maren pills is associated with the increased expression of AQP3 by downregulating NF-κB signal pathway. PMID: 32774435 [PubMed] (Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine)
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - August 14, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research

[ASAP] Solubility Determination and Preferential Solvation of Diphenoxylate in Aqueous Cosolvent Solutions of Ethanol, Acetonitrile, Methanol, and Isopropanol
Journal of Chemical& Engineering DataDOI: 10.1021/acs.jced.0c00267 (Source: Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data)
Source: Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data - June 15, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Wanxin Li †, Rong Xing†, Yiting Zhu†, Hongkun Zhao*‡, and Rongguan Lv*† Source Type: research

Laxative Effects of Yangyin Tongmi Capsule on a Model of Diphenoxylate-Induced Constipation in Mice.
Authors: Liu S, Sui D, Fu W, Yu X, Li Y, Wu X, Hou Y, Guo M, Xu H Abstract Constipation is characterized by reduced number of bowel movements, dry stools, and difficult defecation. Yangyin Tongmi capsule (YTC), a traditional Chinese formula, is used in the treatment of constipation, while the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Herein, this work attempted to prove the effects of YTC on constipation treatment and its possible mechanisms. KM mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10/group) and treated with double distilled water (Control), diphenoxylate (Model: 10 mg/kg), or diphenoxy...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - March 11, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research

Effects of electroacupuncture of different frequencies on electromyography, NOS and ICC of colon in rats with slow transit constipation
AbstractObjectiveTo observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) of different frequencies on transmission function, electromyography, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) content and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) expression of colon in rat models with slow transit constipation (STC).MethodsOf the 50 healthy male Wistar rats, 10 were randomly selected as a normal group and fed with ordinary diet, and the remaining 40 rats were fed with the diet added with the compound diphenoxylate at a dose of 8 mg/(kg ·bw) each day for continuous 120 d. The 40 successfully established STC rat models were randomly divided into a model ...
Source: Journal of Acupuncture and Tuina Science - February 1, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

In Silico Screening and Analysis of Broad-Spectrum Molecular Targets and Lead Compounds for Diarrhea Therapy.
In conclusion, bacteria DnaE gene or its protein is a highly promising molecular target for the next generation of antibacterial drugs of the class of N-coeleneterazine. PMID: 31695343 [PubMed] (Source: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights)
Source: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights - November 9, 2019 Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Ugboko HU, Nwinyi OC, Oranusi SU, Fatoki TH, Akinduti PA, Enibukun JM Tags: Bioinform Biol Insights Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 3813: The Manufacturing Process of Kiwifruit Fruit Powder with High Dietary Fiber and Its Laxative Effect
Liu Wang Zhao Kiwifruit is rich in vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and other functional components, and it has long been used as a functional food to treat intestinal ailments such as constipation. The current research made full use of the kiwifruit, the juice was prepared by microencapsulation, and the dietary fiber in kiwifruit pomace was modified by enzymatic hydrolysis and grinding, then, the two were mixed to obtain an ultra-micro kiwifruit powder (UKP). In addition, the laxative effect of the UKP was verified by a diphenoxylate induced constipated mice model. The results demonstrated that compared with t...
Source: Molecules - October 23, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Zhuang Chen Niu Qu Ji Duan Liu Liu Wang Zhao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Antimotility agents for the treatment of acute noninfectious diarrhea in critically ill patients: A practice management guideline from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma
CONCLUSION Loperamide and diphenoxylate/atropine are conditionally recommended to be used in critically ill patients with acute noninfectious diarrhea. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Systematic Review/Guidelines, level III. (Source: The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care)
Source: The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care - October 1, 2019 Category: Orthopaedics Tags: GUIDELINES Source Type: research

Long‐Term Safety Experience with Telotristat Ethyl Across Five Clinical Studies in Patients with Carcinoid Syndrome
Conclusion.Based on long‐term safety data, telotristat ethyl is well tolerated and has a favorable long‐term safety profile in patients with carcinoid syndrome.Implications for Practice.Carcinoid syndrome can cause persistent diarrhea, even in patients treated with somatostatin analogs. Across five clinical trials in patients with carcinoid syndrome, telotristat ethyl has been well tolerated and efficacious, providing clinicians with a new approach to help control carcinoid syndrome diarrhea, in addition to somatostatin analog therapy. By reducing the stool frequency in patients with carcinoid syndrome whose diarrhea i...
Source: The Oncologist - August 14, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lowell B. Anthony, Matthew H. Kulke, Martyn E. Caplin, Emily Bergsland, Kȷell Oberg, Marianne Pavel, Dieter Horsch, Richard R.P. Warner, Thomas M. O'Dorisio, Joseph S. Dillon, Pablo Lapuerta, Kenneth Kassler-Taub, Wenȷun Jiang Tags: Symptom Management and Supportive Care, Endocrinology Source Type: research

Efficacy of High Specific Volume Polysaccharide - A New Type of Dietary Fiber - On Molecular Mechanism of Intestinal Water Metabolism in Rats With Constipation.
CONCLUSIONS HSVP improved constipation, increased the number of intestinal bacteria, and elevated expression of the VIP-cAMP-PKA-AQP3 signaling pathway. The mechanism of HSVP in regulating intestinal water metabolism in constipated rats may occur through the VIP-cAMP-PKA-AQP3 signaling pathway, and be closely related to changes in intestinal bacteria. The important role of the brain-gut-microbiome axis in the pathogenesis of constipation has been confirmed in this study. PMID: 31280283 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)
Source: Medical Science Monitor - July 8, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research

Colonic electrical stimulation promotes colonic motility through regeneration of myenteric plexus neurons in slow transit constipation beagles.
Abstract Slow transit constipation (STC) is a common disease characterized by markedly delayed colonic transit time as a result of colonic motility dyfunction. It is well established that STC is mostly caused by disorders of relevant nerves, especially the enteric nervous system (ENS). Colonic electrical stimulation (CES) has been regarded as a valuable alternative for the treatment of STC. However, little report focuses on the underlying nervous mechanism to normalize the delayed colonic emptying and relieve symptoms. In the present study, the therapeutic effect and the influence on ENS triggered by CES were inve...
Source: Bioscience Reports - May 7, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Wang Y, Wang Q, Kuerban K, Dong M, Qi F, Li G, Ling J, Qiu W, Zhang W, Ye L Tags: Biosci Rep Source Type: research

Safety and Efficacy of Anti-PD-1 Monoclonal Antibodies in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Lymphoma: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Clinic Trails
Hui Zhou, Xiaoyan Fu, Qian Li and Ting Niu* Department of Hematology and Research Laboratory of Hematology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China Background: Immune checkpoint inhibition therapy with monoclonal antibody against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), including nivolumab and pembrolizumab, has demonstrated powerful clinical efficacy in the treatment of advanced cancers. However, there is no evidence-based systematic review on the safety and efficacy of anti-PD-1 antibody in treating lymphoma. Methods: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of nivolumab/pembrolizumab, we analyzed clin...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - May 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis ameliorates diphenoxylate-induced constipation symptoms in mice.
This study found that the average molecular weight of PSP was 29, 600 Da, and mainly monosaccharides of PSP were rhamnose (24.7%), glucose (16.15%) and galactose (13.32%). The beneficial effects of PSP treatment include defecation improvement, increase of AchE activity, reduction of NO concentration, renovation of the damaged intestinal villus and affection on the expression of some related genes in the constipated mice. In addition, PSP had significant effects on the gut microbiota, showing the enhancement in abundance of beneficial bacteria including Akkermansia, Lactobacillus, Butyricimonas, Candidatus Arthromitus and...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - May 1, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ma H, Xiong H, Zhu X, Ji C, Xue J, Li R, Ge B, Cui H Tags: Int J Biol Macromol Source Type: research

Effect of Konjac mannan oligosaccharides on diphenoxylate-induced constipation in mice
Publication date: June 2019Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 57Author(s): Xiaoyan Liu, Sai Chen, Qiaojuan Yan, Yanxiao Li, Zhengqiang JiangAbstractThe effects of Konjac mannan oligosaccharides (KMOS) on diphenoxylate-induced constipation in mice were investigated in the present study. After administration with KMOS at 1800 mg/kg·bw, the weight and number of black feces within 24 h, and the gastrointestinal transit ratio were distinctly increased by 96.8%, 156.5% and 45.3%, respectively. Furthermore, KMOS regulated the levels of enteric nervous system parameters, including motilin, somatostatin, substan...
Source: Journal of Functional Foods - April 24, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Long-Term Safety Experience with Telotristat Ethyl Across Five Clinical Studies in Patients with Carcinoid Syndrome.
CONCLUSION: Based on long-term safety data, telotristat ethyl is well tolerated and has a favorable long-term safety profile in patients with carcinoid syndrome. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Carcinoid syndrome can cause persistent diarrhea, even in patients treated with somatostatin analogs. Across five clinical trials in patients with carcinoid syndrome, telotristat ethyl has been well tolerated and efficacious, providing clinicians with a new approach to help control carcinoid syndrome diarrhea, in addition to somatostatin analog therapy. By reducing the stool frequency in patients with carcinoid syndrome whose diarrh...
Source: The Oncologist - January 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Anthony LB, Kulke MH, Caplin ME, Bergsland E, Öberg K, Pavel M, Hörsch D, Warner RRP, O'Dorisio TM, Dillon JS, Lapuerta P, Kassler-Taub K, Jiang W Tags: Oncologist Source Type: research

What Is This International Traveler's Diagnosis?
​BY GREGORY TAYLOR, DO; DAWN ZELENKA-JOSHOWITZ, DO; & ANDREW TAECKER, DOA 34-year-old man presented with intermittent fever and body aches for 10 days. He had been visiting family in India, and the symptoms began when he returned home. His fever had been as high as 104°F, and he was experiencing nausea, two episodes of bilious emesis, body aches, nonspecific abdominal pain, and multiple episodes of watery, nonbloody diarrhea.He said he knew of no tuberculosis exposure or ill contacts, and he was current on his routine influenza and hepatitis A vaccines. His temperature was 101.4°F (he had taken acetaminophen ...
Source: The Case Files - December 12, 2018 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Blog Posts Source Type: research

Herbal medicines in Iran advertised as opioid withdrawal drugs - analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
ConclusionsNearly all of the handmade and illegally distributed herbal medicines for the treatment of drug withdrawal contained at least one opioid or illegal drug, indicating that there was evidence of adulteration and highlighting the dangers to users. It is important to raise awareness of people, particularly warning them against the use of such products sold by herbal shops for the treatment of addiction. (Source: European Journal of Integrative Medicine)
Source: European Journal of Integrative Medicine - December 3, 2018 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Electroacupuncture combined with qibei mixture for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: A randomized controlled trial
Publication date: March 2018Source: World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion, Volume 28, Issue 1Author(s): Chaoxian ZHANG, Like GUO, Yuyu WANG, Lili ZHANG, Tingmin CHANGAbstractObjectiveTo explore the short and long-term efficacy of combining electroacupuncture (EA) and Qibei mixture in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBSD).MethodsSix hundred and forty-four patients with confirmed IBSD from the Department of Gastroenterology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University in China, recruited from July 2012 to June 2016, were randomly divided into four groups, the EA group, Qibei mixture group, co...
Source: World Journal of Acupuncture Moxibustion - July 10, 2018 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of bisacodyl on rats with slow transit constipation.
Abstract The effect of bisacodyl on the treatment of rats with slow transit constipation (STC) was studied. Forty-five female Wister rats were divided into control group, STC group, and STC bisacodyl group. The immunohistochemical method was used to determine interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and the expression of c-Kit protein. Body mass and the number of defecations were significantly decreased in the STC group compared with the control group on the 100th day after diphenoxylate administration, while dry weight of feces was significantly increased and the intestinal transit time was prolonged. There were signifi...
Source: Braz J Med Biol Res - May 31, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Wang YB, Ling J, Zhang WZ, Li G, Qiu W, Zheng JH, Zhao XH Tags: Braz J Med Biol Res Source Type: research

[ASAP] Bacterial Cellulose Relieves Diphenoxylate-Induced Constipation in Rats
Journal of Agricultural and Food ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b00385 (Source: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry)
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry - April 16, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Xichuan Zhai, Dehui Lin, Yan Zhao, Xingbin Yang Source Type: research

Electroacupuncture combined with Qibei mixture for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial
Conclusion EA and Qibei mixture can decrease defecation frequencies, improve stool properties, and alleviate accompanying symptoms to increase life quality, but the therapeutic effect of combination therapy is greater, with better reliability and long-term efficacy. (Source: World Journal of Acupuncture Moxibustion)
Source: World Journal of Acupuncture Moxibustion - March 17, 2018 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Yangyin Runchang Decoction Improves Intestinal Motility in Mice with Atropine/Diphenoxylate-Induced Slow-Transit Constipation.
This study assessed the efficacy and mechanism of action of Yangyin Runchang decoction (YRD) in the treatment of slow-transit constipation (STC). ICR mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10/group) and treated with saline (normal control; NC), atropine/diphenoxylate (model control; MC; 20 mg/kg), or atropine/diphenoxylate plus low-dose YRD (L-YRD; 29.6 g/kg) or high-dose YRD (H-YRD; 59.2 g/kg). Intestinal motility was assessed by evaluating feces and the intestinal transit rate (ITR). The serum level of stem cell factor (SCF) and changes in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) were also evalua...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - February 8, 2018 Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research

Character and laxative activity of polysaccharides isolated from Dendrobium officinale
Publication date: July 2017 Source:Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 34 Author(s): Dandan Luo, Cao Qu, Guosheng Lin, Zhenbiao Zhang, Jianhui Xie, Hanbin Chen, Jiali Liang, Cailan Li, Hongfeng Wang, Ziren Su Dendrobium officinale was separated into total polysaccharides (DOP) and supernatant (DOS) to investigate the laxative ingredients and mechanism in normal and constipated mice induced by diphenoxylate or water fasting. The molecular weight and components of DOP were determined by HPGPC, HPLC and LC-MS. DOP was mainly composed of d-mannose (59.19mg/g) and d-glucose (830.98mg/g), with a molecular weight of 8404Da. DOP ...
Source: Journal of Functional Foods - April 24, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Total Glucosides of Paeony Promote Intestinal Motility in Slow Transit Constipation Rats through Amelioration of Interstitial Cells of Cajal
ConclusionThe analysis of our data indicated that the TGP could obviously attenuate STC through improving the function of ICC and blocking the inhibitory neurotransmitters such as NO, NOS and VIP. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - August 1, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Feiye Zhu Source Type: research

Proactive management strategies for potential gastrointestinal adverse reactions with ceritinib in patients with advanced ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer
Eric S Schaefer,1 Christina Baik2 1Section of Medical Oncology, Highlands Oncology Group, Fayetteville, AR, 2Department of Medicine, Medical Oncology Division, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene fusions occur in 3%–7% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. Ceritinib, a once-daily, oral ALK inhibitor, has activity against crizotinib-resistant and crizotinib-naïve NSCLC, including brain metastases. Ceritinib (Zykadia™) was granted accelerated approval by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2014 for treating crizotinib-resista...
Source: Cancer Management and Research - March 24, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Cancer Management and Research Source Type: research

Diarrhea and Weight Loss in a 67-Year-Old Man
Question: A 67-year-old man with hypertension presented with 2 months of progressive diarrhea and weight loss. Initially he developed episodes of projectile, nonbilious emesis followed by diarrhea consisting of 4–6 watery bowel movements per day with associated weight loss of 20 pounds. He denied anorexia, overt gastrointestinal bleeding, fever, chills, or flushing. His medications included diphenoxylate atropine and cholestyramine for diarrhea. He had no smoking history and alcohol use was minimal. (Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 16, 2015 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Badr Al-Bawardy, Seth Sweetser Tags: Clinical Challenges and Images in GI Source Type: research

The efficacy of the natural clay, Calcium Aluminosilicate Anti-Diarrheal (CASAD), in reducing medullary thyroid cancer-related diarrhea and its effects on quality of life: a pilot study.
CONCLUSIONS: CASAD is a promising strategy for treatment of MTC-related diarrhea. In this small pilot study, improvements in frequency and quality of diarrhea as well as QOL were noted. Further studies in this population are warranted. PMID: 26200040 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association)
Source: Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association - July 26, 2015 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Thyroid Source Type: research

Opioids for agitation in dementia.
CONCLUSIONS: We found insufficient evidence to establish the clinical efficacy and safety of opioids for agitation in people with dementia. There remains a lack of data to determine if or when opioids either relieve or exacerbate agitation. More evidence is needed to guide the effective, appropriate and safe use of opioids in dementia. PMID: 25972091 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 14, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Brown R, Howard R, Candy B, Sampson EL Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

[Treatment of diarrhea with loperamide in palliative medicine : A systematic review].
er W Abstract Diarrhea is a distressing symptom which limits the quality of life in patients receiving palliative care and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In patients with AIDS, it is a more common problem than for other entities (e.g., cancer). Loperamide is considered the first choice medication for the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. This literature review examines the efficacy of loperamide in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea in palliative care. Two databases (Medline and Embase) were searched through June 2012. A total of 286 studies were identified, but only 7 met the inclu...
Source: Schmerz - April 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Pastrana T, Meißner W Tags: Schmerz Source Type: research

Capsule Endoscopy in Whipple's Disease
A 70-year-old man with a history of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis and iron deficiency anemia was admitted to our hospital with severe diarrhea and weight loss. The diarrhea had been intermittent for 2 years and had started when he was treated with infliximab for arthritis. It had progressively increased in severity to 12–20 bowel movements per day on presentation despite loperamide and atropine/diphenoxylate. The patient had been admitted to the hospital several times previously for dehydration. His prior work-up had included upper endoscopy, colonoscopy with biopsies, serum testing for celiac disease, stool stud...
Source: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology - February 1, 2013 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jason de Roulet, Medhat O. Hassan, Linda C. Cummings Tags: Images of the Month Source Type: research