What Is the Available Evidence for the Treatment of Globus Pharyngeus?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGlobus pharyngeus is a persistent or intermittent, painless sensation of a foreign body in the throat that represents around 4% of ENT referrals from primary care. The aetiology of this condition is poorly understood and therefore there is no current universally accepted investigation pathway or treatment approach. This review aimed to provide a summary of the established evidence for the treatment of globus pharyngeus. The review used an eight-step, rapid review methodology to create an evidence summary.Recent FindingsRecent case-control studies have demonstrated positive results in the treatment ...
Source: Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

A Historical and Theoretical Review of Cognitive Behavioral Therapies: From Structural Self-Knowledge to Functional Processes
AbstractThis paper critically examines the historical conceptualization of cognitive behavioral psychotherapy approaches (CBT) as a direct clinical counterpart of the cognitive revolution. The main “second wave” cognitive psychotherapies, either standard cognitive therapy (CT) or constructivist, in spite of their differences, share a common conceptualization of psychopathological factors as superordinate structural cognitive content belonging to the self: self-beliefs, self-schemata, perso nality organizations and so on. On the other hand, rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) is an exception given that in R...
Source: Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy - April 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Understanding Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescents and Improving Treatment Outcomes: Applying the Cognitive Model of Clark and Wells (1995).
Abstract Social anxiety disorder is a condition characterised by a marked and persistent fear of being humiliated or scrutinised by others. Age-of-onset data point to adolescence as a developmentally sensitive period for the emergence of the condition, at a time when the peer group becomes increasingly important. Social anxiety in adolescence is associated with considerable impairment that persists through to adulthood. There are clear potential benefits to delivering effective interventions during adolescence. However, there is limited evidence on the specific efficacy of available therapies. This is in contrast ...
Source: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review - April 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Leigh E, Clark DM Tags: Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev Source Type: research

Preoccupation with shape or weight, fear of weight gain, feeling fat and treatment outcomes in patients with anorexia nervosa: A longitudinal study.
DISCUSSION: These findings highlight the importance of assessing and addressing body-image concern in the management of patients with anorexia nervosa. PMID: 29689516 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy)
Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy - April 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Calugi S, El Ghoch M, Conti M, Dalle Grave R Tags: Behav Res Ther Source Type: research

Are the effects of cognitive behavior therapy for severe fatigue in cancer survivors sustained up to 14  years after therapy?
We examined fatigue levels up to 14  years after CBT.MethodsEligible participants of two randomized controlled trials who had completed CBT for CRF and a post-treatment assessment were contacted (n = 81). Fatigue was assessed with the subscale “fatigue severity” of the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS-fatigue). The course of fatigue over time was examined with linear mixed model analyses. Fatigue levels of participants were compared to matched population controls at long-term follow -up. We tested with multiple regression analysis if fatigue at follow-up was predicted by the patients’...
Source: Journal of Cancer Survivorship - April 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Respiratory subtype of panic disorder: can serum, phosphate levels be a possible outcome to group, cognitive-behavior therapy?
Panic attacks (PAs), the core feature of panic disorder (PD), represent a common phenomenon in general adult population and are characterized by respiratory symptoms such as chest pain, choking and breathlessness (Pollack and Marzol, 2000). In order to group panic disordered patients by symptom, studies have been evaluating the presence of a PD respiratory subtype, characterized by a relatively high number of noticeable respiratory symptoms during a PA and a higher reactivity to CO2 (Freire et al., 2010). (Source: Journal of Affective Disorders)
Source: Journal of Affective Disorders - April 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Pedro Beria, Ana Cristina W. Viana, Andressa Behenck, Elizeth Heldt, Gisele Gus Manfro, Carolina Blaya Dreher Tags: Research paper Source Type: research

Respiratory subtype of panic disorder: Can serum phosphate levels be a possible outcome to group cognitive-behavior therapy?
Panic attacks (PAs), the core feature of panic disorder (PD), represent a common phenomenon in general adult population and are characterized by respiratory symptoms such as chest pain, choking and breathlessness (Pollack  and Marzol, 2000). In order to group panic disordered patients by symptom, studies have been evaluating the presence of a PD respiratory subtype, characterized by a relatively high number of noticeable respiratory symptoms during a PA and a higher reactivity to CO2 (Freire et al., 2010). (Source: Journal of Affective Disorders)
Source: Journal of Affective Disorders - April 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Pedro Beria, Ana Cristina W. Viana, Andressa Behenck, Elizeth Heldt, Gisele Gus Manfro, Carolina Blaya Dreher Tags: Research paper Source Type: research

Long-term clinical effect of group cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia: a case series study
Cognitive-behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is recognized as the first-choice intervention for insomnia. One of the best-known advantages of CBT-I in comparison with pharmacotherapy is the long-term effect. However, only few studies have assessed its benefits with follow-up periods of longer than 3  years. In this clinical case series study we aimed to describe the long-term effects of group CBT-I after a mean 7.8 ± 1.6 years of follow-up (range 4–10 years). (Source: Sleep Medicine)
Source: Sleep Medicine - April 11, 2018 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Vincenza Castronovo, Andrea Galbiati, Marco Sforza, Mattia Poletti, Laura Giarolli, Tracy Kuo, Marco Zucconi, Mauro Manconi, Michael Hensley, Charles Morin, Luigi Ferini-Strambi Source Type: research

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Mild-to-Moderate Transdiagnostic Emotional Dysregulation
AbstractRecent research has found that emotional dysregulation is a transdiagnostic feature across a range of common mental health difficulties and within the general population. However, existing treatment for emotional dysregulation is typically long-term, intensive or focused on personality constructs. The aims of this paper are to (1) present a transdiagnostic cognitive model of emotional dysregulation (2) present a short-term cognitive behavioural therapy intervention for mild-to-moderate presentations of emotional dysregulation. (Source: Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy)
Source: Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy - April 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Disputing Irrational Beliefs Among Convicted Terrorists and Extremist Beliefs
This study investigated the most common irrational beliefs among samples of: (1) convicted terrorists and (2) extremists, all of whom were prisoners in the country of Jordan. It also investigated the effectiveness of a program of disputing irrational beliefs (DIBP) with the same populations. The subjects were assigned randomly to two groups: an experimental group (EG) that consisted of 43 prisoners who received an training program, and a control group that consisted of 48 prisoners who received no training. The irrational beliefs scale (IBS) scores were assessed for both groups before and after exposure to the DIBP. To tes...
Source: Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy - April 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders in Parkinson's disease: Design of a randomised controlled trial to assess clinical effectiveness and changes in cerebral connectivity
Anxiety disorders occur in up to 35% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and have a negative effect on motor symptoms and quality of life. To date, no clinical trials specifically targeting anxiety in PD patients have been published. (Source: Journal of Psychosomatic Research)
Source: Journal of Psychosomatic Research - April 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: A.E.P. Mulders, A.J.H. Moonen, K. Dujardin, M.L. Kuijf, A. Duits, B. Flinois, R.L.H. Handels, R. Lopes, A.F.G. Leentjens Source Type: research

Preoperative anxiety and implications on postoperative recovery. What we can do to change our history.
Authors: Stamenkovic DM, Rancic NK, Latas MB, Neskovic V, Rondovic GM, Wu JD, Cattano D Abstract Preoperative anxiety can influence the intensity of postoperative pain and anesthesia and analgesia requirement. In certain types of surgery, anxiety may even increase postoperative morbidity and mortality. The goal of this narrative review is to remind anesthesiologists that anxiety measurement using specific tools can be done in clinical practice, to present the implications of preoperative anxiety on postoperative patient recovery, and to acknowledge the importance of a dedicated anesthesia plan in the management of ...
Source: Minerva Anestesiologica - April 8, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Minerva Anestesiol Source Type: research

Cognitive behavioural therapy —a valid alternative to antipsychotics for psychosis?
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018 Source:The Lancet Psychiatry Author(s): Sameer Jauhar (Source: The Lancet Psychiatry)
Source: The Lancet Psychiatry - April 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Antipsychotic drugs versus cognitive behavioural therapy versus a combination of both in people with psychosis: a randomised controlled pilot and feasibility study
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018 Source:The Lancet Psychiatry Author(s): Anthony P Morrison, Heather Law, Lucy Carter, Rachel Sellers, Richard Emsley, Melissa Pyle, Paul French, David Shiers, Alison R Yung, Elizabeth K Murphy, Natasha Holden, Ann Steele, Samantha E Bowe, Jasper Palmier-Claus, Victoria Brooks, Rory Byrne, Linda Davies, Peter M Haddad Background Little evidence is available for head-to-head comparisons of psychosocial interventions and pharmacological interventions in psychosis. We aimed to establish whether a randomised controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) versus antipsych...
Source: The Lancet Psychiatry - April 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Should people with psychosis be supported in choosing cognitive therapy as an alternative to antipsychotic medication: A commentary on a commentary
Having collaborated with Anthony Morrison for a number of years, there is no doubt in my mind that his primary objective is to improve the acceptability, effectiveness and safety of interventions for people with psychosis. In his article (Morrison, 2018) he is correct to say the effectiveness of antipsychotics have been overestimated and the adverse effects underestimated (Hutton et al., 2012; Hutton et al., 2015; Leucht et al., 2017; Morrison et al., 2012), and he should be commended for producing world ‑leading evidence on the effectiveness and safety of alternative approaches, such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CB...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Paul Hutton Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Racial/ethnic differences in the treatment of adolescent major depressive disorders (MDD) across healthcare providers participating in the Medicaid program
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) affects 7.5 -8.2% of adolescents every year (Cummings et al., 2011, Avenevoli et al., 2015). MDD is the third leading cause of death and has long-term negative impact on adolescents such as failure at school, substance abuse, and adult depression. (Results from the 2008, Windfuhr et al., 2008, Hawton et al., 2012, Emslie et al., 1997) Cognitive behavior therapy and interpersonal therapy are generally recommended for the treatment of mild depression (Hasler et al., 2005), and antidepressant medications are recommended for moderate to severe depression treatment along with behavioral therapies...
Source: Journal of Affective Disorders - April 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Aylin Yucel, Ekere J . Essien, Swarnava Sanyal, Osaro Mgbere, Rajender Aparasu, Vinod S. Bhatara, Joy Alonzo, Hua Chen Tags: Research paper Source Type: research

Should people with psychosis be supported in choosing cognitive therapy as an alternative to antipsychotic medication: A commentary on a commentary
Having collaborated with Anthony Morrison for a number of years, there is no doubt in my mind that his primary objective is to improve the acceptability, effectiveness and safety of interventions for people with psychosis. In his article (Morrison, 2018) he is correct to say the effectiveness of antipsychotics have been overestimated and the adverse effects underestimated (Hutton et al., 2012; Hutton et al., 2015; Leucht et al., 2017; Morrison et al., 2012), and he should be commended for producing world ‑leading evidence on the effectiveness and safety of alternative approaches, such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CB...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Paul Hutton Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Racial/ethnic differences in the treatment of adolescent major depressive disorders (MDD) across healthcare providers participating in the medicaid program
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) affects 7.5 –8.2% of adolescents every year (Cummings et al., 2011; Avenevoli et al., 2015). MDD is the third leading cause of death and has long-term negative impact on adolescents such as failure at school, substance abuse, and adult depression (NIH agency SAMHSA, 2008; Windfuhr et al., 2008; Hawton et  al., 2012; Emslie et al., 1997). Cognitive behavior therapy and interpersonal therapy are generally recommended for the treatment of mild depression (Hasler et al., 2005), and antidepressant medications are recommended for moderate to severe depressi...
Source: Journal of Affective Disorders - April 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Aylin Yucel, Ekere J. Essien, Swarnava Sanyal, Osaro Mgbere, Rajender R. Aparasu, Vinod S. Bhatara, Joy P. Alonzo, Hua Chen Tags: Research paper Source Type: research

Primary care management of non-specific low back pain: key messages from recent clinical guidelines.
Authors: Almeida M, Saragiotto B, Richards B, Maher CG Abstract INTRODUCTION: Research in the past decade supports some major changes to the primary care management of non-specific low back pain (LBP). The present article summarises recommendations from recently published United Kingdom, Danish, Belgian and United States guidelines to alert readers to the important changes in recommendations for management, and the recommendations from previous guidelines that remain unchanged. Main recommendations: Use a clinical assessment to triage patients with LBP. Further diagnostic workup is only required for the small numbe...
Source: Medical Journal of Australia - April 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: Med J Aust Source Type: research

Smoking cessation treatment outcomes among people with and without mental and substance use disorders: An observational real-world study.
CONCLUSION: The inclusion of individuals with and without MSUD in the same protocol, allowing for individuals with MSUD undergoing their psychiatric treatment, generates at least comparable success rates between the groups. Predictors of treatment success were similar to those found in the general population. Facilities that treat patients with MSUD should treat tobacco use in order to reduce the disparities in morbidity and mortality experienced by this population. PMID: 29609056 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists)
Source: Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists - April 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effectiveness of preventive cognitive therapy while tapering antidepressants versus maintenance antidepressant treatment versus their combination in prevention of depressive relapse or recurrence (DRD study): a three-group, multicentre, randomised controlled trial
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018 Source:The Lancet Psychiatry Author(s): Claudi L H Bockting, Nicola S Klein, Hermien J Elgersma, Gerard D van Rijsbergen, Christien Slofstra, Johan Ormel, Erik Buskens, Jack Dekker, Peter J de Jong, Willem A Nolen, Aart H Schene, Steven D Hollon, Huibert Burger Background Keeping individuals on antidepressants after remission or recovery of major depressive disorder is a common strategy to prevent relapse or recurrence. Preventive cognitive therapy (PCT) has been proposed as an alternative to maintenance antidepressant treatment, but whether its addition would allow tapering...
Source: The Lancet Psychiatry - April 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Long-term treatment effect of trauma-affected refugees with flexible Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and antidepressants
There is limited evidence on the treatment of PTSD in trauma-affected refugees. Two systematic reviews found preliminary evidence that Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) and culturally adapted Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) have some effect (Crumlish and O'Rourke, 2010; Nose et  al., 2017). NET is the most studied psychotherapy to refugees with PTSD, but to date there is a lack of studies comparing different active treatments. In general, the recommended treatment for PTSD is Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (TFCBT) and SSRI (sertraline, paroxetine and fluoxet ine) or venlafaxine (Bisson and Andrew, 200...
Source: Psychiatry Research - April 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Caecilie B öck Buhmann, Merete Nordentoft, Morten Ekstroem, Jessica Carlsson, Erik Lykke Mortensen Source Type: research

Piloting the addition of contingency management to best practice counselling as an adjunct treatment for rural and remote disordered gamblers: study protocol.
This study was approved by the University of Lethbridge's Human Subject Research Committee (#2016-080). The investigators plan to publish the results from this study in academic peer-reviewed journals. Summary information will be provided to the funder. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02953899; Pre-results. PMID: 29615445 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - April 3, 2018 Category: Rural Health Authors: Christensen DR, Witcher CSG, Leighton T, Hudson-Breen R, Ofori-Dei S Tags: BMJ Open Source Type: research

Cognitive rehabilitation of cerebellar deficits.
Abstract During the past 3 decades numerous neurophysiological, neuroimaging, experimental and clinical studies have evidenced a crucial role for the cerebellum in cognitive, affective and behavioral functions. As a result of the acknowledged modulatory role of the cerebellum upon remote structures such as the cerebral cortex, cerebellar injury may give rise to a constellation of behavioral, affective and cognitive symptoms (Schmahmann's Syndrome). In sharp contrast to the wide range of therapeutic interventions to treat cognitive and affective disorders following cerebral cortical lesions and despite the conseque...
Source: CNS and Neurological Disorders Drug Targets - April 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mitoma H, Marien P, van Dun K, Van Overwalle F, Manto M Tags: CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Long-term treatment effect of trauma-affected refugees with flexible cognitive behavioural therapy and antidepressants
There is limited evidence on the treatment of PTSD in trauma-affected refugees. Two systematic reviews found preliminary evidence that Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) and culturally adapted Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) have some effect (Crumlish and O'Rourke, 2010; Nose et  al., 2017). NET is the most studied psychotherapy to refugees with PTSD, but to date there is a lack of studies comparing different active treatments. In general, the recommended treatment for PTSD is Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (TFCBT) and SSRI (sertraline, paroxetine and fluoxet ine) or venlafaxine (Bisson and Andrew, 200...
Source: Psychiatry Research - April 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Caecilie B öck Buhmann, Merete Nordentoft, Morten Ekstroem, Jessica Carlsson, Erik Lykke Mortensen Source Type: research

Predictors of Etiological Beliefs about Panic Disorder and Impact of Beliefs on Treatment Outcomes
Panic Disorder (PD) is a disabling anxiety condition characterized by recurring panic attacks, anticipatory fear of future attacks, and in some individuals, varying degrees of avoidance of situations where panic attacks are more likely to occur (APA, 2013). The etiological pathways of PD are unknown, but research points to a complex interaction between biological, psychological, and environmental factors (Chen  and Tsai, 2016). Effective treatments for PD exist, with selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) considered first-line int...
Source: Psychiatry Research - April 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sawsane El Amiri, Diana Koszycki, Monica Taljaard, Zindel Segal, Jacques Bradwejn Source Type: research

Predictors of etiological beliefs about panic disorder and impact of beliefs on treatment outcomes
Panic disorder (PD) is a disabling anxiety condition characterized by recurring panic attacks, anticipatory fear of future attacks, and in some individuals, varying degrees of avoidance of situations where panic attacks are more likely to occur (American  Psychiatric Association, 2013). The etiological pathways of PD are unknown, but research points to a complex interaction between biological, psychological, and environmental factors (Chen and Tsai, 2016). Effective treatments for PD exist, with selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors, serotoni n-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, and cognitive beh...
Source: Psychiatry Research - April 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sawsane El Amiri, Diana Koszycki, Monica Taljaard, Zindel Segal, Jacques Bradwejn Source Type: research

Comorbid Insomnia and Psychiatric Disorders: An Update
This article reviews this relationship and provides recommendations for management. Keywords: Insomnia, sleep disorder, psychiatric disorder, depression, psychosis, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder Insomnia affects 25 million people in the United States annually and leads to an estimated $100 billion health care burden. Insomnia has also been shown to be a causal factor in other medical and psychiatric disorders, cognitive impairments, accidents, absenteeism, and reduced quality of life.1 The cost of not treating insomnia is more than the cost of treating insomnia.2 Insomnia as a symptom is seen in up to one third of the Un...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - April 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: ICNS Online Editor Tags: Current Issue Review anxiety disorder depression insomnia psychiatric disorder psychosis schizophrenia sleep disorder Source Type: research

O8.6. the relationship between cognition and functional improvement in the context of a psychosocial intervention targeting social disability in first episode psychosis
This study ran alongside a multi-site proof of concept trial of SRCBT, for individuals with FEP experiencing social disability. Participants (M age = 25 years) had less than 30 hours a week of structured activity before entering the trial. At baseline, 123 participants completed a battery of SC and NC assessments. 59 participants were randomly allocated to the therapy group (SRCBT + EIS), and 64 were randomly allocated to the standard care group (care from an EIS alone). Participants completed a follow-up assessment at 9 months on the same cognitive battery, and a further assessment of their structured activity. The assess...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - April 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

S52. working mechanisms of virtual reality based cbt for paranoia: a randomized controlled trial examining cognitive biases, schematic beliefs and safety behavior
DiscussionVR-CBT affects multiple mechanisms that are associated with paranoid ideation. Although maintaining factors of paranoia are likely to influence each other, targeting safety behavior and social cognitive problems seems effective in breaking the vicious circle of paranoia. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - April 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

F252. service provision for ultra-high risk for psychosis: implementation of clinical guidelines in england
DiscussionDespite clear evidence for the benefit of early intervention in this population, current provision for UHR within EIP services in England does not match clinical guidelines. While some argue this is due to a lack of allocated funding, it is important to note the similar variable adherence to clinical guidelines in the treatment of people with established schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - April 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

F243. influence of metacognition and irrational beliefs on social functioning in psychosis of recent onset
DiscussionIn our results, two kind of irrational beliefs, one of the main axes of cognitive therapy, emerged as relevant for social functioning in psychosis of recent onset. However, classic social cognition and metacognition measures were less significant, only ToM and self-reflecteness influenced some aspects of social functioning. Further analysis of determinants of social functioning in psychosis should explore the role of irrational beliefs and consider them for treatment strategy, along social cognition and negative symptoms. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - April 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

F216. sleep quality and clinical improvement in first episode psychosis
DiscussionWe found that improved sleep quality was present in participants who experienced much global clinical improvement over 6 months of CSC. In addition, better sleep quality correlated with reduced depression and anxiety symptoms. Though these findings do not address direction of causality, our findings indicate that improving sleep quality should be a specific focus in treatment of early psychosis. Further analysis will be conducted to investigate the relationship between sleep and clinical improvement using other clinical measures, such as symptom severity, and the dataset will be expanded to include data through t...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - April 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

F214. psychological interventions for positive symptoms in schizophrenia: a network meta-analysis
DiscussionWe are going to investigate the possible sources of heterogeneity with the pre-planned subgroup analyses: number of sessions, study duration, individual versus group setting, expertise of the therapist and baseline severity.A network meta-analysis is the only methodology that allows the production of hierarchies of interventions for treatment of schizophrenia. Such hierarchies, saying which treatment is likely to be the best, the second best and so on, are essential for guideline development. The results of this study are therefore likely to provide knowledge of great impact for treatment decisions.This project h...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - April 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

T70. recovery in first –episode psychosis: cognitive, clinical and resilience (personal resources) trajectories across 6 years
DiscussionThe recovery rate in this sample is higher (45.5%) compared to other studies. Modern treatment, as well as keeping the fully recovered in the study, may all contribute to this higher rate of recovery. The results indicate that the greatest improvement happens during the two first years of treatment and thus seems to represent a “window of opportunity” for recovery. Increases in reported self-efficacy, hope and resilience were observed 1., 5 years before improvements in neurocognition and clinical symptoms, underlining the importance of focusing on personal resources and patients’ hope of recover...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - April 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

T41. modified cognitive behavioral therapy for elderly patients with schizophrenia: a randomized, controlled pilot trial
DiscussionOur results provide evidence for the feasibility of a sufficiently powered phase-III study targeting depressive symptoms and global functioning in long-term treated elderly schizophrenia patients. A history of about twenty years of pharmacological treatment does not imply there is no room for improvement in depression and global functioning following a modified cognitive behavioral therapy in this specific patient group. Supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF-01GV0909); ICTRP/DRKS: DRKS00003623. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - April 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

PTSD Following Heart and Lung Transplant: Outcome of Those Receiving Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
This study is to describe the outcome following trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy(T-CBT) for patients with acute trauma. (Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation)
Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation - March 31, 2018 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: L. Painter, I.S. Fontanilla Source Type: research

Stress Accounts for the Association Between ADHD Symptoms and Suicide Ideation When Stress-Reactive Rumination Is High
Conclusions did not change after controlling for depressive symptoms. These findings shed light on one explanation of the elevated levels of suicide ideation seen in emerging adults with elevated ADHD symptoms: heightened levels of stressful events and a tendency to respond to stress by ruminating. Implications for theory development and prevention efforts are discussed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 31, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Smoking cessation treatment outcomes among people with and without mental and substance use disorders: An observational real-world study
Conclusion The inclusion of individuals with and without MSUD in the same protocol, allowing for individuals with MSUD undergoing their psychiatric treatment, generates at least comparable success rates between the groups. Predictors of treatment success were similar to those found in the general population. Facilities that treat patients with MSUD should treat tobacco use in order to reduce the disparities in morbidity and mortality experienced by this population. (Source: European Psychiatry)
Source: European Psychiatry - March 31, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Contribution of Anxiety Sensitivity to Obsessive –Compulsive and Anxiety Symptoms in a Naturalistic Treatment Setting
We examined the relationship between internalizing symptoms and the anxiety sensitivity components of physical, social, and cognitive concerns in a sample of 165 patients seeking treatment in a clinic specializing in cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety-related disorders. Social anxiety symptoms were associated with greater social concerns. Cognitive concerns were characteristic of both depression and generalized anxiety symptoms, suggesting these two classes of symptoms may share AS symptomatology. Physical concerns were specifically related to panic symptoms. Although obsessive –compulsive symptoms were related...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Revisiting How We Assess Therapist Competence in Cognitive Therapy
We report on two approaches to addressing the problem of low reliability in the assessment of therapist competence in cognitive therapy (CT). In Study 1, we utilized ratings of a session from each of six therapists and investigated how CT experts evaluate specific therapist behaviors in making ratings on the Cognitive Therapy Scale (CTS). Departures from the consensus on judgments of these therapist behaviors were associated with more discrepant competence ratings. We take these results to suggest that, at least among experts, providing greater clarity about which therapist behaviors are relevant to each CTS item may enhan...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Should people with psychosis be supported in choosing cognitive therapy as an alternative to antipsychotic medication: A commentary on current evidence
Evidence from randomised controlled trials suggest that both antipsychotic medication and cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can be helpful to people with a diagnosis of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. On this basis, many clinical guidelines recommend that people with psychosis should be offered both antipsychotic medication and CBT and that they should be collaboratively involved in the decisions about which treatment options they choose. The reality of service provision is often very different, with data regarding the availability of such treatment options and the extent of user involvement in decision making suggestin...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - March 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anthony P. Morrison Source Type: research

Mindfulness Meditation for Primary Headache Pain: A Meta-Analysis.
Abstract Background: Several studies have reported that mindfulness meditation has a potential effect in controlling headaches, such as migraine and tension-type headache; however, its role remains controversial. This review assessed the evidence regarding the effects of mindfulness meditation for primary headache pain. Methods: Only English databases (PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials [the Cochrane Library], PsycINFO, Psychology and behavioral science collection, PsyArticles, Web of Science, and Scopus) were searched from their inception to November 2016 with the keywords ("meditati...
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - March 28, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Gu Q, Hou JC, Fang XM Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research

Monocausal Attributions Along Cross-Sections of Psychosis Development and Links with Psychopathology and Data Gathering Style
AbstractSeveral attributional biases have been discussed as putative causal factors in psychosis formation and maintenance. The monocausality bias in particular describes the excessive tendency to disregard multifactorial explanations and to instead attribute events to a single cause. To elucidate the role of monocausality in psychosis development, this study compared patients with an at-risk mental state of psychosis (ARMS,n = 49), first-episode patients (FEP,n = 35), chronic schizophrenia patients (SZ,n = 32) and healthy controls (HC,n = 39) on the Internal Personal...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The role of avoidance behavior in the treatment of adolescents with irritable bowel syndrome: A mediation analysis.
This study was based on data from a randomized controlled trial (N = 101) that evaluated exposure-based internet-delivered CBT (Internet-CBT) compared with a wait-list for adolescents with IBS. We investigated whether avoidance behavior and perceived stress mediated the improvement in global GI symptoms due to treatment. We found that a change in avoidance behavior, but not perceived stress, mediated the effect of exposure-based Internet-CBT on GI symptoms. The decrease in avoidance behavior explained a large portion (67%) of the total treatment effect. Moreover, a unidirectional relationship over time was observed bet...
Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy - March 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Bonnert M, Olén O, Bjureberg J, Lalouni M, Hedman-Lagerlöf E, Serlachius E, Ljótsson B Tags: Behav Res Ther Source Type: research

Cognitive behaviour therapy for low self-esteem in a person with a learning disability: a case study
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities,Volume 12, Issue 2, Page 67-76, March 2018. Purpose Low self-esteem is common in people with learning disabilities. There is limited research examining the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) focused on low self-esteem within this client group. The purpose of this paper is to add to the limited evidence by describing the use of CBT focused on low self-esteem for a person with a learning disability in the context of emotion regulation difficulties. Design/methodology/approach An individual case study design was used, with repeated quantitative measures...
Source: Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities - March 28, 2018 Category: Disability Source Type: research