Streptomyces pactum and Bacillus consortium influenced the bioavailability of toxic metals, soil health, and growth attributes of Symphytum officinale in smelter/mining polluted soil
Environ Pollut. 2021 Sep 27:118237. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118237. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSoil microbes influence the uptake of toxic metals (TMs) by changing soil characteristics, bioavailability and translocation of TMs, and soil health indicators in polluted environment. The potential effect of Streptomyces pactum (Act12) and Bacillus consortium (B. subtilis and B. licheniformis; 1:1) on soil enzymes and bacterial abundance, bioavailability and translocation of Zn and Cd by Symphytum officinale, and physiological indicators in soil acquired from Fengxian (FX) mining site. Act12 and Bacillus consortium were ap...
Source: Environmental Pollution - September 30, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Amjad Ali Yiman Li Parimala G S A Jeyasundar Muhammad Azeem Junfeng Su Fazli Wahid Amanullah Mahar Muhammad Zahir Shah Ronghua Li Zengqiang Zhang Source Type: research

Bacillus subtilis and saponin shifted the availability of heavy metals, health indicators of smelter contaminated soil, and the physiological indicators of Symphytum officinale
Chemosphere. 2021 Jul 12;285:131454. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131454. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBacillus subtilis and saponin were tested for the uptake of heavy metals (HMs) by Symphytum officinale grown in a smelter-contaminated soil in completely randomized design. Soil pH and electrical conductivity increased by 0.11 unit (T3) and 754 mS cm-1 (T2), respectively. The bioavailable Zn decreased by 5.80% (T2); Cd and Pb increased by 6.21% (T2) and 13.46% (T3), respectively. Soil urease increased by 24% (T3) and alkaline phosphatase, β-glucosidase, and dehydrogenase decreased by 20% (T2), 27.70% (T2), and 21...
Source: Chemosphere - July 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Yiman Li Amjad Ali Parimala Gnana Soundari Arockiam Jeyasundar Muhammad Azeem Anum Tabassum Di Guo Ronghua Li Ishaq Ahmad Mian Zengqiang Zhang Source Type: research

Bacillus subtilis and saponin shifted the availability of heavy metals, health indicators of smelter contaminated soil, and the physiological indicators of Symphytum officinale
Chemosphere. 2021 Jul 12;285:131454. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131454. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBacillus subtilis and saponin were tested for the uptake of heavy metals (HMs) by Symphytum officinale grown in a smelter-contaminated soil in completely randomized design. Soil pH and electrical conductivity increased by 0.11 unit (T3) and 754 mS cm-1 (T2), respectively. The bioavailable Zn decreased by 5.80% (T2); Cd and Pb increased by 6.21% (T2) and 13.46% (T3), respectively. Soil urease increased by 24% (T3) and alkaline phosphatase, β-glucosidase, and dehydrogenase decreased by 20% (T2), 27.70% (T2), and 21...
Source: Chemosphere - July 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Yiman Li Amjad Ali Parimala Gnana Soundari Arockiam Jeyasundar Muhammad Azeem Anum Tabassum Di Guo Ronghua Li Ishaq Ahmad Mian Zengqiang Zhang Source Type: research

Bacillus subtilis and saponin shifted the availability of heavy metals, health indicators of smelter contaminated soil, and the physiological indicators of Symphytum officinale
Chemosphere. 2021 Jul 12;285:131454. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131454. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBacillus subtilis and saponin were tested for the uptake of heavy metals (HMs) by Symphytum officinale grown in a smelter-contaminated soil in completely randomized design. Soil pH and electrical conductivity increased by 0.11 unit (T3) and 754 mS cm-1 (T2), respectively. The bioavailable Zn decreased by 5.80% (T2); Cd and Pb increased by 6.21% (T2) and 13.46% (T3), respectively. Soil urease increased by 24% (T3) and alkaline phosphatase, β-glucosidase, and dehydrogenase decreased by 20% (T2), 27.70% (T2), and 21...
Source: Chemosphere - July 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Yiman Li Amjad Ali Parimala Gnana Soundari Arockiam Jeyasundar Muhammad Azeem Anum Tabassum Di Guo Ronghua Li Ishaq Ahmad Mian Zengqiang Zhang Source Type: research

Bacillus subtilis and saponin shifted the availability of heavy metals, health indicators of smelter contaminated soil, and the physiological indicators of Symphytum officinale
Chemosphere. 2021 Jul 12;285:131454. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131454. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBacillus subtilis and saponin were tested for the uptake of heavy metals (HMs) by Symphytum officinale grown in a smelter-contaminated soil in completely randomized design. Soil pH and electrical conductivity increased by 0.11 unit (T3) and 754 mS cm-1 (T2), respectively. The bioavailable Zn decreased by 5.80% (T2); Cd and Pb increased by 6.21% (T2) and 13.46% (T3), respectively. Soil urease increased by 24% (T3) and alkaline phosphatase, β-glucosidase, and dehydrogenase decreased by 20% (T2), 27.70% (T2), and 21...
Source: Chemosphere - July 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Yiman Li Amjad Ali Parimala Gnana Soundari Arockiam Jeyasundar Muhammad Azeem Anum Tabassum Di Guo Ronghua Li Ishaq Ahmad Mian Zengqiang Zhang Source Type: research

Support for Regulatory Assessment of Percutaneous Absorption of Retronecine-type Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids through Human Skin
This study investigated to what extent pyrrolizidine alkaloids are bioavailable following topical exposure, assessing penetration of retronecine-type PAs in an in vitro human skin model. A single comfrey root formulation was spiked with 3 different congeners (a 7R-monoester, an open-chained 7R-diester, and a cyclic diester) and percutaneous absorption measured per OECD guidelines and good laboratory practices. The measured penetration for all 3 PAs was low and compared favourably with existing in vitro data. Although consideration of different regulatory guidance influences the determination of dermally absorbed dose,...
Source: Planta Medica - June 11, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Plaza, Alberto Toner, Frank Harris, James Ottersbach, Peter Roper, Clive Mahony, Catherine Tags: Original Papers Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1498: CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing in Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Hairy Roots Results in the Complete Eradication of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids
Ober Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) is a medicinal plant with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and proliferative properties. However, its pharmaceutical application is hampered by the co-occurrence of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in its tissues. Using a CRISPR/Cas9-based approach, we introduced detrimental mutations into the hss gene encoding homospermidine synthase (HSS), the first pathway-specific enzyme of PA biosynthesis. The resulting hairy root (HR) lines were analyzed for the type of gene-editing effect that they exhibited and for their homospermidine and PA content. Inactivation of only one of the two hss ...
Source: Molecules - March 10, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Mahmoud M. Zakaria Brigitte Schemmerling Dietrich Ober Tags: Article Source Type: research

GSE147575 Transcriptional response to a dietary Comfrey supplement in broiler chickens
Contributors : Michael Oster ; Henry Reyer ; Siriluck Ponsuksili ; Klaus WimmersSeries Type : Expression profiling by arrayOrganism : Gallus gallusin vivo microarray study of transcriptional changes in chicken whole blood cells due to dietary intake of Comfrey (Symphytum spp.) (Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus)
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - December 31, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by array Gallus gallus Source Type: research

Safety of medicinal comfrey cream preparations (Symphytum officinale s.l.): The pyrrolizidine alkaloid lycopsamine is poorly absorbed through human skin
Publication date: Available online 15 September 2020Source: Regulatory Toxicology and PharmacologyAuthor(s): Kenny Kuchta, Mathias Schmidt (Source: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology - September 15, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Safety of medicinal comfrey cream preparations (Symphytum officinale s.l.): The pyrrolizidine alkaloid lycopsamine is poorly absorbed through human skin.
In this study, lycopsamine served as a model substance for measuring the extent of skin permeation of PAs following the application of a spiked comfrey cream (Symphytum officinale s.l.) to abdominal skin from human donors in Franz diffusion cells. PAs could be excluded in the non-spiked cream with a limit of detection of 8 μg/kg. Only small amounts of the applied quantity of lycopsamine had migrated through the skin sample into the receptor cell side of the diffusion cell after 24 h. In five of six diffusion cells, there was no detectable lycopsamine within the skin and only 0.6 ± 0.4% of the applied dose...
Source: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology : RTP - September 13, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Kuchta K, Schmidt M Tags: Regul Toxicol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Symphytum officinale L.: Liquid-liquid chromatography isolation of caffeic acid oligomers and evaluation of their influence on pro-inflammatory cytokine release in LPS-stimulated neutrophils
Publication date: Available online 31 July 2020Source: Journal of EthnopharmacologyAuthor(s): Adriana Trifan, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak, Sebastian Granica, Monika E. Czerwińska, Aleksandra Kruk, Laurence Marcourt, Jean-Luc Wolfender, Evelyn Wolfram, Nils Esslinger, Andreas Grubelnik, Simon Vlad Luca (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology)
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - August 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Epidermal Regeneration Induced by Comfrey Extract: A Study by Light and Electron Microscopy
Conclusions: Application of comfrey cream led to a quicker regeneration of skin cells and to an earlier differentiation of the cells towards a normal fine structure with a visible distinction of epidermal strata, keratin, and corneocyte formation within 4 –7 days. The study covered the early days of skin regeneration and confirms the benefits observed in published clinical trials and non-interventional studies in patients with abrasions.Skin Pharmacol Physiol (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - July 17, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

A systematic review and quality assessment of case reports of adverse events for borage (Borago officinalis), coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) and comfrey (Symphytum officinale).
CONCLUSION: These cases are an unreliable body of evidence on which to draw conclusions about oral consumption of Symphytum officinale and Tussilago farfara. With insufficient evidence to differentiate the relative risk of one PA-containing plant from another; toxicological studies based on oral ingestion of phytochemically complex preparations of these herbs may be the most accurate methodology for assessing clinical risk. PMID: 32105669 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Fitoterapia)
Source: Fitoterapia - February 23, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Avila C, Breakspear I, Hawrelak J, Salmond S, Evans S Tags: Fitoterapia Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 25, Pages 837: Comparative Assessment of Phytochemical Profiles of Comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) Root Extracts Obtained by Different Extraction Techniques
Gajić Segura-Carretero In this work a comparative study on phytochemical profiles of comfrey root extracts obtained by different extraction approaches has been carried out. Chemical profiles of extracts obtained by supercritical fluid (SFE), pressurized liquid (PLE), and conventional solid/liquid extraction were compared and discussed. Phytochemical composition was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) identifying 39 compounds reported for the first time in comfrey root, mainly phenolic acids and fatty acids. The influence...
Source: Molecules - February 13, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Nasti ć Borr ás-Linares Lozano-S ánchez Švarc-Gajić Segura-Carretero Tags: Article Source Type: research

TLC-densitometric analysis of allantoin in Symphytum officinale L. roots.
Abstract A TLC-densitometric method for determination of allantoin in Symphytum officinale root was developed. Densitometric quantification of allantoin was carried out on TLC Si60 plates with butanol-50 % methanol/formic acid, 66.5:33.2:0.3 (V/V/V) as developing solvent, at a wavelength of 190 nm. The method was preliminarily validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification, recovery and robustness. The results of TLC quantification were compared with HPLC analysis carried out on a HILIC Luna NH2 100A column, with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile/water 80...
Source: Acta Pharmaceutica - November 6, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kimel K, Zienkiewicz M, Sparzak-Stefanowska B, Krauze-Baranowska M Tags: Acta Pharm Source Type: research

Symphytum officinale augments osteogenesis in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro as they differentiate into osteoblasts
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that homoeopathic dose (specially mother tincture) of Symphytum officinale has the potential to enhance osteogenesis.Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology)
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - October 30, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Efficient Extraction of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Plants by Pressurised Liquid Extraction – A Preliminary Study
In this study, we have applied pressurized liquid extraction with the aim of evaluating the effect of various parameters on the recovery of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The nature of the modifier (various acids, NH3) added to the aqueous extraction solvent, its concentration (1 or 5%), and the temperature (50 – 125 °C) were systematically varied. To analyse a wide range of structurally different pyrrolizidine alkaloids, Jacobaea vulgaris (syn. Senecio jacobaea), Tussilago farfara, and Symphytum officinale were included. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS and the results obtained by pressurise...
Source: Planta Medica - October 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kopp, Thomas Salzer, Liesa Abdel-Tawab, Mona Mizaikoff, Boris Tags: Original Papers Source Type: research

Reduction of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Levels in Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Hairy Roots by RNAi Silencing of Homospermidine Synthase
Planta Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0998-5125Comfrey is a medicinal plant, extracts of which are traditionally used for the treatment of painful inflammatory muscle and joint problems, because the plant contains allantoin and rosmarinic acid. However, its medicinal use is limited because of its toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) content. PAs encompass more than 400 different compounds that have been identified from various plant lineages. To date, only the first pathway-specific enzyme, homospermidine synthase (HSS), has been characterized. HSS catalyzes the formation of homospermidine, which is exclusively incorporated into PAs. HSS...
Source: Planta Medica - August 25, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kruse, Lars H. Stegemann, Thomas Jensen-Kroll, Julia Engelhardt, Annika Wesseling, Anne-Maria Lippert, Annemarie Ludwig-M üller, Jutta Ober, Dietrich Tags: Original Papers Source Type: research

A Symphytum officinale Root Extract Exerts Anti-inflammatory Properties by Affecting Two Distinct Steps of NF- κB Signaling
A Symphytum officinale Root Extract Exerts Anti-inflammatory Properties by Affecting Two Distinct Steps of NF-κB Signaling Jacqueline Seigner1, Marc Junker-Samek2, Alberto Plaza2, Gilda D‘Urso3, Milena Masullo3, Sonia Piacente3, Yvonne M. Holper-Schichl4*† and Rainer de Martin1*† 1Department of Vascular Biology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria 2R&D, Procter & Gamble Health, Darmstadt, Germany 3Dipartimento di Farmacia, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Salerno, Italy 4Drehm Pharma GmbH, Vienna, Austria Symphytum officinale, commonly known as comfrey, const...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - April 25, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ethnoveterinary contemporary knowledge of farmers in pre-alpine and alpine regions of the Swiss cantons of Bern and Lucerne compared to ancient and recent literature – is there a tradition?
ConclusionFor the treatment of their animals farmers in the pre-alpine and alpine regions of the Swiss cantons of Bern and Lucerne mostly used plants which have a track record as medicinal herbs in Europe over several centuries. Almost half of the plant species had specific veterinary uses for about 120 years and even more for at least 30 years. The majority of the plant species thus fulfill the criteria of “traditional” according to several definitions and even more up to a certain degree the criteria of “traditional use” as defined in European regulations for human medicinal products. Ethnoveterin...
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - December 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Tolerability and effectiveness of an antitrauma cream with comfrey herb extract in pediatric use with application on intact and on broken skin
ConclusionThese studies confirm an excellent benefit-to-risk ratio for the application of comfrey herb cream in the treatment of blunt traumas and sports injuries in children with intact and with broken skin. (Source: International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine - December 14, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Thermal conversion of a promising phytoremediation plant (Symphytum officinale L.) into biochar: Dynamic of potentially toxic elements and environmental acceptability assessment of the biochar.
Abstract Symphytum officinale L., as a hyperaccumulator, was pyrolyzed into biochar at 350, 550, and 750 °C, respectively. PTEs could be enriched in biochars except Cd volatilized greatly at 750 °C. In order to evaluate the environmental acceptability of biochars, a series of sequential and single extractions and biochar oxidation procedures were performed for simulating different environmental conditions. There was a sharp decline in PTEs release under various conditions when the temperature above 550 °C, indicating PTEs might transform into more stable forms at higher temperature. Thus, increas...
Source: Bioresource Technology - November 22, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Du J, Zhang L, Liu T, Xiao R, Li R, Guo D, Qiu L, Yang X, Zhang Z Tags: Bioresour Technol Source Type: research

Conversion of Symphytum officinale and Panicum virgatum plant extracts to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural catalysed by metal chlorides in ionic liquids
Canadian Journal of Chemistry, e-First Articles. The present work examined the potential for two plants grown on Canadian soil, Symphytum officinale L. (common comfrey) and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass), to produce 5-hydroxymethylfurfural using metal chloride catalysis in two ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. Furthermore, two pre-treatments, namely the dilute sulfuric acid treatment and the methanol extraction, were studied as a way to improve sugar availability and increase 5-hydroxymethylfurfural yields compared with untreated biomass. The 0.5 mol/L H2SO4 hyd...
Source: Canadian Journal of Chemistry - May 7, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Alexandrine L. Martel Sabine Montaut Gerardo Ul íbarri Graeme A. Spiers Source Type: research

Physicochemical properties and activities of comfrey polysaccharides extracted by different techniques.
Abstract The effects of extraction techniques on the physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity and antihyperglycemic activity of comfrey polysaccharides (CPs) were evaluated. Four techniques were used to extract CPs: hot water extraction (HW), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UA), enzyme-assisted extraction (EA) and enzyme-ultrasonic-assisted extraction (EUA). Experimental results indicated that CPs extracted by the UA (UA-CPs) and EUA methods (EUA-CPs) had higher extraction yields. The four CPs showed the same monosaccharide composition but a significant difference in monosaccharide content. CPs showed anti...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - May 1, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Duan M, Shang H, Chen S, Li R, Wu H Tags: Int J Biol Macromol Source Type: research

Toxicity of plant extracts containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids using alternative invertebrate models.
Authors: Seremet OC, Olaru OT, Gutu CM, Nitulescu GM, Ilie M, Negres S, Zbarcea CE, Purdel CN, Spandidos DA, Tsatsakis AM, Coleman MD, Margina DM Abstract Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a widespread class of hepatotoxic heterocyclic organic compounds found in approximately 3% of world flora. Some PAs have been shown to have genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. The present study focuses on the toxicity effects of four dry extracts obtained from medicinal plants (Senecio vernalis, Symphytum officinale, Petasites hybridus and Tussilago farfara), on two aquatic organisms, Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, and the cor...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - April 6, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research

Herbal products for common auto-inflammatory disorders - Novel approaches.
Abstract Common auto-inflammatory disorders (CAIDs) induce considerable suffering over the world. A panoply of synthetic medications areis available for theirits management. Nonetheless, available drug classes are limited by adverse effects, low systemic absorption, and high costs. In addition, no cure exists for most CAIDs. Interestingly, herbal products present a tremendous potential for development as anti-inflammatory agents. In this endeavor, major scientific databases; Google Scholar, Pubmed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus were explored to highlight novel therapeutic approaches using herbal products for CAIDs pro...
Source: Combinatorial Chemistry and High Throughput Screening - February 12, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Mahomoodally F, Suroowan S Tags: Comb Chem High Throughput Screen Source Type: research

Extraction condition optimization and effects of drying methods on physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) root.
This study was designed to investigate the extraction conditions of polysaccharides from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) root (CRPs) using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three variables including liquid-solid ratio, extraction time and extraction temperature on the extraction yield of CRPs were taken into consideration. Moreover, the effects of drying methods including hot air drying (HD), vacuum drying (VD) and freeze drying (FD) on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of CRPs were evaluated. The optimal conditions to extract the polysaccharides were as follows: liquid-solid rati...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - February 8, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Shang H, Zhou H, Duan M, Li R, Wu H, Lou Y Tags: Int J Biol Macromol Source Type: research

Is comfrey root more than toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids? Salvianolic acids among antioxidant polyphenols in comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) roots.
m E Abstract Comfrey root preparations are used for the external treatment of joint distortions and myalgia, due to its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Up to date, key activity-determining constituents of comfrey root extracts have not been completely elucidated. Therefore, we applied different approaches to further characterize a comfrey root extract (65% ethanol). The phenolic profile of comfrey root sample was characterized by HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS. Rosmarinic acid was identified as main phenolic constituent (7.55 mg/g extract). Moreover, trimers and tetramers of caffeic acid (isomers of salvianolic...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - December 27, 2017 Category: Food Science Authors: Trifan A, Opitz SEW, Josuran R, Grubelnik A, Esslinger N, Peter S, Bräm S, Meier N, Wolfram E Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Fatal cardiac glycoside poisoning due to mistaking foxglove for comfrey
. (Source: Clinical Toxicology)
Source: Clinical Toxicology - May 2, 2017 Category: Toxicology Authors: I-Lin Wu Jiun-Hao Yu Chih-Chuan Lin Chen-June Seak Kent R. Olson Hsien-Yi Chen Source Type: research

Comparison of some secondary metabolite content in the seventeen species of the Boraginaceae family.
CONCLUSION: The present study provides the first comprehensive report of the extraction and quantification of several compounds in Boraginaceae species (some of them for the first time). Among the 17 species studied, species with potentially high pharmacological activity were recognized. PMID: 28140740 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmaceutical Biology)
Source: Pharmaceutical Biology - February 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Pharm Biol Source Type: research

Oral toxicity study of certain plant extracts containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids.
In conclusion, the administration for 28 days, of the tested extracts, in a dose which correspond to a PAs concentration over the limits imposed in some countries, produced no hepatic and biliary toxic effects. Further studies, extended over a longer period of time, are needed in order to determine the safety of plant extracts containing PAs. PMID: 28002518 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology)
Source: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology - December 23, 2016 Category: Journals (General) Tags: Rom J Morphol Embryol Source Type: research

Penetration of lycopsamine from a comfrey ointment through human epidermis
Publication date: Available online 11 November 2016 Source:Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Nikoletta Jedlinszki, Boglárka Balázs, Erzsébet Csányi, Dezső Csupor Mutagenic and teratogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) have been identified in several plant species. The industrially most important PA-containing plant is Symphytum officinale (common comfrey). The application of its root is restricted in several countries due to its PA content. In medicines, the daily alkaloid quantity and duration of treatment may be limited even in case of topical application. Due to the confirme...
Source: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 10, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Penetration of lycopsamine from a comfrey ointment through human epidermis.
E, Csupor D Abstract Mutagenic and teratogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) have been identified in several plant species. The industrially most important PA-containing plant is Symphytum officinale (common comfrey). The application of its root is restricted in several countries due to its PA content. In medicines, the daily alkaloid quantity and duration of treatment may be limited even in case of topical application. Due to the confirmed good absorption of PAs from the gastrointestinal tract, the prohibition of oral use is justified, however the limitation of external application is not supported by relevant da...
Source: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology : RTP - November 9, 2016 Category: Toxicology Authors: Jedlinszki N, Balázs B, Csányi E, Csupor D Tags: Regul Toxicol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Herbal Medicine for Low Back Pain: A Cochrane Review
Conclusions. Additional well-designed large trials are needed to test these herbal medicines against standard treatments. In general, the completeness of reporting in these trials was poor. Trialists should refer to the CONSORT statement extension for reporting trials of herbal medicine interventions. Level of Evidence: N/A (Source: Spine)
Source: Spine - January 1, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Cochrane Collaboration Source Type: research

Herbal Supplements and Hepatotoxicity: A Short Review.
Authors: Haslan H, Suhaimi FH, Das S Abstract Herbal products have gained popularity over the past few decades. The reasons attributed to the rise in popularity are cheaper costs, easy availability, patient compliance and fewer side effects. However, liver toxicity following consumption of herbal remedies is on the increase. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the mechanism of action of the herbal supplements on the liver. Occasionally, herbal supplements may also interact with conventional drugs. The present review focusses on a few herbs such as Aloe barbadensis, Atractylis gummifera, Centella asiatica, M...
Source: Natural Product Communications - December 20, 2015 Category: Biochemistry Tags: Nat Prod Commun Source Type: research

A Validated, Rapid HPLC-ESI-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Lycopsamine.
Authors: Jedlinszki N, Csupor D Abstract The aim of the present work was to develop and validate an HPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of a major pyrrolizidine alkaloid of comfrey (lycopsamine) in aqueous samples as a basis for the development of a method for the determination of absorption of lycopsamine by human skin. A linear calibration curve was established in the range of 1.32-440 ng. The intraday precision during the 3-day validation period ranged between 0.57 and 2.48% while the interday precision was 1.70% and 1.95% for quality control samples. LOD was 0.014 ng and recovery was above 97%. The lycopsam...
Source: Natural Product Communications - September 30, 2015 Category: Biochemistry Tags: Nat Prod Commun Source Type: research

The comparative toxicity of a reduced, crude comfrey (Symphytum officinale) alkaloid extract and the pure, comfrey‐derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids, lycopsamine and intermedine in chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus)
This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. (Source: Journal of Applied Toxicology)
Source: Journal of Applied Toxicology - July 14, 2015 Category: Toxicology Authors: Ammon W. Brown, Bryan L. Stegelmeier, Steven M. Colegate, Dale R. Gardner, Kip E. Panter, Edward L. Knoppel, Jeffery O. Hall Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Single cell subtractive transcriptomics for identification of cell-specifically expressed candidate genes of pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis
Publication date: September 2015 Source:Phytochemistry, Volume 117 Author(s): Christian Sievert , Till Beuerle , Julien Hollmann , Dietrich Ober Progress has recently been made in the elucidation of pathways of secondary metabolism. However, because of its diversity, genetic information concerning biosynthetic details is still missing for many natural products. This is also the case for the biosynthesis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. To close this gap, we tested strategies using tissues that express this pathway in comparison to tissues in which this pathway is not expressed. As many pathways of secondary metabolism are kno...
Source: Phytochemistry - June 6, 2015 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Comparative Study of the Biological Activity of Allantoin and Aqueous Extract of the Comfrey Root
This study investigates the biological activity of pure allantoin (PA) and aqueous extract of the comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) root (AECR) standardized to the allantoin content. Cell viability and proliferation of epithelial (MDCK) and fibroblastic (L929) cell line were studied by using MTT test. Anti‐irritant potential was determined by measuring electrical capacitance, erythema index (EI) and transepidermal water loss of artificially irritated skin of young healthy volunteers, 3 and 7 days after application of creams and gels with PA or AECR. Pure allantoin showed mild inhibitory effect on proliferation of ...
Source: Phytotherapy Research - April 16, 2015 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Vesna Lj. Savić, Vesna D. Nikolić, Ivana A. Arsić, Ljiljana P. Stanojević, Stevo J. Najman, Sanja Stojanović, Ivana I. Mladenović‐Ranisavljević Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Moxibustion for Asthma, Acupuncture for Epilepsy, Psychological Therapies for Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Exercise Training for Multiple Sclerosis, and Comfrey Root for Acute Back Pain
Publication date: January–February 2015 Source:EXPLORE: The Journal of Science and Healing, Volume 11, Issue 1 Author(s): Richard Glickman-Simon , Atreyi Mukherji (Source: EXPLORE: The Journal of Science and Healing)
Source: EXPLORE: The Journal of Science and Healing - January 25, 2015 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Herbal medicine for low-back pain.
CONCLUSIONS: C. frutescens (Cayenne) reduces pain more than placebo. Although H. procumbens, S. alba, S. officinale L., S. chilensis, and lavender essential oil also seem to reduce pain more than placebo, evidence for these substances was of moderate quality at best. Additional well-designed large trials are needed to test these herbal medicines against standard treatments. In general, the completeness of reporting in these trials was poor. Trialists should refer to the CONSORT statement extension for reporting trials of herbal medicine interventions. PMID: 25536022 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochran...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - December 23, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Oltean H, Robbins C, van Tulder MW, Berman BM, Bombardier C, Gagnier JJ Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

TLC densitometric method for screening of lycopsamine in comfrey root (Symphytum officinale L.) extracts using retrorsine as a reference compound.
eft S Abstract Abstract Due to severe toxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, their quantification in medicinal products is very important. The idea of this research was to use retrorsine as a surrogate reference compound instead of lycopsamine reference or lycopsamine isolated from comfrey. A method for the analysis of lycopsamine in extracts of comfrey roots was developed and validated, employing thin layer chromatography, derivatisation with Dann-Mattocks reagent followed by densitometric analysis. The new method showed linearity within 0.70 to 7.0 μg of lycopsamine per application of 10 μL of a solution. It...
Source: Acta Pharmaceutica - December 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Janeš D, Kreft S Tags: Acta Pharm Source Type: research

The Effect of Burns & Wounds (B&W)/Burdock Leaf Therapy on Burn-Injured Amish Patients: A Pilot Study Measuring Pain Levels, Infection Rates, and Healing Times
Conclusion and Implications: The use of this herbal remedy appears to be an acceptable alternative to conventional burn care for these types of burns. The trauma of dressing changes was virtually nonexistent. Nurses working in communities with Amish residents should be aware of this herbal-based method of burn care and monitor its use when feasible. (Source: Journal of Holistic Nursing)
Source: Journal of Holistic Nursing - October 31, 2014 Category: Nursing Authors: Amish Burn Study Group, Kolacz, N. M., Jaroch, M. T., Bear, M. L., Hess, R. F. Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Moxibustion for Asthma, Acupuncture for Epilepsy, Psychological Therapies for Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Exercise Training for Multiple Sclerosis, Comfrey Root for Acute Back Pain
Column Description: DynaMed is an evidence-based clinical reference, which is updated daily through systematic surveillance and critical appraisal of the research literature. DynaMed editors and reviewers select content of interest for integrative medicine, summarize the current evidence, and describe challenges in evidence analysis and application. Evidence quality is rated level 1 (likely reliable) evidence for studies with clinical outcomes and minimal risk of bias, level 2 (mid-level) evidence for studies with clinical outcomes and significant methodological or statistical limitations, and level 3 (lacking direct) evid...
Source: Explore - October 30, 2014 Category: Nursing Authors: Richard Glickman-Simon, Atreyi Mukherji Tags: Evidence-based Integrative Medicine Updates Source Type: research

The external use of comfrey: A practitioner survey.
CONCLUSION: Practitioner experience suggests that comfrey can be used safely and effectively externally for certain indications. PMID: 25113427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice)
Source: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice - July 30, 2014 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Frost R, O'Meara S, MacPherson H Tags: Complement Ther Clin Pract Source Type: research

Semi‐automated Separation of the Epimeric Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloids Lycopsamine and Intermedine: Preparation of their N‐oxides and NMR Comparison with Diastereoisomeric Rinderine and Echinatine
ConclusionA semi‐automated flash chromatographic process using boronated soda glass beads was standardised and confirmed as a useful, larger scale preparative approach for separating the epimers lycopsamine and intermedine. The useful NMR correlations to stereochemical arrangements within this specific class of dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid cannot be confidently extrapolated to other similar dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. (Source: Phytochemical Analysis)
Source: Phytochemical Analysis - May 9, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Steven M. Colegate, Dale R. Gardner, Joseph M. Betz, Kip E. Panter Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

A critical scoping review of external uses of comfrey (Symphytum spp.).
CONCLUSIONS: Individual clinical trials showed evidence of benefit for ankle distortion, back pain, abrasion wounds and osteoarthritis. Topical application appears to be safe but further rigorous assessment is needed. Systematic reviews focussing on particular indications may clarify the treatment effect and safety of external comfrey preparations. PMID: 24280482 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Complementary Therapies in Medicine)
Source: Complementary Therapies in Medicine - November 29, 2013 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Frost R, Macpherson H, O'Meara S Tags: Complement Ther Med Source Type: research