Evaluation of bronchodialatory and antimicrobial activities of Otostegia fruticosa: A multi-mechanistic approach
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: Saudi Pharmaceutical JournalAuthor(s): Mohd Nazam Ansari, Najeeb Ur Rehman, Aman Karim, Tiegsti Bahta, Khalil Y. Abujheisha, Syed Rizwan Ahamad, Faisal ImamAbstractOtostegia fruticosa, a plant belonging to the family Lamiaceae, is endemic to Ethiopia. In Ethiopian traditional medicine, O. fruticosa has been used for the treatment of several respiratory-related disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the bronchodilatory and antimicrobial activities of O. fruticosa leaves crude extract (Of.Cr). Ex-vivo experiments were conducted on guinea-pig trachea pro...
Source: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal - February 12, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Bronchodilator and antimicrobial activities of Otostegia fruticose: A multi-mechanistic approach
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: Saudi Pharmaceutical JournalAuthor(s): Mohd Nazam Ansari, Najeeb-ur Rehman, Aman Karim, Tiegsti Bahta, Khalil Y. Abujheisha, Syed Rizwan Ahamad, Faisal ImamAbstractOtostegia fruticose, a plant belonging to the family Lamiaceae, is endemic to Ethiopia. In Ethiopian traditional medicine, O. fruticose has been used for the treatment of several respiratory-related disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the bronchodilator and antimicrobial activities of O. fruticose leaves crude extract (Of.Cr). Ex-vivo experiments were conducted on guinea-pig trachea prov...
Source: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal - February 1, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Problematic dicyclomine use: A case report and narrative review.
Authors: Singh VV, Gupta S, Sarkar S, Chatterjee B PMID: 31864128 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Asian Journal of Psychiatry)
Source: Asian Journal of Psychiatry - December 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Asian J Psychiatr Source Type: research

Prescription drug suicide in non-abusers: A 6-year forensic survey.
CONCLUSIONS: It is reassuring that the absolute number of prescription drug suicides in non-abusers was small; the findings, however, are important because they could serve as a baseline for assessing time trends in future studies. For the present, we suggest that prescription drugs of potential abuse, especially those containing opioids and antispasmodics, should be prescribed and dispensed judiciously, especially to youth. PMID: 31374376 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Asian Journal of Psychiatry)
Source: Asian Journal of Psychiatry - August 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Asian J Psychiatr Source Type: research

Probable association of acute pancreatitis with dicyclomine.
Abstract PMID: 30459133 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: The Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology - November 19, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Kaako A Tags: Turk J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 23, Pages 2734: A Metabolomic and HPLC-MS/MS Analysis of the Foliar Phenolics, Flavonoids and Coumarins of the Fraxinus Species Resistant and Susceptible to Emerald Ash Borer
-Zaid The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, Fairmaire, an Asian invasive alien buprestid has devastated tens of millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Foliar phytochemicals of the genus Fraxinus (Oleaceae): Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Green ash), F. americana (White ash), F. profunda (Bush) Bush. (Pumpkin ash), F. quadrangulata Michx. (Blue ash), F. nigra Marsh. (Black ash) and F. mandshurica (Manchurian ash) were investigated using HPLC-MS/MS and untargeted metabolomics. HPLC-MS/MS help identified 26 compounds, including phenolics, flavonoids and coumarins in varying amounts. Hydroxycoumarins,...
Source: Molecules - October 23, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Sohail S. Qazi Domenic A. Lombardo Mamdouh M. Abou-Zaid Tags: Article Source Type: research

Dietary modifications for infantile colic.
CONCLUSIONS: Currently, evidence of the effectiveness of dietary modifications for the treatment of infantile colic is sparse and at significant risk of bias. The few available studies had small sample sizes, and most had serious limitations. There were insufficient studies, thus limiting the use of meta-analysis. Benefits reported for hydrolysed formulas were inconsistent.Based on available evidence, we are unable to recommend any intervention. Future studies of single interventions, using clinically significant outcome measures, and appropriate design and power are needed. PMID: 30306546 [PubMed - as supplied by pub...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - October 10, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Gordon M, Biagioli E, Sorrenti M, Lingua C, Moja L, Banks SS, Ceratto S, Savino F Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Infantile Colic: An Update.
CONCLUSION: Counseling of parents about the benign nature of the condition is considered first line for now until an effective treatment is established. Other treatment options are prescribed on a case-based manner and parental perception of the condition. PMID: 29941700 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Indian Pediatrics)
Source: Indian Pediatrics - June 13, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sarasu JM, Narang M, Shah D Tags: Indian Pediatr Source Type: research

Exposure to far-infrared rays attenuates methamphetamine-induced recognition memory impairment via modulation of the muscarinic M1 receptor, Nrf2, and PKC
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 116 Author(s): Huynh Nhu Mai, Naveen Sharma, Eun-Joo Shin, Bao Trong Nguyen, Phuong Tram Nguyen, Ji Hoon Jeong, Choon-Gon Jang, Eun-Hee Cho, Seung-Yeol Nah, Nam Hun Kim, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Hyoung-Chun Kim We demonstrated that activation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) and inactivation of the glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1)-dependent systems are critical for methamphetamine (MA)-induced recognition memory impairment. We also demonstrated that exposure to far-infrared rays (FIR) causes induction of the glutathione (GSH)-dependent system, incl...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dual mechanisms of anti-muscarinic and Ca++ antagonistic activities to validate the folkloric uses of Cyperus niveus Retz. as antispasmodic and antidiarrheal
Conclusion This study shows the presence of antidiarrheal and spasmolytic activities in Cyperus niveus Retz. extract, mediated by dual blocking mechanisms of muscarinic receptors and Ca2+ channels. The results further indicate the presence of anti-emetic activity in Cn. Cr, which may be because of its anti-muscarinic potential. This study provides the scientific bases to the traditional use of Cn. Cr in diarrhea and emesis. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology)
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - December 5, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pharmacological Evaluation of Gut Modulatory and Bronchodilator Activities of Achyranthes aspera Linn.
This study suggests the presence of dose‐specific laxative and antidiarrheal effects in A. aspera, possibly mediated through cyproheptadine‐sensitive receptors and dual cholinergic and calcium channel blockade, respectively. The latter combination is also a suggested mechanism underlying its bronchodilator effect. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (Source: Phytotherapy Research)
Source: Phytotherapy Research - August 1, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Hafiz Muhammad Abdur Rahman, Samra Bashir, Safur Rehman Mandukhail, Sohaib Huda, Anwarul Hassan Gilani Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Obalon Balloon System - Another Gastric Balloon for Weight Loss
Date: June 19, 2017 Issue #:  1523Summary:  The FDA has approved theObalon Balloon System (Obalon), a swallowable intragastric gas-filled balloon device, to facilitate weight loss in adults with a body mass index (BMI) of 30-40 kg/m2 who have not been able to lose weight through diet and exercise. Two other gastric balloon devices,ReShape andOrbera, were approved earlier. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - May 31, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: AspireAssist bentyl Bentylol dicyclomine Maestro Rechargeable System Obalon Balloon System ondansetron Orbera Proton pump inhibitors ReShape Weight loss Zofran Source Type: research

A pharmacological evidence for the presence of antihistaminic and anticholinergic activities in Equisetum debile Roxb
Conclusion: Study provides pharmacological evidence for the presence of antihistaminic and anticholinergic activities in crude extracts of E. debile and also highlight its medicinal significance in the management of airway and gastrointestinal disorders. (Source: Indian Journal of Pharmacology)
Source: Indian Journal of Pharmacology - February 27, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shahrukh Ali Muhammad Ovais Omer Mueen Ahmad Chaudhry Muhammad Ashraf Allah Bukhsh Source Type: research

M1 muscarinic receptors are necessary for retrieval of remote context fear memory
Publication date: Available online 7 December 2016 Source:Physiology & Behavior Author(s): Rafael Rodisanski Patricio, Juliana Carlota Kramer Soares, Maria Gabriela Menezes Oliveira Several studies have investigated the transition of consolidation of recent memory to remote memory in aversively motivated tasks, such as contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and inhibitory avoidance (IA). However, the mechanisms that serve the retrieval of remote memories, has not yet been fully understood. Some evidences suggest that the central cholinergic system appears be involved in the modulation of these processes. Therefore, th...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 7, 2016 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Differential receptor dependencies: expression and significance of muscarinic M1 receptors in the biology of prostate cancer
This study shows that the type 1 acetylcholine muscarinic receptor (CHRM1) contributes toward the proliferation and growth of prostate cancer. We used growth and cytotoxic assays, the prostate cancer microarray database and CHRM downstream pathways’ homology of CHRM subtypes to uncover multiple signals leading to the growth of prostate cancer. Growth assays showed that pilocarpine stimulates the proliferation of prostate cancer. Moreover, it shows that carbachol exerts an additional agonistic action on nicotinic cholinergic receptor of prostate cancer cells that can be blocked by tubocurarine. With the use of selecti...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - December 1, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Pain-relieving agents for infantile colic.
CONCLUSIONS: At the present time, evidence of the effectiveness of pain-relieving agents for the treatment of infantile colic is sparse and prone to bias. The few available studies included small sample sizes, and most had serious limitations. Benefits, when reported, were inconsistent.We found no evidence to support the use of simethicone as a pain-relieving agent for infantile colic.Available evidence shows that herbal agents, sugar, dicyclomine and cimetropium bromide cannot be recommended for infants with colic.Investigators must conduct RCTs using standardised measures that allow comparisons among pain-relieving agent...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - September 16, 2016 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Biagioli E, Tarasco V, Lingua C, Moja L, Savino F Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

The Prokinetic, Laxative, and Antidiarrheal Effects of Morus nigra: Possible Muscarinic, Ca2+ Channel Blocking, and Antimuscarinic Mechanisms
This study demonstrates gut modulatory properties of M. nigra. The prokinetic, laxative, and antidiarrheal activities of M. nigra were assessed in mice, while isolated rabbit jejunum and guinea‐pig ileum were used to explore insight into mechanism(s). At 30 and 70 mg/kg, the crude extract of M. nigra (Mn.Cr) exhibited atropine‐sensitive prokinetic and laxative effects, similar to carbachol (CCh). While at higher doses (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg), Mn.Cr offered protection against castor oil‐induced diarrhea. In rabbit jejunum, Mn.Cr and its chloroform fraction inhibited CCh‐induced c...
Source: Phytotherapy Research - May 27, 2016 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Anam Akhlaq, Malik Hassan Mehmood, Abdul Rehman, Zohaib Ashraf, Sadia Syed, Samira Ahmed Bawany, Anwarul‐Hassan Gilani, Maimoona Ilyas, Bina Shaheen Siddiqui Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Proactive management strategies for potential gastrointestinal adverse reactions with ceritinib in patients with advanced ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer
Eric S Schaefer,1 Christina Baik2 1Section of Medical Oncology, Highlands Oncology Group, Fayetteville, AR, 2Department of Medicine, Medical Oncology Division, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene fusions occur in 3%–7% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. Ceritinib, a once-daily, oral ALK inhibitor, has activity against crizotinib-resistant and crizotinib-naïve NSCLC, including brain metastases. Ceritinib (Zykadia™) was granted accelerated approval by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2014 for treating crizotinib-resista...
Source: Cancer Management and Research - March 24, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Cancer Management and Research Source Type: research

Effects of the M1 muscarinic antagonist dicyclomine on emotional memory retrieval.
Extensive research has shown the involvement of the central cholinergic system in the acquisition and consolidation of tasks involving conditioned fear responses, such as those observed in contextual fear conditioning (CFC), tone fear conditioning (TFC) and inhibitory avoidance (IA). However, there are few data concerning the role of this system in the memory retrieval process. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the effects of the administration of an M1 antagonist on retrieval during these tasks. For each behavioral procedure, groups of male Wistar rats were trained. Twenty-four hr later, they were treated with...
Source: Behavioral Neuroscience - November 30, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Soares, Juliana Carlota Kramer; Perfetto, Juliano Genaro; Antonio, Bruno Brito; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Menezes Source Type: research

Novel Therapies in IBS-D Treatment
Opinion statement Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disease characterized by abdominal pain and change in bowel habits. IBS diarrhea predominant (IBS-D), which is arguably the most common subset of IBS, is also associated with rectal urgency, increased frequency, abdominal bloating, and loose to watery stools. Current treatments for diarrhea include mu-opioid agonists (i.e., loperamide, lomotil) and bile acid sequestrants (i.e., cholestyramine) while treatments for abdominal pain include antispasmodics (i.e., hyoscyamine, dicyclomine) and tricyclic antidepressants (i.e., amitriptyline). T...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology - October 2, 2015 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Infantile Colic: Recognition and Treatment.
Abstract Infantile colic is a benign process in which an infant has paroxysms of inconsolable crying for more than three hours per day, more than three days per week, for longer than three weeks. It affects approximately 10% to 40% of infants worldwide and peaks at around six weeks of age, with symptoms resolving by three to six months of age. The incidence is equal between sexes, and there is no correlation with type of feeding (breast vs. bottle), gestational age, or socioeconomic status. The cause of infantile colic is not known; proposed causes include alterations in fecal microflora, intolerance to cow's milk...
Source: American Family Physician - October 1, 2015 Category: Primary Care Authors: Johnson JD, Cocker K, Chang E Tags: Am Fam Physician Source Type: research

The Charms of the CHRM Receptors: Apoptotic and Amoebicidal effects of Dicyclomine on Acanthamoeba castellanii.
Abstract G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are conserved amongst the eukaryotic cells are known to perform vital functions. Recently, anticholinergic drugs that target muscarinic cholinergic receptors have been found to kill pathogenic protists like Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Naegleria fowleri. Because of these effects, it was logical to expect a primeval cholinergic counterpart of this receptor on Acanthamoeba. Bioinformatics searches were made at data banks of Acanthamoeba genome and proteome. Immunostaining was done by using anti-human muscarinic M-1 antibody. Incubation assays were performed u...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - August 10, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Baig AM Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Pharmacological justification of use of Solena heterophylla Lour. in gastrointestinal, respiratory and vascular disorders
Conclusions: The observed relaxant effect may be outcome of anti-muscarinic and Ca2+ channel blocking activities. The Sh.Cr (0.03-1.0 mg/ml) against phenyephrine (1 μM)- and K+(80 mM)-induced contractions in isolated rabbit aortic preparations exerted a relaxant effect, possibly through Ca2+ channel blocking activity. These findings provide a rationale for the folkloric uses of the plant in the management of ailments pertaining to gastrointestinal, respiratory and vascular system. (Source: Journal of Translational Medicine)
Source: Journal of Translational Medicine - April 30, 2015 Category: Research Authors: Khalid JanbazTashfeen AkhtarFatima SaqibImran ImranMuhammad Zia-Ul-HaqChaweeewan JansakulVincenzo De FeoMarius Moga Source Type: research

Potentially Inappropriate Anticholinergic Medication Use in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A National Cross-Sectional Study
Conclusion The study found that approximately one in ten older adults used potentially inappropriate anticholinergic medications. Several predisposing, enabling and need factors were associated with the use of potentially inappropriate anticholinergic medications. Concerted efforts are needed to optimize potentially inappropriate anticholinergic medication use in older adults. (Source: Drugs and Aging)
Source: Drugs and Aging - April 1, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic method for estimation of dicyclomine hydrochloride, mefenamic acid and paracetamol in tablets
DA Shah, Jainika P Rana, Usmangani K Chhalotiya, SL Baldania, KK BhattIndian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2014 76(6):529-534Liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous quantitative determination of dicyclomine hydrochloride, mefenamic acid and paracetamol in their combined dosage form. The separation was achieved using a C 18 column (250×4.6 mm id, 5 μm) using acetonitrile:20 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate 70:30 (v/v) adjusted to pH 4 using orthophosphoric acid as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml/min and detection at 220 nm. Separation was completed within 12 min. The retention times ...
Source: Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences - December 17, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: DA ShahJainika P RanaUsmangani K ChhalotiyaSL BaldaniaKK Bhatt Source Type: research

Pharmacological Basis for Medicinal Use of Lens culinaris in Gastrointestinal and Respiratory Disorders
Crude extract of Lens culinaris (Lc.Cr), which tested positive for presence of anthraquinones, flavonoids, saponins, sterol, tannins, and terpenes exhibited protective effect against castor oil‐induced diarrhea in mice at 100–1000 mg/kg. In rabbit jejunum preparations, Lc.Cr caused relaxation of spontaneous contractions at 0.03–5.0 mg/mL. Lc.Cr inhibited carbachol (CCh, 1 μM) and K+ (80 mM)‐induced contractions in a pattern similar to dicyclomine, but different from verapamil and atropine. Lc.Cr shifted the Ca++ concentration‐response curves to the right, like dicyclomine an...
Source: Phytotherapy Research - March 1, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Munasib Khan, Arif‐ullah Khan, Najeeb‐ur‐ Rehman, Anwarul‐Hassan Gilani Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Homeopathy for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.
CONCLUSIONS: A pooled analysis of two small studies suggests a possible benefit for clinical homeopathy, using the remedy asafoetida, over placebo for people with constipation-predominant IBS. These results should be interpreted with caution due to the low quality of reporting in these trials, high or unknown risk of bias, short-term follow-up, and sparse data. One small study found no statistically difference between individualised homeopathy and usual care (defined as high doses of dicyclomine hydrochloride, faecal bulking agents and diet sheets advising a high fibre diet). No conclusions can be drawn from this study due...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - November 13, 2013 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Peckham EJ, Nelson EA, Greenhalgh J, Cooper K, Roberts ER, Agrawal A Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

IL-6 attenuates trimethyltin-induced cognitive dysfunction via activation of JAK2/STAT3, M1 mAChR and ERK signaling network.
Abstract We previously reported that interleukin (IL)-6 deficiency potentiates trimethyltin (TMT)-induced convulsive neurotoxicity. The purpose in this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism by which cytokines affect TMT-induced cognitive impairment. To accomplish this, we examined hippocampal changes in Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling in relation to cholinergic parameters after TMT treatment in mice genetically deficient in IL-6 (IL-6(-/-)), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α(-/-)), or interferon-γ (IFN-γ(-/-)). The IL-6(-/-)...
Source: Cellular Signalling - May 24, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Kim BK, Tran HY, Shin EJ, Lee C, Chung YH, Jeong JH, Bach JH, Kim WK, Park DH, Saito K, Nabeshima T, Kim HC Tags: Cell Signal Source Type: research

Effects of muscarinic agents on chick choroids in intact eyes and eyecups: evidence for a muscarinic mechanism in choroidal thinning
Abstract PurposeIn chicks, ocular growth inhibition is associated with choroidal thickening and growth stimulation with choroidal thinning, suggesting a mechanistic link between the two responses. Because muscarinic antagonists inhibit the development of myopia in animal models by a non‐accommodative mechanism, we tested the hypothesis that agonists would stimulate eye growth and thin the choroid. We also hypothesized that the effective growth‐inhibiting antagonists would thicken the choroid. MethodsChicks, age 12–16 days, were used. In vivo: Agonists: Single intravitreal injections (20 μL) of oxotre...
Source: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics - May 12, 2013 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Debora L Nickla, Xiaoying Zhu, Josh Wallman Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Comparison of the pattern, efficacy, and tolerability of self-medicated drugs in primary dysmenorrhea: A questionnaire based survey
Conclusions: The prevailing self-medication practices were inappropriate in a substantial proportion of women with inadequate knowledge regarding appropriate drug choice, therapeutic doses, and their associated side effects. (Source: Indian Journal of Pharmacology)
Source: Indian Journal of Pharmacology - March 11, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ramya SugumarVasundara KrishnaiahGokul Shetty ChannaveeraShilpa Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research