Efficacy of ciclesonide in the treatment of patients with asthma exacerbation.
Conclusions: Treating with high doses of ciclesonide is characterised by a quick and potent anti-inflammatory effect as well as prompt clinical improvement along with the proper safety profile in patients experiencing asthma exacerbations. PMID: 31320857 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Dermatology and Allergology)
Source: Advances in Dermatology and Allergology - July 21, 2019 Category: Dermatology Tags: Postepy Dermatol Alergol Source Type: research

How Genomics Is Changing What We Know About the Evolution and Genome of Bordetella pertussis.
Authors: Ring N, Abrahams JS, Bagby S, Preston A, MacArthur I Abstract The evolution of Bordetella pertussis from a common ancestor similar to Bordetella bronchiseptica has occurred through large-scale gene loss, inactivation and rearrangements, largely driven by the spread of insertion sequence element repeats throughout the genome. B. pertussis is widely considered to be monomorphic, and recent evolution of the B. pertussis genome appears to, at least in part, be driven by vaccine-based selection. Given the recent global resurgence of whooping cough despite the wide-spread use of vaccination, a more thorough unde...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 21, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Superior B. pertussis Specific CD4+ T-Cell Immunity Imprinted by Natural Infection.
Authors: Lambert EE, Buisman AM, van Els CACM Abstract Pertussis remains endemic in vaccinated populations due to waning of vaccine-induced immunity and insufficient interruption of transmission. Correlates of long-term protection against whooping cough remain elusive but increasing evidence from experimental models indicates that the priming of particular lineages of B. pertussis (Bp) specific CD4+ T cells is essential to control bacterial load. Critical hallmarks of these protective CD4+ T cell lineages in animals are suggested to be their differentiation profile as Th1 and Th17 cells and their tissue residency. ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 21, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Updates in the field of non-esophageal gastroesophageal reflux disorder.
This article reviews the current literature regarding established and proposed EE-GERD, reporting on all available options for its correct diagnosis and therapeutic management. Expert opinion: MII-pH could help to identify a hidden GERD that causes EE. Unfortunately, standard MII-pH analysis results are often unable to define this association. New parameters such as the mean nocturnal baseline impedance and post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave index may have an improved diagnostic yield, but prospective studies using impedance-pH are needed. PMID: 31322443 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Rev...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - July 20, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Socio-economical and Clinico-Radiological Profile of 474 MDR TB Cases of a Rural Medical College.
Conclusion: The epidemiological picture of TB showed that males were predominant in our study however female were more affected in younger age group compared to male. More than 51% of the cases were in productive age group which affects the socioeconomic condition of family and society. More than 2/3 of patients were from lower socioeconomic group with low BMI. Therefore improving nutrition and immunity can play an important role. 2.3% of the cases were HIV reactive and were on ART. Co-morbidities like COPD and Diabetes were seen in our study which were statistically significant and had impact on the treatment outcome of r...
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - July 20, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research

Objective measurement of nocturnal cough in infants with acute bronchiolitis
The objective measurement of the cough severity and the assessment of the pattern of nocturnal coughing could be useful in the treatment of respiratory diseases in children.Study designIn children with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced acute bronchiolitis, coughs were recorded using our original system with a microphone and accelerometer, and analyzed using our customized software program. The number of coughs in every 30-minute interval was measured in patients with acute bronchiolitis (n = 20), and their results were compared with those of infants with asthma exacerbation (n = 16).ResultsThe cough count in childr...
Source: Respiratory Investigation - July 19, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A systematic review of methods of citric acid cough reflex testing
ConclusionsConsiderable methodological variability exists for citric acid CRT in published literature. The findings suggest that caution is warranted in comparing citric acid cough thresholds across studies. Full replication of previously published methods of citric acid CRT is limited due to crucial elements of the citric acid CRT protocol being omitted from published manuscripts. These findings have implications on the use of citric acid CRT in clinical and pharmaceutical studies to evaluate the effects of antitussive medications and cough therapies. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - July 19, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A Machine Hearing System for Robust Cough Detection Based on a High-Level Representation of Band-Specific Audio Features
Conclusion: Our research outcome paves the way to create a device for cough monitoring in real-life situations. Significance: Our proposal is aligned with a more comfortable and less disruptive patient monitoring, with benefits for patients (allows self-monitoring of cough symptoms), practitioners (e.g., assessment of treatments or better clinical understanding of cough patterns), and national health systems (by reducing hospitalizations). (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - July 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Cough.
Authors: Niburski K PMID: 31308010 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Canadian Medical Association Journal)
Source: Canadian Medical Association Journal - July 18, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: CMAJ Source Type: research

Treatment to prevent exacerbations in bronchiectasis: macrolides as first line?
Bronchiectasis exacerbations are defined by an increase in daily respiratory symptoms such as cough, sputum production, malaise, fatigue and breathlessness [1–3]. Symptoms accumulate over several days and can take weeks to resolve, with many patients never fully returning to baseline after therapy [4]. Patients with frequent exacerbations experience poorer quality of life and a markedly increased mortality [5–7]. Patients tend to continue to have frequent exacerbations over time unless therapy is initiated to prevent them [5]. Bronchiectasis guidelines such as those recently issued from the European Respiratory...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - July 18, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Laska, I. F., Chalmers, J. D. Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Time course of nocturnal cough and wheezing in children with acute bronchitis monitored by lung sound analysis
AbstractCough and wheezing are the predominant symptoms of acute bronchitis. Hitherto, the evaluation of respiratory symptoms was limited to subjective methods such as questionnaires. The main objective of this study was to objectively determine the time course of cough and wheezing in children with acute bronchitis. The impact of nocturnal cough on parent ’s quality of life was assessed as secondary outcome. In 36 children (2–8 years), the frequency of nocturnal cough and wheezing was recorded during three nights by automated lung sound monitoring. Additionally, parents completed symptom logs, i.e., the B...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 18, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

CalliSpheres ® drug‐eluting beads bronchial arterial chemoembolization loaded with gemcitabine for treatment of non‐small cell lung cancer
BackgroundDrug ‐eluting beads bronchial arterial chemoembolization (DEB‐BACE) can embolize the tumor‐feeding artery and also be loaded with antitumor drugs, which can be released slowly into the local tumor environment. The effect of DEB‐BACE in patients with lung cancer remains unclear. We evaluated the e fficacy and safety of DEB‐BACE with gemcitabine‐loaded CalliSpheres® beads in patients with non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).MethodsFrom May 2017 to December 2018, six patients with NSCLC who were ineligible or refused to receive standard treatment underwent DEB ‐BACE with gemcitabine‐loaded Calli...
Source: Thoracic Cancer - July 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zhixin Bie, Yuanming Li, Bin Li, Dongdong Wang, Lin Li, Xiaoguang Li Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Evaluation of pneumococcal urinary antigen testing for respiratory tract infection investigations.
The objective was to identify factors associated with a positive pneumococcal urinary antigen test result. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This seven-year retrospective monocentric study was performed on consecutive patients presenting with respiratory tract infections reported as pneumococcal-positive. Epidemiological, biological, and radiological factors were analyzed, and severity scores were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 223 patients were included. Significant associations were observed between positive test results and age over 65years (P=0.01), positive test results and immunosuppression factors (blood disease [25% A...
Source: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses - July 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Med Mal Infect Source Type: research

Anti-Jo-1 Antibody-positive Interstitial Pneumonia in an Elderly Patient with Congenital Rubella Syndrome.
Authors: Nozue T, Toyoshima M, Fukada A, Suda T Abstract A 71-year-old woman with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) presented with prolonged cough. No physical findings suggested the presence of any connective tissue diseases. Chest computed tomography showed ground-glass opacities and consolidations in the bilateral lower lobes. She had elevated serum Krebs von den Lungen-6, hypoxemia and positive serum anti-Jo-1 antibody. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed lymphocytosis with a decreased CD4/CD8 ratio. A transbronchial lung biopsy specimen revealed organizing pneumonia. Based on a diagnosis of interstitial pneu...
Source: Internal Medicine - July 17, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research

Clinical Manifestations and Complications of Scrub Typhus: A Hospital-based Study from North Andhra.
Conclusion: Scrub typhus though prevalent is under-reported in our country. It should be considered as an important differential diagnosis in a febrile patient with thrombocytopenia, deranged liver or renal functions. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is rewarding and prevents morbidity and mortality. PMID: 31304700 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India)
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - July 17, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research

Effect of anti-reflux treatment on gastroesophageal reflux-associated chronic cough: Implications of neurogenic and neutrophilic inflammation.
Conclusions: Successful treatment of GER-associated cough may be associated with the attenuation of neurogenic and neutrophilic inflammation. PMID: 31303089 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Asthma)
Source: Journal of Asthma - July 17, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Asthma Source Type: research

Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism with Chemotherapy in a Case of Newly Diagnosed Osteosarcoma.
Authors: Mian A, Singal AK, Bakhshi S, Sood R, Vikram NK, Ray A Abstract A 21-year old female, recently diagnosed with osteosarcoma of right humerus, presented to the emergency with history of fever, productive cough, chest pain and progressive respiratory distress for six days. Initial investigations suggested pneumonia but she did not respond to parenteral antibiotics. CT pulmonary angiogram revealed bilateral pulmonary artery embolism. Thrombolysis was performed using alteplase, which failed to improve the clinical condition. In view of underlying malignancy, a possibility of tumour-embolism was considered and s...
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - July 15, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research

Predictors of Severity in Scrub Typhus.
Authors: Sharma R, Mahajan SK, Singh B, Raina R, Kanga A Abstract Aims: To study predictors of severity in patients of scrub typhus admitted in a tertiary care hospital. Material and Methods: Total 92 patients of scrub typhus were included in the study. The diagnosis was established by presence of IgM antibodies by Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) test which is currently the reference standard for the diagnosis of scrub typhus. The clinical and laboratory profile, course in hospital, and outcome were documented. Factors associated with severe disease were analyzed. Observations: Fever (100%), cough (...
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - July 15, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research

Suhuang antitussive capsule inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation and ameliorates pulmonary dysfunction via suppression of endoplasmic reticulum stress in cough variant asthma
In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects and underlying antitussive mechanisms of Suhuang on pulmonary function in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced CVA rats. Administration (i.g.) of Suhuang significantly alleviated pulmonary damage and dysfunction. Suhuang improved ER stress and PKCε translocation via regulation of Ca2+ trafficking. Suhuang also inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation, as evidenced by disrupting the assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome and reducing the expression of cleaved caspase-1, and decreased IL-1β secretion. Besides, it’s identified that TXNIP induction and RIP1-RIP3-Drp1 p...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - July 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Airway mycosis in allergic airway disease.
Abstract The allergic airway diseases, including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) and many others, comprise a heterogeneous collection of inflammatory disorders affecting the upper and lower airways and lung parenchyma that represent the most common chronic diseases of humanity. In addition to their shared tissue tropism, the allergic airway diseases are characterized by a distinct pattern of inflammation involving the accumulation of eosinophils, type 2 macrophages, innate lymphoid cells type 2 (ILC2), IgE-secreting B cells, and T helper type 2 (Th2) cells in airway t...
Source: Advances in Immunology - July 14, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Li E, Knight JM, Wu Y, Luong A, Rodriguez A, Kheradmand F, Corry DB Tags: Adv Immunol Source Type: research

Suhuang antitussive capsule inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation and ameliorates pulmonary dysfunction via suppression of endoplasmic reticulum stress in cough variant asthma.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects and underlying antitussive mechanisms of Suhuang on pulmonary function in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced CVA rats. Administration (i.g.) of Suhuang significantly alleviated pulmonary damage and dysfunction. Suhuang improved ER stress and PKCε translocation via regulation of Ca2+ trafficking. Suhuang also inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation, as evidenced by disrupting the assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome and reducing the expression of cleaved caspase-1, and decreased IL-1β secretion. Besides, it's identified that TXNIP induction and RIP1-RIP3-Drp1 pathway...
Source: Biomedicine and pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine and pharmacotherapie - July 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Qin W, Wu X, Jia Y, Tong X, Guo C, Chen D, Wang Z, Tan N Tags: Biomed Pharmacother Source Type: research

Could the postoperative residual of urine predict the outcome of TVTOmidurethral sling procedure in female patients?
Conclusion(s)PVR 
Source: European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology - July 13, 2019 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Pertussis detection in children with cough of any duration
The diagnosis of pertussis in clinical practice continues to be a challenge worldwide as the symptoms are variable. We aimed to determine the prevalence of pertussis in Chinese children irrespective of cough d... (Source: BMC Pediatrics)
Source: BMC Pediatrics - July 12, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Dan-Xia Wu, Qiang Chen, Kai-Hu Yao, Lan Li, Wei Shi, Jiang-Wei Ke, Ai-Min Wu, Peng Huang and Kun-Ling Shen Tags: Research article Source Type: research

An 8-Month-Old With a Chronic Cough
Cough is a common and chief complaint in primary care. Chronic cough, which is defined as cough lasting for a duration of 4 or more weeks by the American College of Chest Physicians Guidelines (Chang et al., 2017), requires medical attention; it is important to determine the etiology of chronic cough in infants and children. Although chronic cough can be commonly attributed to airway disorders and infectious diseases, it is important to consider less-common diagnoses and use appropriate pediatric guidelines when diagnosing and treating the underlying cause (Bergamini, Kantar, Cutrera,& Italian Pediatric Cough Interest ...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Health Care - July 12, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Teresa M. Whited, Deena D. Garner Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Pulmonary effects of inhaled cannabis smoke.
Conclusions: Solid conclusions regarding the respiratory consequences of regular cannabis smoking are difficult to make due to a relative paucity of literature, confounding by concurrent tobacco smoking and reports of conflicting outcomes. Additional well-controlled clinical studies on the pulmonary consequences of habitual cannabis use are needed. PMID: 31298945 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - July 12, 2019 Category: Addiction Authors: Tashkin DP, Roth MD Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Splenic artery aneurysm in Sj ögren's syndrome.
Splenic artery aneurysm in Sjögren's syndrome. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2019 Jul 08;89(2): Authors: Tetikkurt C, Ozseker ZF, Karakaş FG Abstract A 40-year-old female presented with cough, exertional dyspnea, abdominal pain with distention, fatigue, dry eyes and dry mouth. Past history revealed asthma. Physical examination was normal except for tachypnea. We found leukocytosis, azygos fissure on chest X-ray along with normal pulmonary function tests and arterial blood gases.  Thorax computed tomography (CT) revealed bronchiectasis and ground glass opacities in both lungs. Abdominal CT demonstr...
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - July 11, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research

Wide phenotypic variability in RSPH9-associated primary ciliary dyskinesia: review of a case-series from Cyprus.
Conclusions: In conclusion, RSPH9-associated PCD disease demonstrates wide phenotypic variability. In some cases, mild clinical presentation is difficult to justify diagnostic work-up, highlighting the importance of wider adoption of genetic diagnostics. Larger studies are needed to assess variability of clinical spectrum associated to alterations of PCD genes. PMID: 31285900 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease - July 11, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Thorac Dis Source Type: research

Failure with acquired resistance of an optimised bedaquiline-based treatment regimen for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease
5 years ago, a then 50-year-old woman presented with long-standing fatigue, dyspnoea and a chronic productive cough. Based on a computed tomography scan of the thorax and multiple positive cultures, she was diagnosed with nodular–bronchiectatic Mycobacterium avium pulmonary disease; she was also found to have a heterozygous F508del CFTR gene mutation. She commenced therapy with rifabutin 300 mg once daily, ethambutol 1200 mg once daily and azithromycin 500 mg once daily. After 15 months of ongoing symptoms, radiographic deterioration and persistent culture positivity, clofazimine 100 mg ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - July 11, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Zweijpfenning, S. M. H., Schildkraut, J. A., Coolen, J. P. M., Ruesen, C., Koenraad, E., Janssen, A., Ruth, M. M., de Jong, A. S., Kuipers, S., Aarnoutse, R. E., Magis-Escurra, C., Hoefsloot, W., van Ingen, J. Tags: Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

Hydatid cyst of the thyroid gland with tracheal fistula: A case report and review of the literature.
Authors: Jiang T, Guo Q, Ran B, Zhang R, Aji T, Shao Y Abstract Hydatid disease, also known as echinococcal disease, is a zoonotic disease caused by Echinococcus infection. Hydatid cysts of the thyroid are rare. The present case study reports on a patient with hydatid cyst in the thyroid with tracheal fistula. A 54-year-old male patient without any history of exposure to farm animals was hospitalized due to fever and productive cough with occasional hydatid daughter cyst. The patient was diagnosed with a hydatid cyst of the thyroid gland with tracheal fistula by relevant examination. An operation was performed to r...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - July 10, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research

Whooping Cough in a Young Infant
New England Journal of Medicine,Volume 381, Issue 2, July 2019. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)
Source: New England Journal of Medicine - July 10, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Debra Hillier Source Type: research

What is the role of preoperative breathing exercises in reducing postoperative atelectasis after CABG?
CONCLUSION: preoperative breathing exercise doesn't reduce the pulmonary complications in patients undergoing CABG. PMID: 31291879 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials)
Source: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials - July 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Moradian ST, Heydari AA, Mahmoudi H Tags: Rev Recent Clin Trials Source Type: research

A randomized trial of nebulized lignocaine, lignocaine spray or their combination for topical anesthesia during diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy.
Abstract BACKGROUND AND AIM: The optimal mode of delivering topical anesthesia during flexible bronchoscopy remains unknown. Herein, we compare the efficacy and safety of nebulized lignocaine, lignocaine oropharyngeal spray, or their combination. METHODS: Consecutive subjects were randomized 1:1:1 to receive nebulized lignocaine (2.5 mL of 4% solution, group A), oropharyngeal spray (10 actuations of 10% lignocaine, group B), or nebulization (2.5 mL, 4% lignocaine) and two actuations of 10% lignocaine spray (group C). The primary outcome was the subject-rated severity of cough, using the visual analogue scale ...
Source: Chest - July 9, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dhooria S, Chaudhary S, Ram B, Sehgal IS, Muthu V, Prasad KT, Aggarwal AN, Agarwal R Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Asia: an update.
Abstract Paragonimiasis, or lung fluke disease, is a typical food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with trematodes belonging to the genus Paragonimus. More than 50 species of Paragonimus have been reported throughout the world, of which seven valid species infect humans, an estimated one million people annually worldwide. Among the seven species, P. westermani, P. heterotremus, and P. skrjabini/P. s. miyazakii, distributed in Asia, are the most important species as the cause of paragonimiasis. Humans acquire infection through the ingestion of raw, pickled or undercooked freshwater crustaceans, 2nd inte...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yoshida A, Doanh PN, Maruyama H Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Cor pulmonale complicating chronic pulmonary aspergillosis with fatal consequences: Experience from Uganda
Publication date: September 2019Source: Medical Mycology Case Reports, Volume 25Author(s): Felix Bongomin, Richard Kwizera, Angella Atukunda, Bruce J. KirengaAbstractCor pulmonale is a rare complication of pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). A 45-year-old Ugandan male with a history of recurrent community-acquired pneumonias was admitted with symptoms of progressive difficulty in breathing, chronic productive cough, non-exertional left sided chest pain and progressive weight loss occurring over a 12-month period. Chest CT scan and echocardiography confirmed the diagnosis of CPA with an aspergilloma complicating bronchiectasis, ...
Source: Medical Mycology Case Reports - July 7, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

A Woman With Dyspnea and Bronchiectasis
A 41-year-old woman with an 8 –pack-year history of tobacco use had 4 years of progressive cough and dyspnea. She had no history of neonatal respiratory distress or nasal congestion and no family history of COPD or cystic fibrosis; pulmonary function testing showed a severe obstruction and chest CT showed lower lobe predominan t emphysema and bronchiectasis. What is the diagnosis and what would you do next? (Source: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association)
Source: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association - July 5, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Pneumocystis jirovecii in a patient on dose ‐dense chemotherapy for early breast cancer
We present a fatal case ofPneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia —a rare and under‐recognized complication—in an otherwise well patient undergoing a dose‐dense adjuvant chemotherapy following surgery for EBC. A 70 ‐year‐old woman underwent adjuvant chemotherapy with dose‐dense doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide for early breast cancer. After her fourth cycle of chemotherapy, she developed severe fatigue and cough with rapid‐onset hypoxic respiratory failure. Investigations demonstrated extensive bilater al consolidation with positive bronchial washings forPneumocystis jirovecii by polymerase chain reaction ...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - July 5, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chloe Khoo, Jenny Gilchrist, Jonathan Philip Williamson, Miriam Paul, Richard Kefford Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Antimicrobial susceptibility and impact of macrolide antibiotics on Moraxella catarrhalis in the upper and lower airways of children with chronic endobronchial suppuration.
CONCLUSION: Despite the frequent use of macrolides, few macrolide-resistant isolates were detected. This suggests a fitness cost associated with macrolide resistance in M. catarrhalis. Macrolide antibiotics remain an effective choice for treating M. catarrhalis lower airway infection in children with chronic endobronchial suppuration. PMID: 31274402 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hare KM, Seib KL, Chang AB, Harris TM, Spargo JC, Smith-Vaughan HC Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparative Efficacy of Chinese Herbal Injections for the Treatment of Community-acquired Pneumonia: A Bayesian Network Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
ConclusionsThis NMA showed that using CHIs in combination with WM improved treatment performance and could be beneficial for patients with CAP compared to using WM alone. Thereinto, YHN+WM showed a preferable improvement on patients with CAP when unified considering the clinical effective rate and other outcomes. As for safety, more evidence is needed to support this hypothesis.Graphical abstract (Source: Phytomedicine)
Source: Phytomedicine - July 4, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Tracheobronchial calcification on bronchoscopy in a patient with end stage renal failure: an unusual cause of chronic cough
In this report, we describe a 64 ‐year‐old female with a history of inadequate peritoneal dialysis who presented with severe and persistent chronic cough. Extensive white nodular tracheobronchial mucosal changes were identified on bronchoscopy despite the absence of corresponding abnormalities on CT imaging. We believe that the bronchoscopic findings represent a highly unusual presentation of metastatic pulmonary calcification and an unusual cause of chronic cough amongst patients with end‐stage renal failure. Pulmonary calcification can develop as a complication of end ‐stage renal failure. Most patients are asymp...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - July 4, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Alice Sawka, April Crawford, Chen Au Peh, Phan Nguyen Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

The effect of gefapixant, a P2X3 antagonist, on cough reflex sensitivity: a randomised placebo-controlled study
We evaluated the effect of gefapixant on cough reflex sensitivity to evoked tussive challenge. In this phase 2, double-blind, two-period study, patients with chronic cough (CC) and healthy volunteers (HV) were randomised to single-dose gefapixant 100 mg or placebo in a crossover fashion. Sequential inhalational challenges with ATP, citric acid, capsaicin and distilled water were performed 1, 3 and 5 h after dosing. Mean concentrations evoking ≥2 coughs (C2) and ≥5 coughs (C5) post dose versus baseline were co-primary endpoints. Objective cough frequency (coughs·h–1) over 24 h and...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - July 4, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Morice, A. H., Kitt, M. M., Ford, A. P., Tershakovec, A. M., Wu, W.-C., Brindle, K., Thompson, R., Thackray-Nocera, S., Wright, C. Tags: Respiratory clinical practice Original Articles: Cough Source Type: research

Chronic cough: ATP, afferent pathways and hypersensitivity
Cough remains a vexing clinical problem in many contexts. Despite the identification of precipitating factors and relevant associated diagnoses, it is common for patients presenting to healthcare providers with persistent cough to remain unsatisfactorily treated [1]. Chronic cough is common and is associated with substantial physical and psychological morbidity [2]. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - July 4, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Turner, R. D., Birring, S. S. Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Chronic Cough
Publication date: July–August 2019Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, Volume 7, Issue 6Author(s): Peter G. Gibson (Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice)
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - July 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CME Exam: Cough and Eosinophilia
Publication date: July–August 2019Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, Volume 7, Issue 6Author(s): (Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice)
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - July 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Cough and Eosinophilia
Publication date: July–August 2019Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, Volume 7, Issue 6Author(s): Sarah Diver, Richard J. Russell, Christopher E. BrightlingEosinophilic airway inflammation is observed in 30% to 50% of chronic cough sufferers. It is a common feature of asthma and upper airway cough syndrome, and it is required in the diagnosis of nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying allergic and nonallergic eosinophilic inflammation have evolved tremendously in the last 2 decades, but the cause of this inflammation in any individual is of...
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - July 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CME Exam: Cough: New Pharmacology
Publication date: July–August 2019Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, Volume 7, Issue 6Author(s): (Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice)
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - July 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Cough: New Pharmacology
Publication date: July–August 2019Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, Volume 7, Issue 6Author(s): Jaclyn A. Smith, Huda BadriChronic coughing has a significant impact on the sufferer's quality of life. Despite this, licensed therapies are currently lacking, and until recently novel efficacious therapies for the treatment of chronic cough have remained elusive. In recent years, a first in class P2X3 antagonist has been found to be efficacious in patients with refractory chronic cough, stimulating much interest in the development of therapies for this problem. The aim of this review is ...
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - July 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CME Exam: Management of Cough
Publication date: July–August 2019Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, Volume 7, Issue 6Author(s): (Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice)
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - July 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Management of Cough
Publication date: July–August 2019Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, Volume 7, Issue 6Author(s): Peter G. GibsonPeople with chronic cough can experience significant quality-of-life impairment. New concepts based around cough reflex hypersensitivity are leading to improved management strategies and showing promise in relieving the distress from persistent cough. The clinical cough assessment seeks to classify patients on the basis of symptom duration, and to identify and manage exposures and diseases that activate the afferent limb of the cough reflex. Cough hypersensitivity is also a...
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - July 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Therapeutic effect of vitamin K1 combined with meropenem on the treatment of pertussis syndrome.
Authors: Chen W, Guo Y Abstract Clinical efficacy of vitamin K1 combined with meropenem on the treatment of pertussis syndrome was evaluated. Clinical data of 170 children with pertussis syndrome treated in the Second People's Hospital of Liaocheng from March 2015 to March 2017 were collected. Of these, 87 patients who were treated with vitamin K1 combined with meropenem were regarded as the experiment group. A total of 83 patients who were treated with meropenem alone were regarded as the control group. Both groups were treated with anti-infective, respiratory support, antispasmodic, expectorant and other basic tr...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - July 3, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research

Clinical efficacy of montelukast sodium combined with budesonide or combined with loratadine in treating children with cough variant asthma and influence on inflammatory factors in the serum.
Authors: Wei H, Li W, Jiang Z, Xi X, Qi G Abstract Clinical efficacy of montelukast sodium combined with budesonide or combined with loratadine in children with cough variant asthma was investigated. A retrospective analysis of the medical records of 72 children with cough variant asthma who were treated in Xuzhou Children's Hospital, Xuzhou Medical University from April 2015 to August 2017 was performed and the 72 child patients were divided into two groups: 35 children were treated with montelukast sodium combined with budesonide in Group A, and 37 children were treated with montelukast sodium combined with lorat...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - July 3, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research