IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 2516: Risk Analysis for Patient Safety in Surgical Departments: Cross-Sectional Design Usefulness
Conclusions: Surgical departments were associated with a higher risk of experiencing AEs. (Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - April 7, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Ver ónica Aranaz Ostáriz Mar ía Teresa Gea Velázquez de Castro Francisco L ópez Rodríguez-Arias Jos é Lorenzo Valencia Martín Carlos Aibar Rem ón Juana Requena Puche Cristina D íaz-Agero Pérez Antonio Fernando Compa ñ Rosique Jes ús María Ar Tags: Article Source Type: research

Snake venomics, experimental toxic activities and clinical characteristics of human envenomation by Bothrocophias myersi (Serpentes: Viperidae) from Colombia.
vis C, Castaño S Abstract Venoms of the viperid genus Bothrocophias, restricted to Colombia and Ecuador, are poorly known. Only a proteomic analysis of B. campbelli venom has been described. In this work we present a proteomic study of B. myersi venom, its biological activities, and describe the clinical characteristics of a patient bitten by this species. B. myersi venom mainly consists of phospholipases A2 (54.0%) and metalloproteinases (21.5%), among proteins of twelve different families. This venom exhibited proteolytic, phospholipase A2, myotoxic, edema-forming, and lethal activities. Enzymatic activit...
Source: Journal of Proteomics - April 1, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Pereañez JA, Preciado LM, Fernández J, Camacho E, Lomonte B, Castro F, Cañas CA, Galvis C, Castaño S Tags: J Proteomics Source Type: research

Contrasting patterns of functional diversity in coffee root fungal communities associated with organic and conventionally-managed fields.
Abstract The structure and function of fungal communities in the coffee rhizosphere is shaped by crop environment. Because coffee can be grown along a management continuum from conventional application of pesticides and fertilizers in full sun to organic management in a shaded understory, we used coffee fields to hold host constant while comparing rhizosphere fungal communities in markedly different environmental conditions with regard to shade and inputs. We characterized the shade and soil environment in 25 fields under conventional, organic or transitional management in two regions of Costa Rica. We amplified t...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - March 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sternhagen EC, Black KL, Hartmann EDL, Shivega WG, Johnson PG, McGlynn RD, Schmaltz LC, Asheim Keller RJ, Vink SN, Aldrich-Wolfe L Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research

Environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis: asymmetry analysis and robust estimation under cross-section dependence.
Abstract In this paper, we revisit the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis by using estimations that account for cross-sectional dependency (CSD) and asymmetry effect in 76 countries for the period 1971-2014. Our results lend moderate support to the EKC hypothesis. The country-specific results unfold that a total of 16 out of 76 countries support the EKC hypothesis using CCEMG estimator. Results from AMG reveal that the EKC hypothesis holds in 24 out of 76 countries. It is worth highlighting that 11 countries (Australia, China, Congo Dem. Rep., Costa Rica, Gabon, Hong Kong, India, Korea, Myanmar, Turkey, ...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - March 23, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Ng CF, Choong CK, Lau LS Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

A detailed analysis of the current status of intestinal transplantation in Latin America
Purpose of review Latin America and the Caribbean represent a vast territory, with very different economic and healthcare realities, which result in significant disparities in the management of intestinal failure patients throughout the region. Since 1968, multiple attempts have been done to accomplish a successful intestinal transplant; but it was not until 2004, with the establishment of multidisciplinary programs, that large series with long-term results could be obtained. Currently, three countries (Colombia, Argentina, and Brazil) in the region are actively performing these procedures. Recent findings A total num...
Source: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation - March 9, 2020 Category: Surgery Tags: SMALL BOWEL TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by Cal S. Matsumoto Source Type: research

Social inequalities in cancer survival: A population-based study using the Costa Rican Cancer Registry
Publication date: April 2020Source: Cancer Epidemiology, Volume 65Author(s): Romain Fantin, Carolina Santamaría-Ulloa, Cristina Barboza-Solís (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - March 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Identification and Quantification of Bioactive Molecules Inhibiting Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production in Spent Coffee Grounds Using Metabolomics Analyses
In this study, we assessed the anti-inflammatory properties of spent coffee grounds. Methanolic extracts of spent coffee grounds obtained from 3 Arabica cultivars possess compounds that exerted inhibitory effects on the secretion of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10) induced by a human pro-monocytic cell line differentiated with PMA and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our results indicated that the cytokine suppressive activities of the spent coffee ground (SCG) extracts were different among coffee cultivars tested. Hawaiian Kona extracts exhibited inhibitory effects on the expression of 3 exam...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - March 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Genes, Vol. 11, Pages 262: The Metabolization Profile of the CYP2D6 Gene in Amerindian Populations: A Review
Conclusion: the metabolization profiles of the Amerindian populations reviewed in the present study do not diverge in any major way from those of other populations from around the world. Given the paucity of the data available on Amerindian populations, further research is required to better characterize the metabolization profile of these populations to ensure the development of adequate therapeutic strategies. (Source: Genes)
Source: Genes - February 28, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Luciana P. C. Leit ão Tatiane P. Souza Juliana C. G. Rodrigues Marianne R. Fernandes Sidney Santos Ney P. C. Santos Tags: Review Source Type: research

Microsatellite instability in Costa Rican patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma and its association with overall survival and response to fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy
ConclusionsMSI was detected in a higher proportion of CRC patients than previously reported for other non-Hispanic populations. MSI was an independent prognostic factor for OS, but did not predict the efficacy of cytotoxic treatment with Fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - February 22, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Biochemical and Muscle Mechanical Postmarathon Changes in Hot and Humid Conditions
Gutiérrez-Vargas, R, Martín-Rodríguez, S, Sánchez-Ureña, B, Rodríguez-Montero, A, Salas-Cabrera, J, Gutiérrez-Vargas, JC, Simunic, B, and Rojas-Valverde, D. Biochemical and muscle mechanical postmarathon changes in hot and humid conditions. J Strength Cond Res 34(3): 847–856, 2020—The aim of this study was to compare biochemical changes and mechanical changes in the lower-limb muscles before and after a marathon race in hot and humid conditions. Eighteen healthy runners participated in a marathon at between 28 and 34° C and 81% humidity in Costa Rica. Serum m...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - February 20, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Prenatal pesticide exposure and respiratory health outcomes in the first year of life: Results from the infants' Environmental Health (ISA) study.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that exposure to mancozeb/ETU during the first half of pregnancy may be associated with respiratory outcomes in the first year of life. PMID: 32066110 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental health)
Source: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental health - February 14, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Mora AM, Hoppin JA, Córdoba L, Cano JC, Soto-Martínez M, Eskenazi B, Lindh CH, van Wendel de Joode B Tags: Int J Hyg Environ Health Source Type: research

Reducing Both Food Insecurity and Excess Body Weight in Costa Rican Women: A Cluster Randomized Trial
ConclusionsThe intensive intervention was effective in simultaneously reducing food insecurity and excess body weight. Educational components should be added to interventions aimed to reduce food insecurity.Trial registrationThis study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT03492619. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A detailed analysis of the current status of intestinal transplantation in Latin America.
;iz H Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Latin America and the Caribbean represent a vast territory, with very different economic and healthcare realities, which result in significant disparities in the management of intestinal failure patients throughout the region. Since 1968, multiple attempts have been done to accomplish a successful intestinal transplant; but it was not until 2004, with the establishment of multidisciplinary programs, that large series with long-term results could be obtained. Currently, three countries (Colombia, Argentina, and Brazil) in the region are actively performing these procedures. RE...
Source: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation - February 7, 2020 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Gondolesi GE, Doeyo M, Solar-Muñiz H Tags: Curr Opin Organ Transplant Source Type: research

Dust Mite Allergen Components in Children from Costa Rica, Ghana, and Ecuador: More Evidence that Der p 23 is a Major Allergen
Dust mites (DM) are a major source of indoor allergens and IgE to DM are strongly associated with allergic asthma. Der p 23 is a recently described major DM allergen but investigations to date have been limited to small cohorts and/or microchip assays. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Behnam Keshavarz, Jeffrey Wilson, Jonas Lidholm, Adnan Custovic, Philip Cooper, Peter Heymann, Thomas Platts-Mills Source Type: research

Ehrlichia canis TRP36 diversity in naturally infected-dogs from an urban area of Colombia
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Esteban Arroyave, Juan D. Rodas-González, Xiaofeng Zhang, Marcelo B. Labruna, María S. González, Jorge A. Fernández-Silva, Jere W. McBrideAbstractEhrlichia canis is the etiologic agent of a highly prevalent tick-borne disease, canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). Four defined E. canis genotypes based on the trp36 gene sequences have been reported, three of them identified in North or South America. The diversity of E. canis has been investigated using genetic and serologic approaches based on distinc...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 25, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Diversity of Lipase-Producing Microorganisms from Tropical Oilseeds Elaeis guineensis, Ricinus communis, and Jatropha curcas L. from Costa Rica.
In this study, we investigate the microbial diversity and lipase activity from bacterial and fungal isolates obtained from the oil seeds of Elaeis guineensis, Ricinus communis, and Jatropha curcas L. from Costa Rica. A total of 27 strains were confirmed as lipase-producing strains via fluorogenic and colorimetric agar plate assays. The diversity of the isolates comprises 12 fungal ascomycetes from the genera Aspergillus and Fusarium and 15 bacterial isolates classified into four genera: Serratia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, and Bacillus. Microbial isolates from E. guineensis showed the highest diversity of lipolytic microorganis...
Source: Current Microbiology - January 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sandi J, Mata-Araya I, Aguilar F Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

The adult mortality profile by cause of death in 10 Latin American countries (2000-2016).
Conclusions: Some studies have pointed out that Latin America exhibits severe difficulties in moving through some epidemiological transition phases, given the continuing high mortality from chronic diseases and violent deaths. However, between 2000 and 2016, there was a convergence among the 10 analyzed countries around the theoretical limit in the average number of years lived in adulthood. Countries that include Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru are still further away from this limit, but they have an enormous potential to increase the number of years lived in adulthood in the future. PMID: 319660...
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - January 23, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research

Venom diversity in the neotropical scorpion genus tityus: implications for antivenom design emerging from molecular and immunochemical analyses across endemic areas of scorpionism.
In this study, we explored the compositional and antigenic diversity of Tityus venoms to provide improved guidelines for the use of available antivenoms at a broader geographic scale. We used immunoblotting, competitive ELISA, and in vivo studies to compare reactivity against commercial antivenoms from Brazil, Venezuela, and Mexico, as well as MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, cDNA sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses to assess venom sodium channel-active toxin (NaTx) content from medically important Tityus populations inhabiting Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Additionally, w...
Source: Acta Tropica - January 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Borges A, Lomonte B, Angulo Y, de Patiño HA, Pascale JM, Otero R, Miranda RJ, De Sousa L, Graham MJ, Gómez A, Pardal PPO, Ishikawa E, Bonilla F, Castillo A, de Avila RAM, Gómez JP, Caro-López JA Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Boid Inclusion Body Disease (BIBD) in Indigenous Snakes in Costa Rica
Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology, Volume 174Author(s): J.A. Morales, A. Alfaro, A. Kipar, J. Hepojoki, U. Hetzel (Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology)
Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology - January 17, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Emergency response times and crash risk: An analysis framework for Costa Rica
ConclusionsThe continuous method has the advantage of making use of the continuous nature of the hazard, vulnerability, and risk variables proposed. On the other hand, the categorical ordered method has the advantage of being more intuitive by reducing the hazard, vulnerability and risk to a small number of classes that are easy to interpret.AbstractAntecedentesAlrededor del 48% de las muertes por accidentes de tránsito en Costa Rica ocurrieron en la vía pública, lo que podría atribuirse a una muerte inmediata o a una respuesta tardía por parte de los sistemas de emergencia. Se espera que...
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - January 15, 2020 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Ehrlichia canis TRP36 diversity in naturally infected-dogs from an urban area of ​​Colombia
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Esteban Arroyave, Juan D. Rodas-González, Xiaofeng Zhang, Marcelo B. Labruna, María S. González, Jorge A. Fernández-Silva, Jere W. McBrideAbstractEhrlichia canis is the etiologic agent of a highly prevalent tick-borne disease, canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). Four defined E. canis genotypes based on the trp36 gene sequences have been reported, three of them identified in North or South America. The diversity of E. canis has been investigated using genetic and serologic approaches based on distinc...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 8, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

A novel simple genotyping assay for detection of the ‘Gait keeper’ mutation in DMRT3 and allele frequencies in Azteca and Costa Rican Saddle Horse breeds
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Molecular and Cellular ProbesAuthor(s): Miguel Angel Ayala-Valdovinos, Jorge Galindo-García, David Sánchez-Chiprés, Theodor Duifhuis-Rivera, Rubén Anguiano-EstrellaAbstractThe ‘Gait keeper’ mutation in the DMRT3 gene alters locomotion and gait patterns in horses. This mutation (C>A) has been found in all gaited breeds of horses analyzed but is absent in most non-gaited breeds. We developed a new mutagenically separated polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) based method for simple detection of horse DMRT3 genotype. Our method wa...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Probes - January 8, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Hydrogeochemical baseline in a human-altered landscape of the central Pacific coast of Costa Rica
This study presents a detailed groundwater evaluation in a coastal aquifer within the central Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Three sampling campaigns including major ions, heavy metals, and fecal coliform analyses were conducted between July 2013 and March 2014 across 17 wells within the alluvial and fissured units of the Jac ó aquifer. The groundwater system is classified as mixed HCO3−–Ca2+–Mg2+ type. Coliforms presence was found in two wells, nearby Mona Creek headwaters and near the coastal line. Heavy metal concentrations were below quantification limits in most of the wells; however, chromium c...
Source: Environmental Geochemistry and Health - January 7, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Addressing Severe Mental Illness Rehabilitation in Colombia, Costa Rica, and Peru.
This article presents an overview of current policies that aim to reform the mental health care system and advance the employment of people with disabilities in Colombia, Costa Rica, and Peru. The authors conducted a thematic analysis by using public records and semistructured interviews with stakeholders. The authors found evidence of supported employment programs for vulnerable populations, including people with disabilities, but found that the programs did not include people with severe mental illnesses. Five relevant themes were found to hamper progress in psychiatric vocational rehabilitation services: rigid labor mar...
Source: Psychiatric Services - January 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Psychiatr Serv Source Type: research

Addressing Severe Mental Illness Rehabilitation in Colombia, Costa Rica, and Peru
Psychiatric Services, Ahead of Print. (Source: Psychiatric Services)
Source: Psychiatric Services - January 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Leonardo Cubillos Juliana Mu ñoz July Caballero Mar ía Mendoza Adriana Pulido Karen Carpio Anirudh K. Udutha Catalina Botero Elizabeth Borrero Diana Rodr íguez Yuri Cutipe Rebecca Emeny Karen Schifferdecker William C. Torrey Source Type: research

Socio-demographic patterns of public, private and active travel in Latin America: Cross-sectional findings from the ELANS study
ConclusionsPublic and private transport were the most common forms of travel in Latin America. Active travel (walking or cycling) represent 17% of total physical activity, therefore, promoting and providing the right infrastructure for active commuting could translate in increasing the population overall levels of physical activity in Latin America.ResumenIntroducciónTransporte activo como caminada o bicicleta ha sido asociado con una salud más favorable. Sin embrago, la evidencia en transporte activo en Latinoamérica es escasa. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue cuantificar y describir las ...
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - December 21, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Sensitivity and specificity of the red reflex in Costa Rican newborns.
CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal screening with the red reflex is not sufficient to detect intraocular disease. A normal neonatal red reflex does no exclude intraocular disease. It has a specificity of nearly 90%, but its sensitivity is only 56%. Most retinal haemorrhages are undiagnosed as they cannot be detected with a red reflex. PMID: 31826811 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archivos de la Sociedad Espanola de Oftalmologia)
Source: Archivos de la Sociedad Espanola de Oftalmologia - December 13, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol Source Type: research

Staying under the radar: constraints on labour agency of pineapple plantation workers in Costa Rica?
AbstractPlantation workers have seemingly little opportunities for labour agency, defined as the worker ’s ability to act and improve their conditions. In response to a call for a better understanding of the horizontal dimension shaping labour agency, this article questions what local factors determine the worker’s ability to act by analysing the institutional constraints embedded in the national context through a mixed methods approach. A combination of qualitative and quantitative data is used to understand what shapes and constrains the potential for labour agency in the case of plantation workers in the pin...
Source: Agriculture and Human Values - December 12, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

New Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents in Costa Rica.
CONCLUSIONS: around 90% of the studied population do not comply with the recommendations issued for a healthy diet. Nutritional education should be strengthened in Costa Rican education centers. PMID: 31825232 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Nutricion Hospitalaria)
Source: Nutricion Hospitalaria - December 11, 2019 Category: Nutrition Authors: Núñez-Rivas HP, Holst-Schumacher I, Campos-Saborío N Tags: Nutr Hosp Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 4517: Simultaneous LC/MS Analysis of Carotenoids and Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Costa Rican Avocados (Persea americana Mill.)
anados-Chinchilla Avocado (a fruit that represents a billion-dollar industry) has become a relevant crop in global trade. The benefits of eating avocados have also been thoroughly described as they contain important nutrients needed to ensure biological functions. For example, avocados contain considerable amounts of vitamins and other phytonutrients, such as carotenoids (e.g., β-carotene), which are fat-soluble. Hence, there is a need to assess accurately these types of compounds. Herein we describe a method that chromatographically separates commercial standard solutions containing both fat-soluble vitam...
Source: Molecules - December 10, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Carolina Cort és-Herrera Andrea Chac ón Graciela Artavia Fabio Granados-Chinchilla Tags: Article Source Type: research

Linking growing conditions to stable isotope ratios and elemental compositions of Costa Rican bananas (Musa spp.)
In this study, we examined the influence of growing conditions on the isotopic and elemental composition of bananas produced in 15 Costa Rican farms. A total of 88 bananas (peel and pulp) were collected from the farms and analysed for isotopic signatures (δ13C, δ15N, and δ18O) and elemental compositions. The growing conditions were characterized in terms of climate, topography and soil conditions. The isotopic ratios differed significantly between groups of farms. The δ13C and δ15N values were mainly influenced by soil types, while rainfall and temperatures related more to the δ18O value...
Source: Food Research International - December 7, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Implementation of non-communicable disease policies: a geopolitical analysis of 151 countries
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2019Source: The Lancet Global HealthAuthor(s): Luke N Allen, Brian D Nicholson, Beatrice Y T Yeung, Francisco Goiana-da-SilvaSummaryBackgroundMost countries have endorsed WHO non-communicable disease (NCD) best buy policies, but we know very little about global implementation patterns and about the geopolitical factors affecting implementation. We aimed to assess global implementation based on analysis of multiple geopolitical datasets.MethodsWe used the 2015 and 2017 WHO NCD progress monitor reports to calculate aggregate implementation scores for 151 countries, based on their...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - December 6, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Testing Consensus About Situational Norms on Drinking: A Cross-National Comparison.
CONCLUSIONS: Although societies vary in their acceptance of drinking and the drinking amount, there seems to be an approximately shared ordering of situations in terms of relative acceptability of drinking and heavier drinking. At the societal level, there is more consensus on where there should be no drinking than on where drinking enough to feel the effects is acceptable. PMID: 31790355 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs)
Source: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs - December 5, 2019 Category: Addiction Tags: J Stud Alcohol Drugs Source Type: research

Estimating snakebite incidence from mathematical models: A test in Costa Rica
by Carlos A. Bravo-Vega, Juan M. Cordovez, Camila Renjifo-Ib áñez, Mauricio Santos-Vega, Mahmood Sasa BackgroundSnakebite envenoming is a neglected public health challenge that affects mostly economically deprived communities who inhabit tropical regions. In these regions, snakebite incidence data is not always reliable, and access to health care is scare and heterogeneous. Thus, addressing the problem of snakebite effectively requires an understanding of how spatial heterogeneity in snakebite is associated with human demographics and snakes ’ distribution. Here, we use a mathematical model to address t...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - December 2, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Carlos A. Bravo-Vega Source Type: research

The orange-red pigment from Penicillium mallochii: Pigment production, optimization, and pigment efficacy against Glioblastoma cell lines
In this study, the pigment production of P. mallochii on different media was characterised, and the factors affecting the pigment production and efficacy against the human GB cell line T98G cell viability/cytotoxicity were inspected. The results showed that the pigment was resistant to different temperatures and pH values. The ∼250 base pair of the ITS region was sequenced and submitted to the Genbank. The blast result of the sequence showed that our isolate displayed maximum similarity (100%) to P. mallochii. Glioblastoma (grade-IV astrocytoma, WHO) is the most lethal subtype of glioma and the survival rate of GB pati...
Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology - November 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Non-invasive estimation of the costs of feeding competition in a neotropical primate.
Abstract A key goal in behavioral ecology is to investigate the factors influencing the access to food resources and energetic condition of females, which are strong predictors of their reproductive success. We aimed to investigate how ecological factors, social factors, and reproductive state are associated with energetic condition in a wild neotropical primate using non-invasive measures. We first assessed and compared urinary C-peptide levels (uCP), the presence of urinary ketones (uKet), and behaviorally assessed energy balance (bEB) in female white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus imitator) living in Santa Rosa,...
Source: Hormones and Behavior - November 21, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Bergstrom ML, Kalbitzer U, Campos FA, Melin AD, Thompson ME, Fedigan LM Tags: Horm Behav Source Type: research

Snakebite envenoming in French Guiana: assessment of the preclinical efficacy against the venom of Bothrops atrox of two polyspecific antivenoms.
tiérrez JM Abstract Snakebite envenoming is a relevant public health problem in French Guiana, and Bothrops atrox is responsible for the vast majority of envenomings in this overseas French territory. The preclinical efficacy of freeze-dried antivenoms manufactured in Costa Rica (Polival-ICP®) and Mexico (Antivipmyn Tri®) was assessed against the lethal, hemorrhagic, in vitro coagulant, and myotoxic effects of Bothrops atrox venom from French Guiana. Antivenoms differ in protein concentration and in the type of active principle (IgG and F(ab')2, respectively). Polival-ICP® showed significantly h...
Source: Toxicon - November 11, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Resiere D, Villalta M, Arias AS, Kallel H, Nèviére R, Vidal N, Mehdaoui H, Gutiérrez JM Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Trichoderma asperellum biocontrol activity and induction of systemic defenses against Sclerotium cepivorum in onion plants under tropical climate conditions
Publication date: Available online 8 November 2019Source: Biological ControlAuthor(s): William Rivera-Méndez, Miguel Obregón, María E. Morán-Diez, Rosa Hermosa, Enrique MonteAbstractThe biocontrol potential of three native Costa Rican Trichoderma asperellum strains has been evaluated against the necrotrophic ascomycete Sclerotium cepivorum, the causal agent of onion (Allium cepa L.) white rot. In Costa Rica, where climatic conditions enhance the development of this pathogen, white rot reduces onion yields up to 50% of total harvest. In our study, the three T. asperellum strains tested in in vitr...
Source: Biological Control - November 9, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

cfr(B), cfr(C), and a new cfr-like gene, cfr(E), in Clostridium difficile strains recovered across Latin America.
cute;guez C Abstract Cfr is a radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) enzyme that confers cross-resistance to antibiotics targeting the 23S rRNA through hypermethylation of nucleotide A2503. Three cfr-like genes implicated in antibiotic resistance have been described, of which cfr(B) and cfr(C) have been sporadically detected in Clostridium difficile However, the methylase activity of Cfr(C) has not been confirmed. We found cfr(B), cfr(C), and a cfr-like gene that shows only 51-58% of protein sequence identity to Cfr and Cfr-like enzymes in clinical C. difficile isolates recovered across nearly a decade in Mexico, H...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - November 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Stojković V, Ulate MF, Hidalgo-Villeda F, Aguilar E, Monge-Cascante C, Pizarro-Guajardo M, Tsai K, Tzoc E, Camorlinga M, Paredes-Sabja D, Quesada-Gómez C, Fujimori DG, Rodríguez C Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Evaluation of the expression of the oncogen C-ERBB-2/HER2 in advanced gastric cancer cases from Costa Rica.
Conclusion: This study suggests that the prevalence of GC cases overexpressing the HER2 oncogene in Costa Rica is less than 8%. This is the first attempt ever undertaken to estimate the prevalence of HER2-positivity in GC in Costa Rica. PMID: 31645889 [PubMed] (Source: Ecancermedicalscience)
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - October 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Venom characterization of the bark scorpion Centruroides edwardsii (Gervais 1843): Composition, biochemical activities and in vivo toxicity for potential prey.
In this study, we characterize the venom of Centruroides edwardsii, one of the most abundant scorpions in urban and rural areas of Costa Rica, in terms of its biochemical constituents and their biological activities. C. edwardsii venom is rich in peptides but also contains some higher molecular weight protein components. No phospholipase A2, hemolytic or fibrinogenolytic activities were found, but the presence of proteolytic and hyaluronidase enzymes was evidenced by zymography. Venom proteomic analysis indicates the presence of a hyaluronidase, several cysteine-rich secretory proteins, metalloproteinases and a peptidylgly...
Source: Toxicon - October 1, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Díaz C, Rivera J, Lomonte B, Bonilla F, Diego-García E, Camacho E, Tytgat J, Sasa M Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Whole Genome Sequencing Identifies CRISPLD2 as a Lung Function Gene in Children with asthma.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that utilizing specific asthma characteristics, such as AHR, can identify more genetically homogenous asthma subgroups with genotype-phenotype associations that may not be observed in all children with asthma. CRISPLD2 may also be important for baseline lung function in individuals with asthma that may also have AHR. PMID: 31557467 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - September 23, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kachroo P, Hecker J, Chawes B, Ahluwalia TS, Cho M, Qiao D, Kelly RS, Chu SH, Virkud YV, Huang M, Barnes KC, Burchard EG, Eng C, Hu D, Celedón JC, Daya M, Levin AM, Gui H, Williams LK, Forno E, Mak ACY, Avila L, Soto-Quiros M, Cloutier MM, Acosta-Pérez Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Snakebite Envenoming in Children: a Neglected Tropical Disease in a Costa Rican Pediatric Tertiary Care Center.
oz K, Ávila-Agüero ML Abstract BACKGROUND: Introduced in June 2017 by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a Neglected Tropical Diseases, snakebite envenoming is a global health problem. In Costa Rica, an incidence of 15 per 100,000 inhabitants and a mortality rate of 0.15 per 100,000 inhabitants per year were reported from 2005-2012. Children are also affected and prone to complications. METHODS: Retrospective descriptive 14-year study of children with envenomings by Viperidae snakebites managed at the tertiary pediatric hospital in Costa Rica. FINDINGS: 80 patients (pts) were included and...
Source: Acta Tropica - September 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Brenes-Chacón H, Gutiérrez JM, Camacho-Badilla K, Soriano-Fallas A, Ulloa-Gutiérrez R, Valverde-Muñoz K, Ávila-Agüero ML Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Allostatic Load as a Biological Substrate to Intrinsic Capacity: A Secondary Analysis of Creles
Conclusions and implicationsAL showed an incremental association with IC, even when adjusted for factors such as socioeconomic status and chronic diseases. Targeting therapeutically AL could potentially improve IC in older adults and therefore decreasing the progression to disability or to overt dependency. (Source: The Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging)
Source: The Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging - September 13, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Moving Beyond the Host: Unraveling the Skin Microbiome of Endangered Costa Rican Amphibians
Some neotropical amphibians, including a few species in Costa Rica, were presumed to be “extinct” after dramatic population declines in the late 1980s but have been rediscovered in isolated populations. Such populations seem to have evolved a resistance/tolerance to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a fungal pathogen that causes a deadly skin disease and is considered one of the main drivers of worldwide amphibian declines. The skin microbiome is an important component of the host’s innate immune system and is associated with Bd-resistance. However, the way that the bacterial diversity of the skin micr...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of iron-fortified flour on iron status of populations worldwide.
CONCLUSIONS: Flour fortification with iron is an effective public health strategy that improves iron status of populations worldwide. PMID: 31486352 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Public Health Nutrition)
Source: Public Health Nutrition - September 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Sadighi J, Nedjat S, Rostami R Tags: Public Health Nutr Source Type: research

Genome-Wide Patterns of Population Structure and Linkage Disequilibrium in Farmed Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
The objectives of this study were to provide further knowledge about the population structure and LD patterns, as well as, estimate the effective population size (Ne) for three farmed Nile tilapia populations, one from Brazil (POP A) and two from Costa Rica (POP B and POP C). A total of 55, 56 and 57 individuals from POP A, POP B and POP C, respectively, were genotyped using a 50K SNP panel selected from a whole-genome sequencing (WGS) experiment. Two principal components explained about 20% of the total variation and clearly discriminated between the three populations. Population genetic structure analysis showed evidence...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - September 4, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Project profile: a multicenter study on breast cancer in young women in Latin America (PRECAMA study).
CONCLUSIONS: PRECAMA is unique in its multidisciplinary approach that combines genetics, genomics, and metabolomics with lifestyle factors. Then data generated through this project will be instrumental to identify major risk factors for molecular subtypes of breast cancer in young women, which will be important for pre- vention and targeted screening programs in Latin America. PMID: 31661737 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Salud Publica de Mexico)
Source: Salud Publica de Mexico - September 1, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Romieu I, Biessy C, Torres-Mejía G, Ángeles-Llerenas A, Sánchez GI, Borrero M, Ossa CA, Porras C, Rodríguez AC, Ocampo R, Garmendia ML, Bustamante E, Olivier M, Porter P, Rinaldi S, PRECAMA Team Tags: Salud Publica Mex Source Type: research

Characteristics of mortality due to ischemic heart disease in Costa Rica from 1970 to 2014.
Conclusions: Mortality due to EIC is in a phase of decline but the increase in obesity and overweight in the country threatens to slow down this trend, at least during the last five years. PMID: 31448788 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Archivos de Cardiologia de Mexico)
Source: Archivos de Cardiologia de Mexico - August 27, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Evans-Meza R, Pérez-Fallas J, Bonilla-Carrión R Tags: Arch Cardiol Mex Source Type: research