Beneficial effect on podocyte number in experimental diabetic nephropathy resulting from combined Atrasentan and RAAS inhibition therapy.
Abstract Podocyte loss and proteinuria are both key features of human diabetic nephropathy. The leptin deficient BTBR mouse strain with the ob/ob mutation develops progressive weight gain, Type II diabetes and diabetic nephropathy that has many features of advanced human diabetic nephropathy, including increased mesangial matrix, mesangiolysis, podocyte loss, and proteinuria. Selective antagonism of the endothelin-1 receptor, ETAR, by atrasentan treatment in combination with RAAS inhibition with losartan has been shown to have the therapeutic benefit of lowering proteinuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy, b...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - April 6, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hudkins KL, Wietecha TA, Steegh F, Alpers CE Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Facts and reflections on COVID-19 and anti-hypertensives drugs.
Authors: Marin GH Abstract Based on some publications that associate SARS-CoV-2 infection with the use of anti-hypertensive drug groups such as angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (e.g. enalapril) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (e.g. losartan), many patients from South America, Central America or Spain, have stopped or intend to interrupt their treatments with these drugs. Hence, it may exist ominous consequences due to this drop out. For this reason, it is necessary to quickly warn about this situation and the risks associated with it. PMID: 32213760 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Drug ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - March 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

A Case of Novel Coronavirus Disease 19 in a Chronic Hemodialysis Patient Presenting with Gastroenteritis and Developing Severe Pulmonary Disease.
We report the first US case of a 56-year-old nondiabetic male with ESRD secondary to IgA nephropathy undergoing thrice-weekly maintenance hemodialysis for 3 years, who developed COVID-19 infection. He has hypertension controlled with angiotensin receptor blocker losartan 100 mg/day and coronary artery disease status-post stent placement. During the first 5 days of his febrile disease, he presented to an urgent care, 3 emergency rooms, 1 cardiology clinic, and 2 dialysis centers in California and Utah. During this interval, he reported nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and low-grade fevers but was not suspected of COVID-19 infect...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - March 28, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ferrey AJ, Choi G, Hanna RM, Chang Y, Tantisattamo E, Ivaturi K, Park E, Nguyen L, Wang B, Tonthat S, Rhee CM, Reddy U, Lau WL, Huang SS, Gohil S, Amin AN, Hsieh L, Cheng TT, Lee RA, Kalantar-Zadeh K Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

Investigation of Losartan Potassium as an eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor for copper in 0.5 M H2SO4
Publication date: 1 May 2020Source: Journal of Molecular Liquids, Volume 305Author(s): Hao Li, Shengtao Zhang, Bochuan Tan, Yujie Qiang, Wenpo Li, Shijin Chen, Lei Guo (Source: Journal of Molecular Liquids)
Source: Journal of Molecular Liquids - March 14, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Reduced O-GlcNAcylation and tubular hypoxia contribute to the antifibrotic effect of SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in the diabetic kidney.
ete A Abstract Diabetic kidney disease is a worldwide epidemic and therapies are incomplete. Clinical data suggest that improved renal outcomes by SGLT2i are partly beyond their antihyperglycemic effects, however the mechanisms are still elusive. Here we investigated the effect of SGLT2i dapagliflozin (DAPA) in the prevention of elevated O-GlcNAcylation and tubular hypoxia as contributors of renal fibrosis. Type 1 diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in adult male Wistar rats. After the onset of diabetes, rats were treated for 6 weeks with a DAPA or DAPA combined with losartan (LOS). The effect of hyperglycemia ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology - March 2, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Hodrea J, Balogh DB, Hosszu A, Lenart L, Besztercei B, Koszegi S, Sparding N, Genovese F, Wagner LJ, Szabó AJ, Fekete A Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Adverse effects of interactions between antipsychotics and medications used in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders.
CONCLUSIONS: Due to a high risk of interactions and related adverse effects, particular attention should be paid while using cardiovascular medications with antipsychotics. Clinical decisions should be preceded by a detailed analysis of safety, risk-benefit ratio to search for, as safe as possible, drug combinations. PMID: 32124390 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - March 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Siwek M, Woroń J, Gorostowicz A, Wordliczek J Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Protective effects of losartan on some type 2 diabetes mellitus-induced complications in Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats
AbstractDiabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) is characterized by resistance of insulin receptors and/or inadequate insulin secretion resulting in metabolic and structural complications including vascular diseases, arterial hypertension and different behavioral alterations. We aimed to study the effects of the antihypertensive angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist losartan on the T2DM-induced changes of exploratory behavior, anxiety, nociception and short term memory in normotensive Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The experimental model of T2DM induced by a combination of high fat diet and streptozotocin, decrea...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - March 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Ageing reduces angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonism mediated pre-conditioning effects in ischemic kidneys by inducing oxidative and inflammatory stress.
CONCLUSION: We conclude that AT1 receptor antagonism is not beneficial against renal I/R induced AKI in aged rats. PMID: 32119995 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Gerontology)
Source: Experimental Gerontology - February 28, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Ogbadu J, Singh G, Gupta K, Mehra K, Sen P Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Systematic characterization of AT1 receptor antagonists with label-free dynamic mass redistribution assays
This study demonstrated that the DMR assay has great potential for determining the pharmacological parameters of ligands. This work may serve as guidance for other receptor and ligand assays. (Source: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods)
Source: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods - February 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Hypotensive activity of Campomanesia xanthocarpa leaf extract: beyond angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockage.
Abstract The ability of Campomanesia xanthocarpa leaf extract (CXLE) to alter blood pressure and heart rate was evaluated in anesthetized rats. The CXLE-induced hypotension was evaluated before and after losartan, methylatropine, L-N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), hexamethonium, indomethacin, glibenclamide, or nifedipine administration. The constituents of CXLE were identified by LC-DAD-MS. CXLE decreased blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner; only the highest dose decreased heart rate. The hypotension induced by CXLE was sensitive only to losartan, nifedipine, and glibenclamide. L-NAME decre...
Source: Natural Product Research - February 21, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Morais IBM, Silva DB, Carollo CA, Ferreira-Neto ML, Fidelis-de-Oliveira P, Bispo-da-Silva LB Tags: Nat Prod Res Source Type: research

Pro-inflammatory cytokines in the paraventricular nucleus mediate the adipose afferent reflex in rats.
This study determined whether PICs in the PVN mediate the AAR in rats. The AAR was evaluated based on renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial blood pressure in response to capsaicin injection into inguinal WAT (iWAT). PIC levels were measured by ELISA. PVN microinjection with the PICs tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or interleukin (IL)-1β enhanced the AAR in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, pretreatment via the bilateral microinjection of the TNF-α-blocker etanercept or IL-1β blocker IL-1ra into the PVN attenuated the AAR. In rats pretreated with TNF-α or IL-1β, a sub-response...
Source: Pflugers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology - February 21, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Lu P, Liang LW, Xu AL, Sun YY, Jiang SJ, Shi Z Tags: Pflugers Arch Source Type: research

An Underappreciated Embolic Source: Aortic Arch Floating Thrombus
An 85-year-old man presented with left hemiparesis, too late for any intervention. Brain computed tomography (CT) revealed a right hemispheric infarct. He had a history of diabetes mellitus (on metformin, statin), hypertension (on losartan/lercanidipine), past smoking, COPD (on inhalers) and peripheral artery disease (on aspirin). (Source: The American Journal of Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Medicine - February 18, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Ami Schattner, Yair Glick, Ina Dubin Tags: Clinical Communication to the Editor Source Type: research

Midazolam and isoflurane combination reduces late brain damage in the paraoxon-induced status epilepticus rat model.
Abstract Organophosphates (OPs) are widely used as pesticides and have been employed as warfare agents. OPs inhibit acetylcholinesterase, leading to over-stimulation of cholinergic synapses and can cause status epilepticus (SE). OPs poisoning can result in irreversible brain damage and death. Despite termination of SE, recurrent seizures and abnormal brain activity remain common sequelae often associated with long-term neural damage and cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, early treatment for prevention of seizures is of high interest. Using a rat model of paraoxon poisoning, we tested the efficacy of different neuro...
Source: Neurotoxicology - February 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Swissa E, Bar-Klein G, Serlin Y, Weissberg I, Kamintsky L, Eisenkraft A, Statlender L, Shrot S, Rosman Y, Prager O, Friedman A Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Limited Sampling Modeling for Estimation of Phenotypic Metrics for CYP Enzymes and the ABCB1 Transporter Using a Cocktail Approach
In conclusion, the LSS models provided accurate prediction of phenotypic indices for CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A, and ABCB1, when using subtherapeutic doses of selective probes for these enzymes and transporter. (Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - February 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Zingiber officinale on the antihypertensive activity and pharmacokinetic of losartan in hypertensive rats.
In conclusion, both the investigated herbs significantly increased the antihypertensive effect and plasma concentration of losartan in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats. The current study predicted that the herb-drug interaction between H. sabdariffa-losartan and Z. officinale-losartan could occur; hence these results in rats may warrant further studies in humans, either in humans or in in vitro human liver microsomes. PMID: 32048541 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Xenobiotica)
Source: Xenobiotica - February 12, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Ahad A, Raish M, Bin Jardan YA, Alam MA, Al-Mohizea AM, Al-Jenoobi FI Tags: Xenobiotica Source Type: research

Activation of AMPK/proteasome/MLCK degradation signaling axis by telmisartan inhibits VSMC contractility and vessel contraction.
In conclusion, we demonstrated that telmisartan inhibits VSMC contractility and vessel contraction by activating AMPK/proteasome/MLCK degradation signaling axis. These results suggest that telmisartan can be used to treat pathological vasospasms. PMID: 32046856 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications)
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - February 8, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Hwang YJ, Cho DH Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research

Angiotensin Type 1 Receptors and Superoxide Anion Production in Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus Contribute to Capsaicin-Induced Excitatory Renal Reflex and Sympathetic Activation
In this study, we examined the role of molecular signaling in the PVN in mediating the capsaicin-induced ERR and sympathetic activation. Bilateral PVN microinjections were performed in rats under anesthesia. The ERR was elicited by infusion of capsaicin into the cortico-medullary  border of the right kidney. The reflex was evaluated as the capsaicin-induced changes in left renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure. Blockade of angiotensin type 1 receptors with losartan or inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme with captopril in the PVN abolished the c apsaicin-induced ERR. Renal infusion of caps...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - January 27, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Losartan ameliorates ovarian ischaemia/reperfusion injury in rats: an experimental study.
This study aimed to investigate the protective and antioxidant role of losartan in ovarian ischaemia and ischaemia/reperfusion injury in an experimental ovarian torsion model. Thirty adult female rats were used. Rats were separated randomly into five groups; Group 1: sham group (abdominal wall was only opened and closed), Group 2: torsion group with 3-hour ischaemia using atraumatic vascular clips. Group 3: torsion + losartan group with 3-hour ischaemia 30 minutes after the administration of 40 mg/kg of losartan via oral gavage. Group 4: torsion-detorsion group with 3-hour ischaemia and 3-hour r...
Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - January 22, 2020 Category: OBGYN Tags: J Obstet Gynaecol Source Type: research

Restoration of Erectile Function by Suppression of Corporal Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress with Losartan in Aged Rats with Erectile Dysfunction
ConclusionsOur results indicated that administration of losartan not merely restored erectile function, but also significantly prevented corporal apoptosis and oxidative stress in AED by suppressing the Akt/Bad/Bax/Caspase ‐3 and Nrf2/Keap‐1 pathways. (Source: Andrology)
Source: Andrology - January 22, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Yi Wang, Yamin Wang, Rong Cong, Ye Tian, Chen Chen, Yichun Wang, Qijie Zhang, Xiang Zhou, Chengjian Ji, Xianghu Meng, Ninghong Song Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Losartan promotes myocardial apoptosis after acute myocardial infarction in rats through inhibiting Ang II-induced JAK/STAT pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: Losartan promotes myocardial apoptosis after AMI in the rats through inhibiting the Ang II-induced JAK/STAT pathway. PMID: 31957855 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - January 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Hyperbaric oxygen activates visfatin expression and angiogenesis via angiotensin II and JNK pathway in hypoxic human coronary artery endothelial cells.
In conclusion, HBO activates visfatin expression and angiogenesis in hypoxic HCAECs, an effect mediated by AngII, mainly through the JNK pathway. PMID: 31957305 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: J Cell Mol Med)
Source: J Cell Mol Med - January 19, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Chiu CZ, Wang BW, Yu YJ, Shyu KG Tags: J Cell Mol Med Source Type: research

Severe food restriction activates the central renin angiotensin system
In this study, we investigated the role of the central RAS in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) dysregulation associated with sFR. A major finding of this study was that central administration of the AT1R antagonist, losartan, reduced the blood pressure after 2  weeks on a sFR diet in Female rats and radioligand binding to the AT1R was selectively increased in the PVN of sFR rats. AbstractWe previously showed that 2  weeks of a severe food restricted (sFR) diet (40% of the caloric intake of the control (CT) diet) up‐regulated the circulating renin angiotensin (Ang) system (RAS) in female Fisc...
Source: Physiological Reports - January 10, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Aline Maria Arlindo De Souza, Andrea Linares, Robert C. Speth, Glenda V. Campos, Hong Ji, Deocl écio Chianca, Kathryn Sandberg, Rodrigo C. A. De Menezes Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research

Versatile Grafted Microcrystalline Cellulose with Ionic Liquid as New Losartan-Controlled Release Material
Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: European Polymer JournalAuthor(s): Stefânia Sales de Oliveira Santos, Rubén Dário Sinisterra Millan, Marcelo Gomes SpezialiAbstractThis paper describes the preparation and characterization of a versatile Losartan-controlled-release material based on a functionalized cellulosic matrix grafted with the ionic liquid, [(MeO)3Sipmim][Cl]: 1–(trimethoxysilylpropyl)–3–methylimidazolium Chloride. A silanized ionic liquid was used as a solvent and a surface modification agent at the same time, allowing higher anionic drug loading capacity...
Source: European Polymer Journal - January 9, 2020 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Reduction of pain and improved muscle biology with the administration of losartan and delayed exercise in a murine trauma model.
PMID: 31912890 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Journal of Physiology - January 8, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Hadipour-Lakmehsari S, Mouaswas SA Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research

Effects of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Weight Excess Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
ConclusionsIn hypertensive subjects with excess weight, diuretics are more effective for preventing HF and stroke than CCB and ACEI, respectively. CCB are a good first-line choice for prevention of cardiovascular disease, except HF. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - January 3, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Differential Expression of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Subtypes Within the Cerebral Microvasculature.
Abstract Arteries and arterioles constrict in response to intraluminal pressure to generate myogenic tone, but the molecular nature of the vascular force-sensing mechanism is not fully characterized. Here, we investigated the role of angiotensin II type 1 receptors (AT1Rs) on vascular smooth muscle cells in the development of myogenic tone in cerebral parenchymal arterioles from mice. We found that pre-treatment with the AT1R blocker losartan inhibited the development of myogenic tone in these vessels but did not alter the luminal diameter of arterioles with pre-established tone. Rodents express two AT1R isotypes:...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - December 30, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Yamasaki E, Thakore P, Krishnan V, Earley S Tags: Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol Source Type: research

Design and Evaluation of Losartan Transdermal Patch by Using Solid Microneedles as A Physical ...
The development of a losartan potassium patch for the treatment of hypertension established that a combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic polymers, using as a plasticizer citroflex and succinic acid as a cohesion promoter result in homogeneous films. The effect of the Eudragit® E100, PVP K30, citroflex and succinic acid in the bioadhesion, postwetting bioadhesion, resistance to rupture and drug release, was studied. The succinic acid in synergy with the plasticizer (citroflex) modifies the characteristics of the polymeric matrix of Eudragit® E100, increasing the release and the resistance to rupture of transder...
Source: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research - December 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Losartan protects against intermittent hypoxia-induced peritubular capillary loss by modulating the renal renin-angiotensin system and angiogenesis factors.
Abstract Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), which is a risk factor for renal peritubular capillary (PTC) loss, and angiotensin II receptor blockers can alleviate PTC loss. However, the mechanism by which losartan (an angiotensin II receptor blocker) reduces CIH-induced PTC loss and attenuates kidney damage is still unknown. Thus, in this study, we examined the protective effects of losartan against CIH-induced PTC loss and explored the underlying mechanisms in rat CIH model. The immunohistochemical staining of CD34 and morphological examination showed that CIH reduced P...
Source: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica - December 14, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wu J, Chu Y, Jiang Z, Yu Q Tags: Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) Source Type: research

Systematic Review with Network Meta-Analysis: Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Combination Therapy with Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers and Amlodipine in Asian Hypertensive Patients.
Conclusion: This study suggests that all ARB-AML CTs compared favorably to AML monotherapy regarding short-term treatment response in uncomplicated HTN patients of Asian origin. AZL-AML prompted the most favorable treatment response. Safety profiles among the ARB-AML CTs were largely comparable. Due to the limited study size and small number of trials (direct evidence), our findings should best be interpreted as an exploratory effort importance to inform future research direction. PMID: 31827918 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Hypertension)
Source: International Journal of Hypertension - December 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Int J Hypertens Source Type: research

The angiotensin II type I receptor contributes to impaired cerebral blood flow autoregulation caused by placental ischemia in pregnant rats
ConclusionsThese results suggest that the impaired CBF autoregulation associated with placental ischemia is due, at least in part, to activation of the AT1 receptor and that the RAS may interact with other placental factors to promote cerebrovascular changes common to preeclampsia. (Source: Biology of Sex Differences)
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - December 11, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Ageing enhances the shedding of splenocyte microvesicles with endothelial pro-senescent effect that is prevented by a short-term intake of omega-3 PUFA EPA:DHA 6:1.
CONCLUSION: Ingestion of EPA:DHA 6:1 by middle-aged or old rats, respectively abolished or limited both the shedding of SMVs and their pro-senescent, pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory effects in ECs, most likely by triggering the local angiotensin system. EPA:DHA 6:1 may help to delay ageing-related endothelial dysfunction. PMID: 31811867 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biochemical Pharmacology)
Source: Biochemical Pharmacology - December 4, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Qureshi AW, Altamimy R, El Habhab A, El Itawi H, Farooq MA, Zobairi F, Hasan H, Amoura L, Auger C, Schini-Kerth V, Toti F Tags: Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research

Angiotensinogen in hepatocytes contributes to Western diet-induced liver steatosis [Research Articles]
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered as a liver manifestation of metabolic disorders. Previous studies indicate that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a complex role in NAFLD. As the only precursor of the RAS, decreased angiotensinogen (AGT) profoundly impacts RAS bioactivity. Here, we investigated the role of hepatocyte-derived AGT in liver steatosis. AGT floxed mice (hepAGT+/+) and hepatocyte-specific AGT-deficient mice (hepAGT–/–) were fed a Western diet and a normal laboratory diet for 12 weeks, respectively. Compared with hepAGT+/+ mice, Western diet-fed hepAGT–/– mice ...
Source: The Journal of Lipid Research - December 2, 2019 Category: Lipidology Authors: Tao, X.-R., 陶;昕;然;, , Rong, J.-B., 戎;佳;炳;, , Lu, H. S., 吕;红;, , Daugherty, A., Shi, P., 史;鹏;, , Ke, C.-L., 柯;昌;乐;, , Zhang, Z.-C., 张;召;才;, Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Angiotensin receptor blockade mimics the effect of exercise on recovery after orthopaedic trauma by decreasing pain and improving muscle regeneration.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31784993 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Journal of Physiology - November 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Tawfik VL, Quarta M, Paine P, Forman TE, Pajarinen J, Takemura Y, Goodman SB, Rando TA, Clark JD Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research

Performance of organoclay in adsorptive uptake of antihypertensive losartan potassium: A comparative batch study using micro-grain activated carbon
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2019Source: Journal of Environmental Chemical EngineeringAuthor(s): J.R. de Andrade, M.G.C. da Silva, M.L. Gimenes, M.G.A. VieiraAbstractThe antihypertensive losartan potassium is an emerging pharmaceutical contaminant that has been traced in aquatic media; hence, up-to-date water treatment methods are urged. This paper is the first of its kind to examine losartan uptake by adsorption using an organophilic clay, Spectrogel. In comparison, a micro-grain activated carbon (µGAC) was employed. Adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics were examined and characterizati...
Source: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering - November 23, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions of Ziziphus jujuba prevent acute hypertension induced by angiotensin II in rats.
Authors: Kamkar-Del Y, Mohebbati R, Hoseini M, KhajaviRad A, Shafei MN, Rakhshande H Abstract BACKGROUND: Antihypertensive effect of Ziziphus jujube (ZJ) has been reported previously. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates the effect of two ethyl acetate (polar and semi-polar compound) and aqueous fractions (polar compound) of ZJ on cardiovascular parameters in acute hypertension induced by angiotensin II(AngII). METHODS: Rats randomly were divided into as following groups (n=7 in each group): Control, AngII (50 ng/kg), Losartan (Los, 30 mg/kg) + AngII, ethyl acetate fraction (EA150 and EA300 mg/kg) + An...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - November 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Interaction of Sex Hormones and the Renin-Angiotensin System in Ovariectomized Rats Subjected to Ischemia-Reperfusion Induction.
Abstract Backgrounds: Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injuries occur in a variety of clinical conditions, which lead to kidney damage. Most of the tissue damages after IR are due to the activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Hence, in this study, the interaction of sex hormones and RAS in ovariectomized (OV) rats subjected to IR induction has been studied. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into different groups. Groups 1 (OV + E, OV rat + estradiol) and 2 (OV rat) each one consisted of three separate IR-induced subgroups treated with losartan, angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7), and their combinatio...
Source: Biomed Res - November 20, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Lakzaei H, Safari T, Komeili GR Tags: Adv Biomed Res Source Type: research

Differential sympathetic vasomotor control by spinal AT1 and V1a receptors in the acute phase of hemorrhagic shock.
Abstract The role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and arginine vasopressin (AVP) as humoral components in maintaining blood pressure (BP) during hemorrhagic shock (HS) is well established. However, little is known about the role of angiotensin II (Ang II) and AVP in the control of preganglionic sympathetic neuron activity. We studied the effects evoked by spinal Ang II type I (AT1) and V1a receptors antagonism on cardiovascular and sympathetic responses during HS. A catheter (PE-10) was inserted into the subarachnoid space and advanced to the T10-11 vertebral level in urethane-anesthetized rats. The ef...
Source: European Journal of Pharmacology - November 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Milanez MIO, Martins GR, Nishi EE, Bergamaschi CT, Campos RR Tags: Eur J Pharmacol Source Type: research

Blood–brain barrier dysfunction in status epileptics: Mechanisms and role in epileptogenesis
This article is part of the Special Issue "Proceedings of the 7th London-Innsbruck Colloquium on Status Epilepticus and Acute Seizures" (Source: Epilepsy and Behavior)
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - November 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Blood-brain barrier dysfunction in status epileptics: Mechanisms and role in epileptogenesis.
This article is part of the Special Issue "Proceedings of the 7th London-Innsbruck Colloquium on Status Epilepticus and Acute Seizures". PMID: 31711869 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour)
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - November 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Swissa E, Serlin Y, Vazana U, Prager O, Friedman A Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research

The association of smoothness index of central blood pressure with ambulatory carotid femoral pulse wave velocity after 20-week treatment with losartan in combination with amlodipine versus hydrochlorothiazide
Conclusion: Losartan and amlodipine combination was superior to the losartan and hydrochlorthiazide combination in terms of achieving higher smoothness index for CSBP after 20-week treatments. The effect of losartan and amlodipine on smoothness index was fully mediated by reduction of night-time AcfPWV. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - November 4, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Treatment Source Type: research

Telmisartan Inhibits Nitric Oxide Production and Vessel Relaxation via Protein Phosphatase 2A-mediated Endothelial NO Synthase-Ser1179 Dephosphorylation.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that telmisartan inhibited NO production and vessel relaxation at least in part by PP2A-mediated eNOS-Ser1179 dephosphorylation in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-independent manner. These results may provide a mechanism that explains the inconsistent cerebrocardiovascular protective effects of telmisartan. PMID: 31674157 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Korean Medical Science)
Source: Journal of Korean Medical Science - November 2, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Korean Med Sci Source Type: research

Mid-dose losartan mitigates diabetes-induced hepatic damage by regulating iNOS, eNOS, VEGF, and NF- κB expressions
Conclusion: This study indicated that mid-dose losartan administration may have a therapeutic effect by inhibiting apoptosis and regulating iNOS, eNOS, VEGF, and NF-κB protein expressions in DM-induced hepatic damage. PMID: 31652041 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences)
Source: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences - October 29, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: Turk J Med Sci Source Type: research

Angiotensin II Type I Receptor Blockade Is Associated with Decreased Cutaneous Scar Formation in a Rat Model
Background: Angiotensin II engagement of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is implicated in fibrogenesis, with AT1R blockers used clinically to attenuate cardiac and renal fibrosis. The authors tested the hypothesis that the AT1R blocker losartan could reduce postsurgical cutaneous scarring in rats. Methods: Human dermal fibroblasts were treated with losartan and assessed for viability, contractile activity, migration, and profibrotic gene transcription by means of calcein, collagen gel, scratch, and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays, respectively. Monocyte migration and adhesion ...
Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - October 28, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Experimental Source Type: research

Losartan, an Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Antagonist, Alleviates Mechanical Hyperalgesia in a Rat Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Pain by Inhibiting Inflammatory Cytokines in the Dorsal Root Ganglia
In this study, we assessed losartan ’s analgesic effect on paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain (PINP) in rats and its mechanism of action in dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Rats received intraperitoneal injections of 2 mg/kg paclitaxel on days 0, 2, 4, and 6 and received single or multiple intraperitoneal injections of losartan potassi um dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline at various times. The mechanical thresholds, protein levels of inflammatory cytokines, and cellular location of AT1R and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) in the DRG were assessed with behavioral testing, Western blotting, and immunohistochemis...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - October 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Hypouricemia: what the practicing rheumatologist should know about this condition
We presented an update in the field of hypouricemia, which is defined as a serum urate concentration of
Source: Clinical Rheumatology - October 24, 2019 Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research

Memory and cerebrovascular deficits recovered following angiotensin IV intervention in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists like losartan have been found to lower the incidence and progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as rescue cognitive and cerebrovascular deficits in AD mouse models. We previously found that co-administration of an angiotensin IV (AngIV) receptor (AT4R) antagonist prevented losartan's benefits, identifying AT4Rs as a possible target to counter AD pathogenesis. Therein, we investigated whether directly targeting AT4Rs could counter AD pathogenesis in a well-characterized mouse model of AD. Wild-type and human amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic (J2...
Source: Neurobiology of Disease - October 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Royea J, Martinot P, Hamel E Tags: Neurobiol Dis Source Type: research

Central angiotensin II-Protein inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (PIN) axis contribute to neurogenic hypertension
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Nitric OxideAuthor(s): Neeru M. Sharma, Andrea S. Haibara, Kenichi Katsurada, Xuefei Liu, Kaushik P. PatelAbstractActivation of renin-angiotensin- system, nitric oxide (NO•) bioavailability and subsequent sympathoexcitation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. Previously we have shown increased protein expression of PIN (a protein inhibitor of nNOS: neuronal nitric oxide synthase, known to dissociate nNOS dimers into monomers) with concomitantly reduced levels of catalytically active dimers of nNOS in...
Source: Nitric Oxide - October 23, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Tactile stimulation of adult rats modulates hormonal responses, depression-like behaviors, and memory impairment induced by chronic mild stress: role of angiotensin II.
Abstract Physical touch can help to decrease the effects of stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of tactile stimulation on the hormonal and behavioral responses of young adult rats submitted to chronic mild unpredictable stress (CMS), considering the role of angiotensin II (Ang II). In Experiment 1, male rats were divided into 4 groups: control, stress, tactile stimulation (TS), and stress + TS. CMS was applied for three weeks. Tactile stimulation was applied for seven weeks, five days a week. After the CMS protocol, depression-like behaviors were evaluated by forced swimming a...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - October 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Costa R, Leite Tamascia M, Sanches A, Peres Moreira R, Sousa Cunha T, Doki Nogueira M, Casarini DE, Klein Marcondes F Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor Antagonist Losartan Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction and Anxiety-Like Behavior in Long Evans Rats.
Abstract Women who have bilateral oophorectomies prior to the age of natural menopause are at increased risk of developing mild cognitive decline, dementia, anxiety, and depressive type disorders. Clinical and animal studies indicate angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockers (ARBs) have blood pressure (BP)-independent neuroprotective effects. To investigate the potential use of ARBs in normotensive women at increased risk of developing neurocognitive problems, we studied a rat model of bilateral oophorectomy. Long Evans rats were sham-operated (Sham) or ovariectomized (Ovx) at 3 months of age and immediatel...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - October 21, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Campos GV, de Souza AMA, Ji H, West CA, Wu X, Lee DL, Aguilar BL, Forcelli PA, de Menezes RC, Sandberg K Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research