Client Motivation and Engagement in Transdiagnostic Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: Predictors and Outcomes
AbstractClient motivation is regarded as a key factor in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. To date, client motivation has only been measured during individual-CBT, with little known about the predictive capacity of motivation in group settings. The current study aimed to explore the role of client motivation in group-CBT. Measuring motivation during individual-CBT has proven somewhat difficult with many self-report measures providing weak and inconsistent results. For this reason observational measures of motivation, such as rating client change (CT) language during CBT, have been trialled with some...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Gaze-contingent Attention Bias Modification Training and its Effect on Attention, Interpretations, Mood, and Aggressive Behavior
AbstractCognitive theories propose that aggression is associated with specific patterns of attention to social cues, and suggest that cognitive biases in attention and interpretation are interrelated, The current study tested whether these attention patterns can be altered using a single session of a novel gaze-contingent cognitive bias modification paradigm (CBM-A) and assessed the impact of this on interpretation bias, aggressive behavior and mood. University students (18 –31 years) were randomly assigned to either a single session of positive training (n = 40) aimed at increasing attention to pr...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mindfulness Program for Filipino Children
ConclusionsThe findings reaffirm the importance of using active control groups and considering the capacities of facilitators in evaluating the effects of mindfulness-based interventions. Testing mindfulness-based interventions in low-resource, non-Western school settings require deeper contextual adaptation and facilitator preparation. (Source: Mindfulness)
Source: Mindfulness - February 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Post-event Processing and Alcohol Intoxication: The Moderating Role of Social Anxiety
AbstractTo resolve the mixed findings on the link between social anxiety (SA) and alcohol use, studies have examined the role of post-event processing (PEP), i.e., negative thinking about past social events. In a sample of 18 –30 year olds (82% female) high (n = 40) and low (n = 49) in SA, the current 21-day study assessed the effect of PEP after social drinking events on subjective intoxication at the next social event. The moderating role of SA severity was tested. Compared to the low SA group, the high SA group reported overall more PEP but similar intoxication le vels. Multilevel ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Innovations in the Study of Appraisals and PTSD: A Commentary
AbstractThe purpose of our commentary is to underscore key take-home points of the 11 articles in this special series on appraisals and trauma. Two important take-home points relate to (i) the question of whether appraisals mediate the relationship between trauma and trauma-relevant symptoms, and (ii) the methodological innovations presented here. Further, we discuss three features characterizing this special issue. First, it includes papers examining the role of negative appraisals as a correlate, predictor, and potential causal risk factor of posttraumatic stress symptoms; second, the studies use a multifaceted approach ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Internet-Based Cognitive-Behavioural Intervention for Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Conclusion: The iCBT was highly effective in reducing the burden of PMDD. It appears to be particularly important to address coping styles and stress management in the treatment.Psychother Psychosom (Source: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics)
Source: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics - February 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Chronic low back pain: Relevance of a new classification based on the injury pattern
The objectives of this study were to define the role for surgery in the treatment of chronic low back pain (cLBP) and to develop a new classification of cLBP based on the pattern of injury.HypothesisSurgery may benefit patients with cLBP, and a new classification based on the injury pattern may be of interest.MethodA systematic literature review was performed by searching Medline, the Cochrane Library, the French public health database (Banque de Données en Santé Publique), Science Direct, and the National Guideline Clearinghouse. The main search terms were “back pain” OR “lumbar” OR &...
Source: Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Surgery and Research - February 19, 2019 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Components of Attentional Bias to Threat in Clinically Anxious Children: An Experimental Study Using the Emotional Spatial Cueing Paradigm
AbstractAttentional bias to threat is believed to play a key role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. However, the underlying attentional mechanisms related to anxiety are not well understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cognitive therapy on the engagement and disengagement components of attentional bias to threat in clinically anxious children using the emotional spatial cueing paradigm. Anxiety was diagnosed using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule and the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results from 27 clinically anxious children and 27 control chi...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive Bias Modification for Social Anxiety: The Differential Impact of Modifying Attentional and/or Interpretation Bias
This study aimed to determine the relative efficacy of CBM-A, CBM-I, and combined CBM for reducing social anxiety symptoms and attenuating anxiety vulnerability in response to a social stressor task. Participants (N = 116) were randomly allocated to receive CBM-A, CBM-I, combined CBM, or placebo. Results revealed that CBM-I reduced negative interpretation bias and social anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, CBM-I improved speech performance on a social stressor task. However, CBM-A procedures did not modify atte ntional biases or anxiety vulnerability. These findings support the efficacy of CBM-I for social anxiety...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Changes in fear-avoidance beliefs and work participation after occupational rehabilitation for musculoskeletal- and common mental disorders: secondary outcomes of two randomized clinical trials.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that FABQ could be a useful prognostic tool for individuals on sick leave due to musculoskeletal or psychological disorders. There was no evidence that inpatient occupational rehabilitation reduces FABQ scores more than outpatient cognitive behavioural therapy. PMID: 30768673 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine)
Source: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine - February 17, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: J Rehabil Med Source Type: research

Obsessive-compulsive disorder comorbid with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Authors: Sharma LP, Reddy YCJ Abstract Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms (OCS) are known to be highly comorbid with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Comorbid OCD/OCS influences the course of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. There is also some evidence to suggest that a diagnosis of OCD may be associated with elevated risk for later development of psychosis and bipolar disorder. Comorbid OCD/OCS is associated with a greater severity of schizophrenia phenotype and poorer prognosis. In addition, certain atypical antipsychotics, clozapine in particular are known to induce or wo...
Source: Indian Journal of Psychiatry - February 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Indian J Psychiatry Source Type: research

New-wave behavioral therapies in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Moving toward integrated behavioral therapies.
Authors: Manjula M, Sudhir PM Abstract New-wave behavioral therapies in obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCDs) comprise of third-wave therapies and newer cognitive therapies (CTs). This review covers outcome studies published in English until December 2017. A total of forty articles on mindfulness-based CT, metacognitive therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy, and danger ideation reduction therapy in the form of single-case studies, case series, open-label trials, two-group comparison studies, and randomized controlled studies were included. Results show that studies on these therapies are limited in number. Met...
Source: Indian Journal of Psychiatry - February 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Indian J Psychiatry Source Type: research

Noninvasive brain stimulation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Authors: Shivakumar V, Dinakaran D, Narayanaswamy JC, Venkatasubramanian G Abstract Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with a chronic course, contributing to significant socio-occupational dysfunction. Forty percent of patients remain treatment refractive despite mainstream treatment options such as serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and cognitive behavior therapy. Noninvasive brain stimulation approaches such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have piqued interest as add-on treatment options in OCD. This review focuses on...
Source: Indian Journal of Psychiatry - February 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Indian J Psychiatry Source Type: research

Glutamatergic augmentation strategies in obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Authors: Sheshachala K, Narayanaswamy JC Abstract Proven treatment strategies for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) include pharmacotherapy with serotonin reuptake inhibitors and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). A significant proportion of patients (25%-30%) fail to respond to these treatment options, necessitating the need for additional treatment options to improve treatment outcomes and quality of life in patients with OCD. Augmentation strategies using various glutamatergic agents have been explored, with diverse outcomes. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the glutamatergic system in the brain...
Source: Indian Journal of Psychiatry - February 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Indian J Psychiatry Source Type: research

Imagining as an Observer: Manipulating Visual Perspective in Obsessional Imagery
We examined the impact of visual perspective on response to intrusive obsessional images, using autobiographical memory images as a control stimulus. Undergraduates (N = 153) imagined idiosyncratic obsessional scenarios and negative memories from their natural visual perspective, then re-imagined them from a field or observer perspective. At baseline, field perspective was positively associated with vividness and distress and OCD symptoms were associated with an observer perspective. Participants shifted to observer perspective reported reduced vividness of the obsessional image, whereas those shifted to fiel...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Authors' reply to Cognitive-behavioural therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome: neither efficacious nor safe.
Authors: Janse A, Bleijenberg G, Knoop H PMID: 30741142 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry for Mental Science)
Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry for Mental Science - February 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Br J Psychiatry Source Type: research

Early Versus Later Improvements in Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Use and Treatment Outcome in Eating Disorders
AbstractDialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has demonstrated initial efficacy for the treatment of eating disorders (EDs). However, no study has examined potential processes that may contribute to observed improvements in DBT for EDs. The present study sought to investigate changes in DBT skills use throughout treatment as a predictor of symptom change in a DBT-based partial hospital program (PHP) for adults with EDs. Adults [n  = 135; M(SD) age = 25.08 (7.88)] with EDs completed self-report measures at treatment admission, one-month post-admission, and discharge from PHP. DBT skills use, as meas...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on a Behavioural Measure of Rumination in Patients with Chronic, Treatment-Resistant Depression
AbstractIt has been found that Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) reduces rumination in remitted and currently depressed patients. However, less is known about the effects of MBCT on rumination in chronically and treatment-resistant depressed patients. Typically, questionnaires are used to assess rumination, but this introduces the risk of response and recall biases. A recent systematic review (van der Velden et al. Clinical Psychology Review 37:26 –39, 2015) proposes to also include behavioural measures. A behavioural measure that has previously been used to assess rumination in dysphoric students is the bre...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Direct effects of cognitive therapy skill acquisition on cognitive therapy skill use, idiosyncratic dysfunctional beliefs and emotions in distressed individuals: An experimental study
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2019Source: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental PsychiatryAuthor(s): Sanne J.E. Bruijniks, Sander A. Los, Marcus J.H. HuibersAbstractExperimental studies that manipulate treatment procedures to investigate their direct effects on treatment processes and outcomes are necessary to find out the effective elements and improve the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. The present study randomized mildly to severely depressed participants into a procedure focused on cognitive therapy skill acquisition (CTSA; n = 27) or a control procedure focused...
Source: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry - February 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Feasibility and Impact of a Guided Symptom Exposure Augmented Cognitive Behavior Therapy Protocol to Prevent Symptoms of Pharmacologically Induced Depression: A Pilot Study
AbstractDepression is the leading cause of disability and a major cause of morbidity worldwide, with societal costs now upwards of 1 trillion dollars across the globe. Hence, extending current efforts to augment prevention outcomes is consistent with global public health interests. Although many prevention programs have been developed and have demonstrated efficacy, studies have yet to demonstrate that CBT is effective in preventing symptoms in populations at risk for developing depression induced by pharmacological substances. Using a randomized, controlled design, this pilot study reports on the feasibility and prelimina...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How Do I Say This? An Experimental Comparison of the Effects of Partner Feedback Styles on Reassurance Seeking Behaviour
AbstractInterventions for reassurance seeking (RS) in obsessive –compulsive disorder typically include reducing accommodation by asking partners to not provide reassurance, which may decrease RS but increase distress and be perceived as unhelpful. Alternatively, having partners provide support to encourage coping may be effective and associated with greater pe rceived helpfulness and lower negative affect. This experiment tested hypotheses that compared with no reassurance, supportive feedback would be associated with higher ratings of intervention helpfulness, fewer requests for reassurance, and lower ratings of RS ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Theoretical Rationale and Case Illustration of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Fear of Cancer Recurrence
AbstractFear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is a common problem among cancer survivors and evidence-based interventions grounded in theoretical models are needed. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is an evidence-based intervention for reducing health anxiety that could be useful to apply to FCR. However, there has only been one study of MBCT for FCR to date, and the theoretical rationale and practical application of MBCT for FCR has not been described. The purpose of this paper is to offer an evidence-based rationale for MBCT to treat FCR based on a health anxiety model; describe the process of adapting MBCT to target...
Source: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings - February 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Psychological approaches for the management of persistent postconcussion symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury: a systematic review.
CONCLUSION: Counselling or cognitive behaviour therapy have the most support but the evidence remains limited. We encourage further randomized controlled trials of early interventions in samples at risk for persistent symptoms, including closer study of psychological risk-factors and the 'active' ingredient. To advance the field, future trials must include additional methodological controls and improved reporting. Implications for rehabilitation Persistent symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury can be disabling and psychological management for rehabilitation may be proposed. However, Controlled trials show that whi...
Source: Disability and Rehabilitation - February 11, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Sullivan KA, Kaye SA, Blaine H, Edmed SL, Meares S, Rossa K, Haden C Tags: Disabil Rehabil Source Type: research

Theoretical Rationale and Case Illustration of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Fear of Cancer Recurrence.
Abstract Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is a common problem among cancer survivors and evidence-based interventions grounded in theoretical models are needed. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is an evidence-based intervention for reducing health anxiety that could be useful to apply to FCR. However, there has only been one study of MBCT for FCR to date, and the theoretical rationale and practical application of MBCT for FCR has not been described. The purpose of this paper is to offer an evidence-based rationale for MBCT to treat FCR based on a health anxiety model; describe the process of adapting MBCT...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - February 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Luberto CM, Hall DL, Chad-Friedman E, Park ER Tags: J Clin Psychol Med Settings Source Type: research

Symptom-Specific Threat Perception Mediates the Relationship Between Obsessive Beliefs and OCD Symptoms
AbstractCognitive theories of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) propose that obsessive beliefs bias individuals ’ perception of OC-relevant threats, which in turn maintain OCD symptoms. However, no prior research has directly tested this mediational model in a clinical sample. The current study bridges this gap in the literature. Sixty adults with OCD completed a diagnostic interview, self-report questionna ires and a threat perception task. More specifically, participants rated the perceived threat associated with (a) OC-specific stimuli (e.g., toilet) that matched their most interfering symptom dimension (e.g., c...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for the treatment of current depressive symptoms: a meta-analysis.
Abstract Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) appears to be a promising intervention for the prevention of relapse in major depressive disorder, but its efficacy in patients with current depressive symptoms is less clear. Randomized clinical trials of MBCT for adult patients with current depressive symptoms were included (k = 13, N = 1046). Comparison conditions were coded based on whether they were intended to be therapeutic (specific active controls) or not (non-specific controls). MBCT was superior to non-specific controls at post-treatment (k = 10, d = 0.71, 95% confidence interval [C...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - February 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Goldberg SB, Tucker RP, Greene PA, Davidson RJ, Kearney DJ, Simpson TL Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Developing a Brief Version of the Social Thoughts and Beliefs Scale (STABS) Using Item Response Theory
AbstractCognitions play a central role in the maintenance of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The aim of the present study was to develop a brief version of the social thoughts and beliefs scale (STABS) that can be used in clinical trials and experience sampling studies in which multiple repeated measures (e.g., weekly or daily measurements) are utilized. Our sample (n = 361) included both individuals diagnosed with SAD (n = 108) and non-anxious controls (n = 253). We used item response theory analyses to examine items of the STABS and kept only items which differentiated between 4 l...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Profiles of Emotion Regulation in Young People Accessing Youth Mental Health and Drug Treatment
AbstractDeficits regulating emotions are a core process underlying both substance use and mental health disorders. Research has focused on identifying one-to-one associations between individual emotion regulation (ER) strategies and mental health symptoms. Consequently, little is known about how patterns of ER relate to a broad range of psychopathology, in treatment seeking young people. Latent class analysis was used to examine patterns of ER strategies and their relationship with symptoms of depression, anxiety, eating disorders, substance use and borderline personality disorder, in a sample of young treatment seekers. P...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Head and neck burns are associated with long-term patient-reported dissatisfaction with appearance: A Burn Model System National Database study
This study evaluates the effect of H&N burns on long-term patient reported outcomes compared to patients who sustained burns to other areas.MethodsData from the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research Burn Model System National Database collected between 1996 and 2015 were used to investigate differences in outcomes between those with and without H&N burns. Demographic and clinical characteristics for adult burn survivors with and without H&N burns were compared. The following patient-reported outcome measures, collected at 6, 12, and 24 months after injury, were examin...
Source: Burns - February 5, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

An RCT of brief cognitive therapy versus treatment as usual in patients with non-cardiac chest pain
Non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP) is a common reason for presenting to an emergency department (ED). Many patients re-present with similar symptoms despite reassurance. (Source: International Journal of Cardiology)
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - February 5, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Roger Mulder, Julie Zarifeh, Joseph Boden, Cameron Lacey, Peter Tyrer, Helen Tyrer, Martin Than, Richard Troughton Source Type: research

The effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on the illness perception and Psychological Symptoms in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.
This study was conducted to evaluate the Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on the Illness Perception (IP) and Psychological Symptoms (PS) for Patients in primary care with an active symptom of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The present design is a clinical trial that uses the pre-test and post-test design with a control group. MBCT as an evidence-based psychotherapeutic intervention and Mindfulness-Based Intervention (MBI), is an 8-week course developed for patients with relapsing depression that integrates mindfulness meditation practices and cognitive therapy. This semi-experimental study was conduc...
Source: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice - February 1, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Dalili Z, Bayazi MH Tags: Complement Ther Clin Pract Source Type: research

Sleep Abnormalities in Multiple Sclerosis
AbstractPurpose of reviewThis review summarizes the most well-documented sleep disorders seen in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), with a special focus on the impact on quality of life.Recent findingsSleep abnormalities in patients with MS are a multifactorial and relatively complex issue affecting approximately 60% of the patients while the pathophysiology of these symptoms is not fully understood. Circadian rhythm disorders and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been recognized as potential players in affecting sleep homeostasis in MS patients. Medication-related side effects such as in immunotherap...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Neurology - January 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

#Sad: Twitter Content Predicts Changes in Cognitive Vulnerability and Depressive Symptoms
AbstractResearch shows that social media networks can affect both the physical and mental health of its users. We hypothesized that social media would also be associated with cognitive vulnerability to depression. To test this hypothesis, we used a 3-month pre-post prospective longitudinal design with a sample of undergraduates (n  = 105). Results showed that participants who had tweets with a “past focus” (as determined by LIWC software) were more likely to exhibit increases in cognitive vulnerability and depressive symptoms than participants who did not have tweets with a past focus. Increases i...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Sleep Abnormalities in Multiple Sclerosis.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the most well-documented sleep disorders seen in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), with a special focus on the impact on quality of life. RECENT FINDINGS: Sleep abnormalities in patients with MS are a multifactorial and relatively complex issue affecting approximately 60% of the patients while the pathophysiology of these symptoms is not fully understood. Circadian rhythm disorders and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been recognized as potential players in affecting sleep homeostasis in MS patients. Medication-related side effects suc...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sakkas GK, Giannaki CD, Karatzaferi C, Manconi M Tags: Curr Treat Options Neurol Source Type: research

Characterizing inpatient care for adults with schizophrenia using the Health Quality Ontario indices: A single-centre retrospective cohort study.
This study examined all admissions for adults diagnosed with schizophrenia over a 6-month period in 2017 to an inpatient psychiatric unit situated in a nonprofit general hospital in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. The Health Quality Ontario standards for the inpatient care of adults with schizophrenia were used to assess the quality of care provided in hospital. Standards were determined to have been met by doing a thorough chart review for each patient, reviewing all documentation in progress notes, admission notes, discharge notes and emergency room notes for quality standard completion. RESULTS: The average length of st...
Source: Clinical and Investigative Medicine - January 30, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Bahji A, Pikard JL, Mauer-Vakil D, Munsh T, Naeem F Tags: Clin Invest Med Source Type: research

Humanizing Chatbots: The effects of visual, identity and conversational cues on humanness perceptions
Publication date: Available online 29 January 2019Source: Computers in Human BehaviorAuthor(s): Eun Go, S. Shyam SundarAbstractChatbots are replacing human agents in a number of domains, from online tutoring to customer-service to even cognitive therapy. But, they are often machine-like in their interactions. What can we do to humanize chatbots? Should they necessarily be driven by human operators for them to be considered human? Or, will an anthropomorphic visual cue on the interface and/or a high-level of contingent message exchanges provide humanness to automated chatbots? We explored these questions with a 2 (anthropom...
Source: Computers in Human Behavior - January 29, 2019 Category: Information Technology Source Type: research

Pain perception and functional/occlusal parameters in sleep bruxism subjects following a therapeutic intervention
This study was conducted to assess the individual pain perception in sleep bruxism (SB) subjects. Moreover, the effects of a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) compared to an occlusal appliance (OA) on pain p... (Source: Head and Face Medicine)
Source: Head and Face Medicine - January 29, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Michelle Alicia Ommerborn, Rita Antonia Depprich, Christine Schneider, Maria Giraki, Matthias Franz, Wolfgang Hans-Michael Raab and Ralf Sch äfer Tags: Research Source Type: research

A 12-week multicomponent therapy in fibromyalgia improves health but not in concomitant moderate depression, an exploratory pilot study.
CONCLUSIONS: A 12-week multicomponent therapy for fibromyalgia, well described and gradually applied, showed improvement in health-related outcome. According to our results, we recommend to exclude patients with a moderate-to-severe depression at onset before starting a multicomponent therapy protocol. Implications for rehabilitation Multicomponent therapy for fibromyalgia is beneficial on different health outcomes. Moderate depression at onset should be exclusion criteria for starting with multicomponent therapy in patients with fibromyalgia. This multicomponent therapy protocol is ready to be implemented at daily practic...
Source: Disability and Rehabilitation - January 29, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Ollevier A, Vanneuville I, Carron P, Baetens T, Goderis T, Gabriel L, Van de Velde D Tags: Disabil Rehabil Source Type: research

Cognitive Mechanisms Underlying the Link Between Anxiety, Health Behaviors, and Illness Outcomes: Commentary on a Special Issue
AbstractThis commentary synthesizes research examining cognitive mechanisms underlying the links between anxiety, health behaviors, and illness outcomes. We provide a brief summary of contributions to this special issue and review common themes and methodological limitations. Notably, a number of related constructs emerged as amplification factors, increasing vulnerability to psychopathology and maladaptive health behaviors. These include anxiety sensitivity, distress and discomfort intolerance, emotion regulation, health literacy, and repetitive negative thinking. Finally, we discuss clinical implications, and conclude wi...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Culturally-adapted cognitive behavioural therapy based intervention for maternal depression: a mixed-methods feasibility study
British Pakistanis are one of the largest ethnic minority groups living in the UK, with high rates of maternal depression being reported in this population. Evidence suggests that culturally-adapted Cognitive ... (Source: BMC Women's Health)
Source: BMC Women's Health - January 28, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Sobia Khan, Karina Lovell, Farah Lunat, Yumna Masood, Sadia Shah, Barbara Tomenson and Nusrat Husain Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Exploring the barriers to the implementation of cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp)
This study is a quantitative service evaluation project which uses a questionnaire design to explore the factors that influence a clinician ’s decision to refer a patient for CBTp. Three qualitative questions are included for thematic analysis to allow the respondents to elaborate on their views on potential barriers. All appropriate Community Mental Health Team (CMHT) staff in adult mental health in NHS Lothian were invited to partic ipate in the study. Findings CMHT staff in NHS Lothian hold favourable views of CBTp and would support an increase in access for patients with psychosis. Key barriers to access for CBTp...
Source: Mental Health Review Journal - January 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Treatment of Clozapine Nonresponders
This article attempts to review the available evidence for management of patients with schizophrenia, who do not respond adequately to clozapine and require augmentation of clozapine with another treatment strategy.Recent findingsMany treatment strategies have been evaluated for management of this group of patients. Commonly used pharmacological augmentation strategies which have been evaluated include addition of a second antipsychotic, mood stabilizer, and antidepressant. Other pharmacological agents such as memantine, donepezil, amino acids, omega-3 fatty acids etc. have also been tried. Among the somatic treatments, el...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - January 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Children ’s CBT skills, metacognition, empathy, and theory of mind
This study provides evidence for the cognitive and affective skills that might predict the outcome of CBT in children. Metacognition and empathy predict children’s ability to relate thoughts, feelings and behaviours, and therefore may moderate the efficacy of CBT. (Source: Journal of Children's Services)
Source: Journal of Children's Services - January 23, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Guanfacine May Enhance Effects of Social, Cognitive Therapy for Patients With Schizotypal Personality Disorder
Guanfacine, a medication believed to help enhance cognitive function, appears to improve reasoning and problem solving among patients with schizotypal personality disorder when combined with cognitive and social skills training, according to areport inAJP in Advance.Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by a pattern of social and interpersonal deficits including eccentric behavior and unusual thoughts. Cognition, the ability to think and reason, has been shown to be highly correlated with functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including schizotypal personality disorder.“[T]h...
Source: Psychiatr News - January 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: cognition cognitive and social skills training guanfacine reasoning and problem solving schizotypal personality disorder Source Type: research

Exploring the implementation of cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis using the Normalization Process Theory framework
ConclusionThe results of this study suggested a mixture of barriers and facilitators to CBTp implementation. Interpreting our findings within an NPT framework indicates the importance of strong clinical leadership to address difficulties in sense ‐making and service investment in CBTp.Practitioner points Findings indicate a mixture of barriers and facilitators to CBTp implementation. NPT analysis indicates difficulties in coherence among stakeholders regarding the purpose and value of CBTp. Difficulties making sense of CBTp translates into service level barriers and impede the collective action of stakeholders. The ...
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - January 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Nikos Xanidis, Andrew Gumley Tags: Qualitative paper Source Type: research

Female Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder: Review of the Related Factors and Overall Approach
Abstract Genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPPPD) can be an extremely bothersome condition for patients, and a tough challenge for professionals regarding its assessment and treatment. The goal of the present paper is to review the etiology, assessment, and treatment of GPPPD, especially focusing on the cognitive aspects of the disease and cognitive-behavioral treatment options, through a non-systematic review of articles indexed to the Medline, Scopus and Web of Science databases, using the following MeSH queries: pelvic pain; dyspareunia; vaginismus; vulvodynia; and cognitive therapy. Altogether, 36 articles discu...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetricia - January 21, 2019 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Therapeutic alliance -not therapist competence or group cohesion- contributes to reduction of psychological distress in group-based Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for cancer patients.
This study focused on predictors of treatment outcome of MBCT for cancer patients and examined whether group cohesion, therapeutic alliance and therapist competence predicted reduction of psychological distress after MBCT for cancer patients. Moreover, it was examined whether therapist competence facilitated therapeutic alliance or group cohesion. Multilevel analyses were conducted on a subsample of patients collected in a larger randomized controlled trial on individual internet-based versus group-based MBCT versus treatment as usual in distressed cancer patients. The current analyses included the 84 patients who complete...
Source: Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy - January 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Clin Psychol Psychother Source Type: research