Evaluation of Serum Cryptococcal Antigen Testing Using Two Novel Semiquantitative Lateral Flow Assays in Persons with Cryptococcal Antigenemia [Mycology]
Early cryptococcal disease can be detected via circulating antigen in blood before fulminant meningitis develops, when early antifungal therapy improves survival. Two semiquantitative cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) lateral flow assays (LFAs) have been developed, but their diagnostic performance has not been defined. Cryopreserved serum samples from HIV-infected Ugandans obtained as part of a prospective CrAg-screening cohort were tested in duplicate for CrAg by the CrAgSQ (IMMY) and CryptoPS (Biosynex) lateral flow assays. Case-controlled diagnostic performance was measured using the FDA-approved CrAg LFA (IMMY) as a referenc...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - March 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Skipper, C., Tadeo, K., Martyn, E., Nalintya, E., Rajasingham, R., Meya, D. B., Kafufu, B., Rhein, J., Boulware, D. R. Tags: Mycology Source Type: research

Disseminated cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent patient. A case report.
Authors: Esteller D, Llansó L, Escoda O PMID: 32173074 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medicina Clinica)
Source: Medicina Clinica - March 18, 2020 Category: General Medicine Tags: Med Clin (Barc) Source Type: research

Antifungal Susceptibility of Clinical Isolates and Artificially Produced Multi-azole-resistant Strains of Cryptococcus neoformans (formerly: Cryptococcus grubii) to Ravuconazole.
Authors: Kano R, Sugita T, Kamata H Abstract Ravuconazole (RVCZ) is a newly available human azole drug in Japan since 2018 and is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent that exhibits excellent activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans (formerly: Cryptococcus grubii). The drug is also highly active against isolates that are resistant to fluconazole (FLCZ). In the present study, the in vitro susceptibility to ravuconazole (RVCZ) of Japanese clinical isolates and multi-azole-resistant strains of C. neoformans was investigated using the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A3 test. Th...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - March 4, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

Disseminated cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent patient
Publication date: Available online 3 March 2020Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Rahul Bollam, Mohamed Yassin, Tung Phan (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - March 4, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Disseminated Cryptococcosis in a Young Immunocompetent Male
We present an immunocompetent patient with disseminated cryptococcosis and extensive bone marrow involvement. (Source: Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion)
Source: Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion - March 3, 2020 Category: Hematology Source Type: research

Necrotizing fungal osteomyelitis and fingolimodNecrotizing fungal osteomyelitis, 4 years after treatment with fingolimod
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related DisordersAuthor(s): Mohammad Hossein Harirchian, Maryam Poursadeghfard, Alireza Sadeghipour, Hoda Kamali, Payam SarrafAbstractFingolimod has been the first approved oral medication in MS for its relapsing remitting type. It is a non-selective sphingosine1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator on lymphocytes. Engagement of this receptor blocks the T cells and B cells migration from the lymph nodes into the inflamed central nervous system (CNS) via bloodstream. In spite of this known immunomodulatory mechanism, there are some reports about...
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - February 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Contribution of Laccase Expression to Immune Response against Cryptococcus gattii Infection [Fungal and Parasitic Infections]
In this study, we characterized laccase activity in C. neoformans and C. gattii isolates from Thailand and investigated whether C. gattii that is deficient in laccase might modulate immune responses during infection. C. gattii was found to have higher laccase activity than C. neoformans, indicating the importance of laccase in the pathogenesis of C. gattii infection. The expression of laccase promoted intracellular proliferation in macrophages and inhibited in vitro fungal clearance. Mice infected with a lac1 mutant strain of C. gattii had reduced lung burdens at the early but not the late stage of infection. Without affec...
Source: Infection and Immunity - February 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hansakon, A., Ngamskulrungroj, P., Angkasekwinai, P. Tags: Fungal and Parasitic Infections Source Type: research

B Cell Compartmentalization in Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid of HIV-Infected Ugandans with Cryptococcal Meningitis [Host Response and Inflammation]
Activated B cells modulate infection by differentiating into pathogen-specific antibody-producing effector plasmablasts/plasma cells, memory cells, and immune regulatory B cells. In this context, the B cell phenotypes that infiltrate the central nervous system during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cryptococcal meningitis coinfection are ill defined. We characterized clinical parameters, mortality, and B cell phenotypes in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by flow cytometry in HIV-infected adults with cryptococcal (n = 31) and noncryptococcal (n = 12) meningitis and in heathy control subjects with neither infectio...
Source: Infection and Immunity - February 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Okurut, S., Meya, D. B., Bwanga, F., Olobo, J., Eller, M. A., Cham-Jallow, F., Bohjanen, P. R., Pratap, H., Palmer, B. E., Hullsiek, K. H., Manabe, Y. C., Boulware, D. R., Janoff, E. N. Tags: Host Response and Inflammation Source Type: research

Prevalence and mortality of cryptococcal disease in adults with advanced HIV in an urban tertiary hospital in Sierra Leone: a prospective study
The global annual estimate for cryptococcal disease-related deaths exceeds 180,000, with three fourth occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends cryptococcal antigen (CrAg)... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - February 14, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sulaiman Lakoh, Hannah Rickman, Momodu Sesay, Sartie Kenneh, Rachael Burke, Mamadu Baldeh, Darlinda F. Jiba, Yusuf S. Tejan, Sonia Boyle, Comfort Koroma, Gibrilla F. Deen and Fenella Beynon Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Tsunamis and changes in the etiology of the canine and feline cryptococcosis.
es FJ PMID: 32057649 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia)
Source: Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia - February 10, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Cabañes FJ Tags: Rev Iberoam Micol Source Type: research

Mass-forming hepatic cryptococcosis: a mimicker of metastatic tumors
This report provides the first imaging report of isolated intrahepatic cryptococcosis. An 83-year-old man was incidentally pointed out of hepatic nodules. CT revealed four well-defined nodules of 21  mm, 15 mm, 7 mm, and 5 mm in diameter without contrast enhancement. Two nodules displayed central hyperattenuation and the others were totally hyperattenuating. MRI showed that the nodules were hypointense relative to normal liver parenchyma on T1- and T2-weighted images. 18F-FDG PET imaging re vealed no obvious increased uptake of nuclear species into the liver nodules. Partial resection of the three large...
Source: Abdominal Imaging - February 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Vaccines and Protective Immune Memory against Cryptococcosis.
Abstract Cryptococcosis is a potentially lethal disease caused by fungal pathogens including Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species complex. These fungal pathogens live in the environment and are associated with certain tree species and bird droppings. This infectious disease is not contagious, and healthy individuals may contract cryptococcal infections by inhaling the airborne pathogens from the environment. Although cleaning a contaminated environment is a feasible approach to control environmental fungal pathogens, prophylactic immunization is also considered a promising method to regulate cry...
Source: Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin - February 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ueno K, Yanagihara N, Shimizu K, Miyazaki Y Tags: Biol Pharm Bull Source Type: research

Cryptococcosis.
Abstract Cryptococcosis has become an important infection in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. Although Cryptococcus is mainly recognized by its ability to cause meningoencephalitis, it can infect almost any organ of the human body, with pulmonary infection being the second most common disease manifestation. In cases of meningitis, symptom onset may be insidious, but headaches, fevers, or mental status changes should warrant diagnostic testing. Symptoms of pulmonary disease are nonspecific and may include fever, chills, cough, malaise, night sweats, dyspnea, weight loss, and hemoptysis. Due to prot...
Source: Respiratory Care - January 31, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Zavala S, Baddley JW Tags: Semin Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Disseminated cryptococcosis with multiple and mediastinal lymph node enlargement and lung involvement in an immunocompetent child.
CONCLUSIONS: Disseminated cryptococcosis can occur in immunocompromised children without HIV infection. This case of multiple and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, easily misdiagnosed as "lymphoma", requires high clinical suspicion and early initiation of treatment to effectively identify and treat patients. PMID: 31993105 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology)
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - January 31, 2020 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pulmonary Cryptococcosis: comparison of Cryptococcal antigen detection and radiography in Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised patients
We compared the cryptococcal antigen detection and imaging findings between immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients in whom pulmonary cryptococcosis had been diagnosed. The aim of our study was to deter... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - January 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jingqi Min, Kunlun Huang, Chanmei Shi, Laifu Li, Fuye Li, Tao Zhu and Huojin Deng Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Could Fungicides Lead to Azole Drug Resistance in a Cross-Resistance Manner among Environmental Cryptococcus Strains?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAcquired resistance among fungal strains is a growing concern. The reasons for the emergence of this phenomenon, with great clinical implications, are only partially explained and related to the frequent use of fluconazole prophylaxis or therapeutic regimens in medical practice, and evidence of environmental origin of resistance is warranted.Recent FindingsSoil exposed to azole fungicides may select acquired resistant fungal strains and improve the proliferation and maintenance of phenotypes in this environment. So far, the greatest focus on cross-resistance in relation to azoles is with genusAsper...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - January 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Cryptococcosis
Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020; 41: 069-079 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400280Cryptococcosis has become an important infection in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. Although Cryptococcus is mainly recognized by its ability to cause meningoencephalitis, it can infect almost any organ of the human body, with pulmonary infection being the second most common disease manifestation. In cases of meningitis, symptom onset may be insidious, but headaches, fevers, or mental status changes should warrant diagnostic testing. Symptoms of pulmonary disease are nonspecific and may include fever, chills, cough, malaise, night swe...
Source: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - January 30, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Zavala, Sofia Baddley, John W. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Vertebral cryptococcosis: An uncommon cause of a paravertebral mass
Abstract Tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) diagnosis is challenging due to the lack of a gold standard diagnostic tool. The diagnosis is significantly harder in regions where visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is also prevalent since immunological tests may present cross-reactivity. A cirrhotic patient from an endemic Brazilian region for TL and VL presented with atypical cutaneous lesions, a usual clinico-laboratory feature of VL (including a positive rk39 test result), but he was diagnosed with TL histopathologically; VL was ruled out by necropsy. Physicians working in co-prevalent areas should be aware of atypical features, unusu...
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - January 28, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical Significance of Low Serum Cryptococcal Antigen Titers by Lateral Flow Assay in Immunocompromised Patients: a Retrospective Case-Control Study [Immunoassays]
Cryptococcus species are associated with invasive fungal infections in immunosuppressed individuals. The clinical significance of low-titer cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) by lateral flow assay is frequently uncertain. We investigated the correlation of low CrAg titers with disease in an immunocompromised patient population. Patients with first-time positive CrAg results with low serum titers (≤1:10) at two medical centers (Los Angeles, CA) from April 2014 to July 2018 were included. Age-matched controls with high (≥1:20) and negative titers were selected. We extracted medical records for pertinent clinical, radiologic, ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - January 28, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dizon, E., Seo, W., Butler-Wu, S. M., She, R. C. Tags: Immunoassays Source Type: research

Identification of off-patent drugs that show synergism with Amphotericin B or that present antifungal action against Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida spp.
oza O Abstract Amphotericin B (AmB) is the antifungal with the strongest fungicidal activity, but its use has several limitations, mainly associated to its toxicity. Although some lipidic and liposomal formulations that present reduced toxicity are available, their price limits their application in developing countries. Flucytosine (FC) has shown synergistic effect with AmB for treatment of some fungal infections, such as cryptococcosis, but again, its price is a limitation for its use in many regions. In the present work, we aimed to identify new drugs that having a minor effect on C. neoformans, reduced its grow...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - January 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rossi SA, de Oliveira HC, Agreda-Mellon D, Lucio J, Mendes Giannini MJS, García-Cambero JP, Zaragoza O Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Cryptococcal Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: a Paradoxical Response to a Complex Organism
AbstractPurpose of reviewTo describe the host-pathogen factors that impact the management of cryptococcal meningitis (CM) in immunosuppressed patients that lead to the development of cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (C-IRIS).Recent findingsThe pre-screening of HIV-infected patients in resource-poor countries with the lateral flow cryptococcal antigen assay could prevent C-IRIS. Delaying ART by 4  weeks is associated with improved survival and recommended by guidelines; this approach remains controversial in wealthier areas as there is limited data. A 5-flucytosine-based combination regimen and ...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases - January 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

An exceptional case report of disseminated cryptococcosis in a hitherto immunocompetent patient.
We described a case of an apparently immunocompetent 66-years old man admitted to hospital with a one-month history of cough, fever and vertigo. During hospitalization, thorax imaging was suggestive of lung metastasis, therefore, he went through several investigations. During hospitalization, he developed neurological symptoms and subsequently underwent a lumbar puncture. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture was positive for Cryptococcus spp. isolated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and bird seed agar. In addition, the direct microscopy examination was positive for the India ink test, as well as with the latex agglutination test...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - January 23, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Adzic-Vukicevic T, Cevik M, Poluga J, Micic J, Rubino S, Paglietti B, Barac A Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Usefulness of Yeast Cell Counting and Lack of Clinical Correlation of the Antifungal Susceptibility Testing Results in Management of Aids-associated Cryptococcal Meningitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCryptococcal meningitis is one of the most seriously opportunistic infections in people living with HIV. We evaluated clinical and laboratorial features (minimum inhibitory concentrations for fluconazole, initial fungal burden in cerebrospinal fluid) and risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality.Recent FindingsThere is no good evidence for the use of minimum inhibitory concentrations for fluconazole in routine practice for the management of cryptococcosis patients. Counting yeast cells at cerebrospinal fluid can predict positive culture by not death.SummaryData from 46 cryptococcal meningi...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - January 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

CT Halo Sign: A Systematic Review
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: European Journal of RadiologyAuthor(s): Animesh Ray, Ankit Mittal, Surabhi VyasAbstractPurposeThe CT Halo sign or Halo sign (HS) refers to ground-glass opacity surrounding a nodule or mass in the lung parenchyma. We conducted a systematic review to find the etiological associations of HS. We also evaluated the diagnostic performances of HS for invasive fungal infections (IFI) in immunosuppressed patients.MethodThe systematic review was conducted as per PRISMA guidelines. We searched the PubMed and EMBASE database till June 2018 without any restrictions. Only case re...
Source: European Journal of Radiology - January 18, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neurological worsening during treatment of an immunocompetent adult with Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis
We describe here a young immuncompetent adult of Indian origin from Ghana, West Africa with cryptococcal meningitis who had several ups and downs during his treatment. First he developed neurologic worsening due to premature transition from intensive to consolidation phase therapy. Subsequently he deteriorated due to “immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)” like phenomenon that necessitated the prolonged use of steroids. Additionally he suffered serious adverse effects due to antifungal drugs including liposomal amphotericin B and flucytosine. He recovered after 16 months of treatment. The case high...
Source: Medical Mycology Case Reports - January 17, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Disseminated Cryptococcosis revealed by transverse myelitis in Immunocompetent patient: a case report and review of the literature
Transverse myelitis (TM) is due to inflammatory spinal cord injury with bilateral neurologic involvement, which is sensory, motor, or autonomic in nature. It may be associated with autoimmune disease, vaccinat... (Source: BMC Neurology)
Source: BMC Neurology - January 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Fangfang Qu, Zhenzhen Qu, Yingqian Lv, Bo Song and Bailin Wu Tags: Case report Source Type: research

Solitary Pulmonary Nodule as a Form of Presentation of Cryptococcosis in a Renal Transplant Recipient.
ez R, García Cantón C PMID: 31926752 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia)
Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia - January 8, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fernández Granados S, Fernández Tagarro E, Ramírez Puga A, Guerra Rodríguez R, García Cantón C Tags: Arch Bronconeumol Source Type: research

Cryptococcus neoformans var grubii meningoencephalitis in a patient on fingolimod for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: case report and review of published cases
Conclusion: We suggest consideration of harm minimisation behaviours in patients requiring fingolimod, particularly in those with profound CD4 lymphopenia. Furthermore, we echo the call for improved post-marketing surveillance systems to determine the epidemiology of atypical infections with novel immunomodulatory treatments. (Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders)
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - January 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Anastrozole-induced pulmonary cryptococcosis in a patient with early breast cancer: A case report
Conclusion: This case of pulmonary cryptococcosis may have been induced by a decrease in estrogen level caused by the aromatase inhibitor, anastrozole. Treatment of pulmonary cryptococcosis with concurrent anastrozole use may be ineffective, and it may be better to discontinue the aromatase inhibitor. (Source: Medicine)
Source: Medicine - January 1, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research

Clinical and microbiological characteristics of cryptococcosis at an university hospital in China from 2013 to 2017
ConclusionsMost of the patients with cryptococcosis were not HIV-infected in this study, while patients with HIV had a higher mortality. Reduced susceptibility to fluconazole was observed among C. neoformans isolates, most of them belonged to ST5 genotype VNI having an impact on the effective dose of fluconazole. (Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Opportunistic invasive fungal disease in patients with type  2 diabetes mellitus from Southern China: Clinical features and associated factors
We investigated the characteristics and associated factors of invasive fungal disease in patients with type  2 diabetes mellitus from Southern China for the first time. We found thatCandida albicans,Cryptococcus neoformans andAspergillus fumigatus were the leading agents. Prolonged hyperglycemia results in unfavorable outcomes. Correction of anemia and hypoalbuminemia might improve prognosis. AbstractAims/IntroductionA retrospective study was carried out to investigate the clinical characteristics and associated factors for invasive fungal disease in patients with type  2 diabetes mellitus.Materials and MethodsDe...
Source: Journal of Diabetes Investigation - December 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Minxi Lao, Chen Li, Jin Li, Dubo Chen, Meilin Ding, Yingying Gong Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Clinical and microbiological characteristics of cryptococcosis at an university hospital in China from 2013 to 2017.
CONCLUSIONS: Most of the patients with cryptococcosis were not HIV-infected in this study, while patients with HIV had a higher mortality. Reduced susceptibility to fluconazole was observed among C. neoformans isolates, most of them belonged to ST5 genotype VNI having an impact on the effective dose of fluconazole. PMID: 31870760 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - December 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fang LF, Zhang PP, Wang J, Yang Q, Qu TT Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Clinical spectrum and outcome of hospitalized patients with invasive fungal infections: a prospective study from a medical ward/intensive care unit of a teaching hospital in North India.
Authors: Sindhu D, Jorwal P, Gupta N, Xess I, Singh G, Soneja M, Nischal N, Sethi P, Ray A, Biswas A, Wig N Abstract The aim of the study was to determine the clinical spectrum and outcome of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in hospitalized patients. A prospective study was conducted in a teaching hospital in North India between December 2016 and December 2018. Patients diagnosed with IFIs were enrolled. Their clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded using a pre-defined clinical report form. They were followed up till discharge or death and a 60-day outcome was recorded. A total of 110 IFI cases were ident...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - December 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infez Med Source Type: research

Cryptococcus and cryptococcosis in Iran during 1969–2019: A systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsGiven the significant risk of Cryptococcus species for susceptible humans, mainly HIV-infected patients, it seems quite necessary to adopt concrete preventive strategies to pinpoint the environmental habitats of this yeast. (Source: Journal of Medical Mycology)
Source: Journal of Medical Mycology - December 19, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Correction to: Clinical diversity of invasive cryptococcosis in AIDS patients from central China: report of two cases with review of literature
After publication of the original article [1], we were notified that Figs. 1 and 2 has been misplaced. Hence, the position of the two pictures should be reversed. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - December 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yongxi Zhang, Brian Cooper, Xi ’en Gui, Renslow Sherer and Qian Cao Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Cryptococcosis in Patients following Kidney Transplantation: A 9-Year Retrospective Clinical Analysis at a Chinese Tertiary Hospital.
Conclusions: Cryptococcosis in kidney transplant recipients is typically a late-occurring infection, with most patients having cryptococcosis onset>2 years following KT at our hospital. The central nervous system, pulmonary system, and skin are the main sites of infection. Voriconazole or high-dose fluconazole can be used as an alternative therapy for post-KT cryptococcosis. PMID: 31828122 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biomed Res)
Source: Biomed Res - December 14, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Yang M, Zhang X, Hu J, Zhao H, Li L Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research

Efficacy of voriconazole in vitro and in invertebrate model of cryptococcosis.
Abstract Cryptococcosis is a common opportunistic infection in patients with advanced HIV infection and may also affect immunocompetent patients. The available antifungal agents are few and other options are needed for the cryptococcosis treatment. In this work, we first analyzed the virulence of twelve C. neoformans and C. gattii strains assessing capsule thickness, biofilms formation, and survival and morbidity in the invertebrate model of Galleria mellonella and then we evaluated the antifungal activity of voriconazole (VRC) in vitro and in vivo also using G. mellonella. Our results showed that all Cryptococcus...
Source: Archives of Microbiology - December 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: de Castro Spadari C, da Silva de Bastiani FWM, Pisani PBB, de Azevedo Melo AS, Ishida K Tags: Arch Microbiol Source Type: research

Cryptococcus and cryptococcosis in Iran during 1969-2019: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusions: Given the significant risk of Cryptococcus species for susceptible humans, mainly HIV-infected patients, it seems quite necessary to adopt concrete preventive strategies to pinpoint the environmental habitats of this yeast. (Source: Journal of Medical Mycology)
Source: Journal of Medical Mycology - December 7, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The Disease Ecology, Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Management of Emerging Cryptococcus gattii Complex Infections
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Wilderness & Environmental MedicineAuthor(s): James H. DiazCryptococcus neoformans, a soil-dwelling fungus found worldwide, can cause cryptococcosis, an opportunistic fungal infection of the lungs and central nervous system. One former member of the C neoformans complex, Cryptococcus gattii, has caused meningitis in immunosuppressed and immunocompetent persons in endemic regions in Africa and Asia. Between 1999 and 2004, C gattii caused outbreaks of human cryptococcosis in unexpected, nonendemic, nontropical regions on Vancouver Island, Canada, and throughout th...
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 7, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Antifungal Activity, Toxicity, and Membranolytic Action of a Mastoparan Analog Peptide
In this study, a peptide analog from the mastoparan class of wasps (MK58911) was tested against Cryptococcus spp. and Paracoccidioides spp. In addition, peptide toxicity tests on lung fibroblasts (MRC5) and glioblastoma cells (U87) were performed. Subsequent tests related to drug interaction and mechanism of action were also performed, and efficacy and toxicity of the peptide were evaluated in vivo using the G. mellonella model. Our results reveal promising activity of the peptide, with an MIC in the range of 7.8–31.2 μg/mL, and low toxicity in MRC and U87 cells (IC50> 500 μg/mL). Taken together, these resul...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - December 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

[Cutaneous Cryptococcosis].
Authors: Noguchi H, Matsumoto T, Kimura U, Hiruma M, Kusuhara M, Ihn H Abstract Cutaneous cryptococcosis is classified either as primary or secondary based on the route of infection. The disease can also be classified either as localized cutaneous cryptococcosis or cutaneous manifestations of disseminated cryptococcosis. However, from a physician's point of view, whether lesions are localized to the skin or are disseminated/systemic is more important than the route of infection. The Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Cryptococcosis, which was established in 2019 by the Japanese Society for ...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - December 5, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

New Triazole NT-a9 has Potent Antifungal Efficacy against Cryptococcus neoformans In Vitro and In Vivo.
Abstract In the past decades, the incidence of cryptococcosis has increased dramatically, which poses a new threat to human health. However, only a few drugs are available for the treatment of cryptococcosis. Here, we described the leading compound NT-a9, an analogue of isavuconazole, that showed strong antifungal activities in vitro and in vivo NT-a9 showed wide range activities against several pathogenic fungi in vitro, including Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus gattii, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis, with MIC values ranging from 0.002 to 1 &m...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - December 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lu RY, Ni TJ, Wu J, Yan L, Lv QZ, Li LP, Zhang DZ, Jiang YY Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Complications of therapeutic plasma exchange: A retrospective study of 1201 procedures in 435 children
Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is now widely used in therapy of multiple diseases in children, by removing the plasma with pathogenic agents from patients. However, adverse reactions may limit its application. A retrospective cohort study of 435 hospitalized children treated with 1201 plasma exchange procedures between January 2013 and July 2018 were enrolled. Complications occurred in 152 procedures (12.7%); 90 procedures (7.5%) had ≥2 complications. No death occurred. The most common complications were pruritus and urticaria (7%), followed by hypertension (1.92%) and hypotension (1.17%). One child had an outbreak...
Source: Medicine - December 1, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research

Concomitant lung adenocarcinoma and pulmonary cryptococcosis confirmed by pathologic examinations
To describe the characteristics of concomitant lung cancer and pulmonary cryptococcosis (PC) cases. A total of 8 patients with lung cancer and coexisting PC, who were admitted to Fuzhou Pulmonary Hospital of Fujian from 1st January 2009 to 31st December 2015 and whose diagnoses were confirmed by pathological examinations, were studied. One patient had a history of diabetes mellitus and 1 had a history of treated with surgery. The lesions in 7 cases manifested as nodular shadows; only 1 case showed the lesion of the 2 diseases mergedmixed together, and it manifested as a large flake-like infiltrated shadow in the same lob...
Source: Medicine - December 1, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in the lung in non-human immunodeficiency virus patients
ConclusionsThe diagnosis and management of IRIS in the lung in non-HIV patients should be investigated further, especially in the era of anti-TNF treatment. (Source: Respiratory Investigation)
Source: Respiratory Investigation - November 30, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Fatal neurocryptococcosis in a Colombian underage patient
We report a fatal case of neurocryptococcosis in a Colombian minor without known risk factors, in Barranquilla, Colombia. The patient was hospitalized for neurological assessment with a recent history of intense headache, vomiting, anorexia, loss of consciousness, drowsiness, inability to recognize family members, disorientation, aphasia and anxiety. Despite initiating antifungal treatment after isolation of the fungus from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the patient died early due to his deteriorated condition. (Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries)
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - November 30, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Clinical diversity of invasive cryptococcosis in AIDS patients from central China: report of two cases with review of literature
Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) has greatly improved the prognosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients globally, opportunistic infections (OIs) are still common in Chinese AIDS patients... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - November 27, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yongxi Zhang, Brian Cooper, Xi ’en Gui, Renslow Sherer and Qian Cao Tags: Case report Source Type: research

An Unusual Cause of Recurrent Pleural Effusion
In conclusion, patients with liver disease have an increased risk of cryptococcosis. A high index of suspicion must be maintained for infection and should be considered in patients with recurrent effusions. (Source: Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice)
Source: Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Opportunistic invasive fungal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from Southern China: clinical features and associated factors
AbstractObjectivesA retrospective study was performed to investigate the clinical characteristics and associated factors for invasive fungal disease (IFD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsDemographic and clinical data were recorded. Associated factors were analyzed by logistic regression analysis.ResultsIFD was diagnosed in 120 patients with T2DM (prevalence, 0.4%). Yeast infection (56/120, 46.7%), including candidiasis (31/56, 55.4%) and cryptococcosis (25/56, 44.6%) was the most common. Urinary tract was mainly involved in candidiasis (12/31, 38.7%). More than half of the cryptococcosis (16/25, 64....
Source: Journal of Diabetes Investigation - November 22, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Minxi Lao, Chen Li, Jin Li, Dubo Chen, Meilin Ding, Yingying Gong Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research