Immunoregulatory properties of cell-free DNA in plasma of celiac disease patients - A pilot study.
Authors: Brynychova I, Zinkova A, Hoffmanova I, Korabecna M, Dankova P Abstract The elevated plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentrations were repeatedly reported in association with the process of inflammation. The qualitative and quantitative characteristics of plasma cfDNA in active (newly diagnosed) celiac disease patients (CD) have not yet been studied despite the fact that cfDNA of healthy individuals is able to regulate immune response. We determined the total cfDNA concentration and relative content of telomeric sequences in plasma cfDNA in CD (n = 10) and healthy age- and sex-matched controls ...
Source: Autoimmunity - May 7, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Genetic and flow cytometry analysis of seronegative celiac disease: a cohort study.
CONCLUSIONS: Seronegative CD differs mostly in genetic (more HLA-DQ8) and histologic (milder atrophy) features as compared with seropositive. Intestinal intraepithelial immunophenotype by flow cytometry, similar in both modalities, is a useful tool to diagnose seronegative CD. PMID: 31057009 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - May 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder symptoms respond to gluten-free diet in patients with coeliac disease.
CONCLUSION: Prior to treatment, coeliac disease patients reported significantly more symptoms than healthy controls on ASRS and HADS. The differences disappeared after a minimum of 12 months on a gluten-free diet. PMID: 31050907 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - May 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Usefulness of ultrasound in the management of aortic dissection.
Authors: Liu F, Huang L Abstract Aortic dissection is an acute large vessel disease characterized by sudden onset, rapid disease progression and high mortality. Color doppler ultrasound analyzed the morphological and hemodynamic status of aortic branches before and after aortic dissection surgery, including carotid, subclavian, renal, celiac, superior mesenteric and iliac arteries. Transthoracic echocardiography, vascular ultrasound, transesophageal echocardiography, intravascular ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography are complementary to aortic multi-slice spiral computed tomography angiography for diag...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 7, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Physician Review of a Celiac Disease Risk Estimation and Decision-Making Expert System
. (Source: Journal of the American College of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of the American College of Nutrition - May 7, 2019 Category: Nutrition Authors: Robert L. Pastore Joseph A. Murray Frederick D. Coffman Antonina Mitrofanova Shankar Srinivasan Source Type: research

The impact of diagnosis on health-related quality of life in people with coeliac disease: a UK population-based longitudinal perspective
Before diagnosis, people with coeliac disease suffer reduced quality of life, which improves substantially after the disease has been diagnosed. Delayed diagnosis is common. The aim of this study was to assess... (Source: BMC Gastroenterology)
Source: BMC Gastroenterology - May 2, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Mara Violato and Alastair Gray Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Can Osteopathic Medical Students Accurately Measure Abdominal Aortic Dimensions Using Handheld Ultrasonography Devices in the Primary Care Setting?
Conclusion: When properly trained, osteopathic medical students can accurately measure abdominal aortic diameters using a handheld US device. Training more medical students in ultrasonography would offer increased screening opportunities and possibly reduce AAA-related mortality. Further studies are needed to assess the ability of osteopathic medical students to accurately measure AAAs, as no participants in this study met the criteria for AAA. PMID: 31034073 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association)
Source: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association - May 1, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: J Am Osteopath Assoc Source Type: research

Diagnosing celiac disease: A critical overview.
Abstract The diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) no longer rests on a malabsorptive state or severe mucosal lesions. For the present, diagnosis will always require the gold-standard of a biopsy, interpreted through its progressive phases (Marsh classification). Marsh classification articulated the immunopathological spectrum of gluten-induced mucosal changes in association with the recognition of innate (Marsh I infiltration) and T cell-based adaptive (Marsh II, and the surface re-organisation typifying Marsh III lesions) responses. Through the Marsh classification the diagnostic goalposts were considerably widened t...
Source: The Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology - May 1, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ensari A, Marsh MN Tags: Turk J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Assessment of fractal dimension and panoramic radiomorphometric indices in women with celiac disease
ConclusionsPanoramic radiomorphometric indices and fractal dimension revealed no significant bone changes in women with celiac disease. (Source: Oral Radiology)
Source: Oral Radiology - April 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Smoking in pregnancy, cord blood cotinine and risk of celiac disease diagnosis in offspring
AbstractEcological observations suggest an inverse relationship between smoking in pregnancy and celiac disease (CD) in offspring. While individual-level analyses have been inconsistent, they have mostly lacked statistical power or refined assessments of exposure. To examine the association between pregnancy-related smoking and CD in the offspring, as well as its consistency across data sets, we analyzed: (1) The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) of 94,019 children, followed from birth (2000 –2009) through 2016, with 1035 developing CD; (2) a subsample from MoBa (381 with CD and 529 controls) with biomarkers; ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 29, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the small intestine in a patient with refractory coeliac disease.
We report a 54-year-old Caucasian man who presented with chronic diarrhoea and weight loss. He was diagnosed with coeliac disease based on positive serology results and duodenal, jejunal, and ileal biopsies that showed villous atrophy. Despite adherence to a gluten-free diet, there was no clinical remission and enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma was suspected. Repeated endoscopic biopsy showed persistent mucosal disease but no evidence of lymphoma. Several weeks later he presented with a perforated jejunum. Histology of the resected jejunum showed diffuse infiltration of submucosa and muscularis propria by malignant ly...
Source: Malaysian Journal of Pathology - April 28, 2019 Category: Pathology Tags: Malays J Pathol Source Type: research

Protocol for the transition of pediatrics for adult medicine in celiac disease: a proposal approach
No abstract available (Source: European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - April 27, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The Effect of Gluten-free Diet on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Newly Diagnosed Pediatric Celiac Disease Patients
Objectives: Although gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only proven therapy for celiac disease (CD), its effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors is still unclear. Our aim was to determine whether adherence to GFD affects CVD risk factors among newly diagnosed pediatric CD subjects. Methods: We prospectively enrolled pediatric subjects undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for suspected CD. We collected anthropometric and laboratory parameters related to CVD risk factors at the time of CD diagnosis and 1 year after initiation of a GFD and evaluated changes in CVD risk factors. Paired t tests or Wilcoxon no...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - April 26, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Article: Gastroenterology: Celiac Disease Source Type: research

Celiac Disease in Brazilian First-degree Relatives: The Odds Are Five Times Greater for HLA DQ2 Homozygous
First-degree relatives (FDRs) of 47 outpatients with celiac disease (CD) answered a questionnaire about symptoms related to CD and were investigated for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2, DQB1*02 homozygosis, and DQ8 alleles. Genetically susceptible individuals were tested for antitransglutaminase antibody immunoglobulin A. Seropositive FDR underwent small bowel biopsies. From 114 FDR, 74.5% (n = 85) were positive for DQ2, DQ8, or both haplotypes. Homozygosity of DQB1*02 was found in 11.4% (n = 13) individuals. Three FDR were previously diagnosed with CD. Among the genetically susceptible individuals, 67.1% had at...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - April 26, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Short Communication: Gastroenterology: Celiac Disease Source Type: research

Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate Improves Intestinal Mucosal Healing by Modulating Extracellular Matrix Remodeling Genes and Restoring Epithelial Barrier Functions
Laura Stronati1, Francesca Palone2, Anna Negroni3, Eleonora Colantoni2, Anna Barbara Mancuso2, Salvatore Cucchiara2, Vincenzo Cesi3, Sara Isoldi2 and Roberta Vitali3* 1Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy 2Pediatric Gastroenterology and Liver Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy 3Division of Health Protection Technologies, Territorial and Production Systems Sustainability Department, ENEA, Rome, Italy Gut mucosal healing (MH) is considered a key therapeutic target and prognostic parameter in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (I...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - April 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Frequency of HLA celiac disease risk alleles and haplotypes in healthy adults in Tamil Nadu
AbstractCeliac disease (CeD) occurs only in individuals who are able to express human leukocyte antigens (HLA) DQ2 or DQ8, and these are expressed in nearly a third of healthy people in the West. As the disease is very uncommon in Tamil Nadu, we evaluated the possibility that the relevant genes are infrequent in this population. Four hundred healthy adults without any gastrointestinal abnormalities were recruited from Vellore district of Tamil Nadu. Genomic DNA was extracted from venous blood and amplified by PCR using the allele-specific primers for the  following alleles—DQA1*0201, 0301, and 0501 and DQB1*02, ...
Source: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology - April 26, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Automated diagnosis of celiac disease by video capsule endoscopy using DAISY Descriptors
This study exploits the use of DAISY descriptors to project two-dimensional images onto one-dimensional vectors. Shannon entropy is then used to extract features, after which a particle swarm optimization algorithm coupled with normalization is employed to select the 30 best features for classification. Statistical measures of this paradigm were tabulated. The accuracy, positive predictive value, sensitivity and specificity obtained in distinguishing celiac versus control video capsule images were 89.82%, 89.17%, 94.35% and 83.20% respectively, using the 10-fold cross-validation technique. When employing manual methods rat...
Source: Journal of Medical Systems - April 26, 2019 Category: Information Technology Source Type: research

Gluten Vehicle and Placebo for Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Assessment.
Abstract Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome characterized by gastrointestinal and extraintestinal manifestations triggered after gluten ingestion in the absence of celiac disease and wheat allergy. Because of the lack of biomarkers for NCGS diagnosis, the cornerstone for its assessment is a single- or double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC) gluten challenge. However, there are some non-standardized points in the diagnostic approach proposed by the experts. This complicate comparisons among the results published by different research groups. The gluten vehicle and placebo must be indistinguishable fr...
Source: Medicina (Kaunas) - April 26, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Figueroa-Salcido OG, Ontiveros N, Cabrera-Chavez F Tags: Medicina (Kaunas) Source Type: research

Agglomeration properties of gluten-free flours under water addition and shearing conditions
This study shows that it is possible to agglomerate these gluten-free flours for the preparation of couscous, which may diversify the choice of couscous types for people suffering from celiac disease. (Source: LWT Food Science and Technology)
Source: LWT Food Science and Technology - April 25, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

The high mortality of patients with common variable immunodeficiency and small bowel villous atrophy.
CONCLUSIONS: Although based on a small cohort, our results confirm that patients with CVID and villous atrophy are burdened by a very high mortality mainly due to onco-immunological disorders and infections. Strict follow-up is required in these patients. PMID: 31006294 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - April 24, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

High Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Patients with Immune Thrombocytopenia
AbstractCeliac disease (CD) is known to be associated with several autoimmune disorders. We studied the prevalence of subclinical CD among patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) as compared to general population. Cases of primary ITP between the age group of 18 –60 years were studied. Besides clinical examination, all patients underwent serology testing for tissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG) IgA and anti-endomysial antibodies IgA. The diagnosis of CD was made if both antibodies were positive. Healthy subjects acted as controls and underwent serologi cal testing for tTG IgA. Seventy-nine primary ITP and ...
Source: Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion - April 24, 2019 Category: Hematology Source Type: research

The autonomic nervous system regulates pancreatic beta-cell proliferation in adult male rats.
out V Abstract The pancreatic beta-cell responds to changes in the nutrient environment to maintain glucose homeostasis by adapting its function and mass. Nutrients can act directly on the beta-cell and also indirectly through the brain via autonomic nerves innervating islets. Despite the importance of the brain-islet axis in insulin secretion, relatively little is known regarding its involvement in beta-cell proliferation. We previously demonstrated that prolonged infusions of nutrients in rats provoke a dramatic increase in beta-cell proliferation in part due to the direct action of nutrients. Here, we addressed...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 23, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Moullé VS, Tremblay C, Castell AL, Vivot K, Ethier M, Fergusson G, Alquier T, Ghislain J, Poitout V Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Dysbiosis of the Gut Microbiome in Lung Cancer
In this study, the gut microbiota of 30 LC patients and 30 healthy controls were examined via next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA and analyzed for diversity and biomarkers. We found that there was no decrease in significant microbial diversity (alpha diversity) in LC patients compared to controls (P observed = 0.1422), while the composition (beta diversity) differed significantly between patients and controls (phylum [stress = 0.153], class [stress = 0.16], order [stress = 0.146], family [stress = 0.153]). Controls had a higher abundance of the bacterial phylum Actinobacteria and genus Bifidobacterium, while patients wi...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - April 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Causes of chronic neuropathies: a single-center experience
ConclusionsIn this report from a single neurological center, treatable causes of chronic neuropathies, such as dysimmune neuropathies, including CIDP, and celiac disease-associated neuropathy, were common. These findings suggest the utility of routine screening with blood testing for dysimmune neuropathy and celiac disease for all patients presenting with idiopathic chronic polyneuropathy in whom primary diagnostic testings had failed to identify an etiology for the disease.SignificanceOur results indicate that patients with peripheral neuropathy could receive a benefit from being evaluated routinely in a specialized neuro...
Source: Neurological Sciences - April 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Design and development of a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system of Olmesartan Medoxomil for enhanced bioavailability.
Authors: Komesli Y, Ozkaya AB, Ergur BU, Kirilmaz L, Karasulu E Abstract Olmesartan Medoxomil (OM) is a hydrophobic antihypertensive drug with low bioavailability (26%) and is known to have adverse effects such as celiac disease and enteropathy. The purpose of this study was to develop SMEDDS to increase bioavailability and decrease potential side effects of OM. Hydrophilic lipophilic balance was calculated by testing solubility of OM in different oils, surfactants and cosurfactants to obtain the most suitable combination of SMEDDS. Pseudoternary phase diagram was used to select the better oil/water formulation of ...
Source: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy - April 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Dev Ind Pharm Source Type: research

Pneumococcal vaccination in celiac disease.
Authors: Casella G, Ingravalle F, Abbate G, Monti C, Bonetti F, Bassotti G, Mansueto P, Villanacci V, Carroccio A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disorder associated with gluten exposure in genetically predisposed subjects. Areas covered: Infectious disease is one of the causes of morbidity and mortality in CD patients. Invasive streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a particularly dangerous morbid condition in both the general population and celiac patients. Pneumococcal vaccination is the most effective means for its prevention. Expert opinion: In CD, evaluation of spleen func...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - April 17, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Circulating microRNAs as potential non-invasive biomarkers in pediatric patients with celiac disease.
In conclusion, circulating miRNA-21 and miRNA-31 could serve as potential non-invasive biomarkers for pediatric CD patients. PMID: 30983306 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 16, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Rotavirus Vaccination Does Not Increase Type 1 Diabetes and May Decrease Celiac Disease in Children and Adolescents
Conclusions: RV vaccination using RotaTeq did not alter the occurrence of DM1 but decreased the prevalence of CD in childhood and adolescence. We propose that wild-type RV may trigger CD and the triggering effect can be prevented or reduced by RV vaccination. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Ulcerative Colitis as a Novel Cause of Increased Need for Levothyroxine
This study is aimed at measuring the thyroxine requirement in hypothyroid patients with UC. Patients and Methods: Among 8,573 patients with thyroid disorders consecutively seen in our referral center from 2010 to 2017, we identified 34 patients with a definite diagnosis of UC. Thirteen of them were hypothyroid (12 F/1 M; median age = 53 years), bearing UC during the remission phase and in need for thyroxine treatment, thus representing the study group. The dose of T4 required by UC patients has been compared to the one observed in 51 similarly treated age- and weight-matched patients, compliant with treatment and clearly ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Gluten challenge induces skin and small bowel relapse in long-term gluten-free diet-treated dermatitis herpetiformis
Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is an extra-intestinal manifestation of coeliac disease causing an itchy, blistering rash. Skin IgA deposits are pathognomonic for DH, and the treatment of choice is a life-long gluten-free diet (GFD). Preliminary evidence suggests that there are DH patients who redevelop gluten tolerance after adherence to a GFD treatment. To examine this, we performed a 12-month gluten challenge with skin and small bowel mucosal biopsies in 19 DH patients who had adhered to a GFD for a mean of 23 years. (Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology)
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - April 15, 2019 Category: Dermatology Authors: E. Mansikka, K. Hervonen, K. Kaukinen, T. Ilus, P. Oksanen, K. Lindfors, K. Laurila, M. Hietikko, J. Taavela, J. Jernman, P. Saavalainen, T. Reunala, T. Salmi Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Duodenal and Rectal Mucosa Inflammation in Patients With Non-celiac Wheat Sensitivity
(Source: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology - April 15, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Brian C. Weiner Source Type: research

[Primary bile acid diarrhea in a community gastroenterology practice].
Abstract When first described in 1976, primary bile acid diarrhea (BAD Type 1) was regarded as a very rare cause of chronic diarrhea. Today, the incidence is estimated as> 1 %. Availability of diagnostic tools varies widely and, in Germany, there is no generally consented recommendation for their use. BAD is still widely underdiagnosed.Since the beginning of the '90 s, we have added a therapeutic trial with cholestyramine to our diagnostic approach of chronic diarrhea. Patients with a positive test were offered a Selenium-homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) test for confirmation of bile-acid-diarrhea (BA...
Source: Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie - April 15, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Wenzel H Tags: Z Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Gluten Challenge Induces Skin and Small Bowel Relapse in Long-Term Gluten-Free Diet –Treated Dermatitis Herpetiformis
Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is an extraintestinal manifestation of celiac disease causing an itchy, blistering rash. Granular IgA deposits in the skin are pathognomonic for DH, and the treatment of choice is a lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD). Preliminary evidence suggests that there are patients with DH who redevelop gluten tolerance after adherence to a GFD treatment. To evaluate this, we performed a 12-month gluten challenge with  skin and small-bowel mucosal biopsy samples in 19 patients with DH who had adhered to a GFD for a mean of 23 years. (Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology)
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - April 15, 2019 Category: Dermatology Authors: Eriika Mansikka, Kaisa Hervonen, Katri Kaukinen, Tuire Ilus, Pia Oksanen, Katri Lindfors, Kaija Laurila, Minna Hietikko, Juha Taavela, Juha Jernman, P äivi Saavalainen, Timo Reunala, Teea Salmi Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Impairment of Quality of Life Associated With Lifetime Diagnosis of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Women - A National Survey in Italy.
Conclusion: The attributable burden in worsening women' perceived QoL due to a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD was found comparable to those caused by MDD, Eating Disorders or by neurological condition such as Wilson's Disease. The comorbidity of PTSD with Bipolar Spectrum Disorders was remarkable, even further studies are needed to clarify the direction of causality. PMID: 30972141 [PubMed] (Source: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health)
Source: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health - April 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health Source Type: research

Effect of pH control during rice fermentation in preventing a gliadin P31-43 entrance in epithelial cells.
Authors: Gallo M, Nigro F, Passannanti F, Nanayakkara M, Lania G, Parisi F, Salameh D, Budelli A, Barone MV, Nigro R Abstract Coeliac disease is an increasingly recognised pathology, induced by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed patients. Undigested gliadin peptide can induce adaptive and innate immune response that unleash the typical intestinal mucosal alterations. A growing attention is paid to alternative therapeutic approaches to the gluten-free diet: one of these approaches is the use of probiotics and/or postbiotics. We performed lactic fermentation of rice flour with and without pH control, ...
Source: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition - April 12, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: Int J Food Sci Nutr Source Type: research

NPD-0414-2 and NPD-0414-24, Two Chemical Entities Designed as Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) Ligands, Inhibit Gut Inflammatory Signals
Irene Marafini1, Davide Di Fusco1, Vincenzo Dinallo1, Eleonora Franzè1, Carmine Stolfi1, Giuseppe Sica2, Giovanni Monteleone1 and Ivan Monteleone3* 1Department of Systems Medicine, Gastroenterology, University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy 2Department of Surgery, University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy 3Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy Defects in counterregulatory mechanisms contribute to amplify the detrimental inflammatory response leading to the pathologic process occurring in the gut of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - April 12, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Comprehensive Kinetic Survey of Intestinal, Extra-Intestinal and Systemic Sequelae of Murine Ileitis Following Peroral Low-Dose Toxoplasma gondii Infection
Markus M. Heimesaat1*, Ildiko R. Dunay2 and Stefan Bereswill1 1Institute of Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany2Medical Faculty, Institute of Inflammation and Neurodegeneration, University Hospital Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany We have recently shown that following peroral low-dose Toxoplasma gondii infection susceptible mice develop subacute ileitis within 10 days. Data regarding long-term intestinal and extra-intestinal s...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - April 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Genistein antagonizes gliadin-induced CFTR malfunction in models of celiac disease.
Abstract In celiac disease (CD), an intolerance to dietary gluten/gliadin, antigenic gliadin peptides trigger an HLA-DQ2/DQ8-restricted adaptive Th1 immune response. Epithelial stress, induced by other non-antigenic gliadin peptides, is required for gliadin to become fully immunogenic. We found that cystic-fibrosis-transmembrane-conductance-regulator (CFTR) acts as membrane receptor for gliadin-derived peptide P31-43, as it binds to CFTR and impairs its channel function. P31-43-induced CFTR malfunction generates epithelial stress and intestinal inflammation. Maintaining CFTR in an active open conformation by the C...
Source: Aging - April 12, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Esposito S, Villella VR, Ferrari E, Monzani R, Tosco A, Rossin F, D'Eletto M, Castaldo A, Luciani A, Silano M, Bona G, Marseglia GL, Romani L, Piacentini M, Raia V, Kroemer G, Maiuri L Tags: Aging (Albany NY) Source Type: research

Procyanidin B2 rich cocoa extracts inhibit inflammation in Caco-2 cell model of in vitro celiac disease by down-regulating interferon-gamma- or gliadin peptide 31-43-induced transglutaminase-2 and interleukin-15
The objective of this research was to investigate the efficacy of procyanidin B2 rich cocoa extracts on interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) or gliadin peptide p31-43-induced transglutaminase-2 and interleukin-15 (IL-15) in Caco-2 cell model of in vitro celiac disease. Cysteamine was used as a positive control inhibitor of TG2. Procyanidin B2-rich extract reduced IFN-γ- and gliadin p31-43-induced TG2 activity by 77% and 45%, respectively. Cocoa extract containing 4.9–289 µg/mL of procyanidin B2 dose-dependently reduced IFN-γ-induced IL-15 secretion to the level of IL-15 in control cells. Similarly, coco...
Source: Journal of Functional Foods - April 11, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Who will carry out the tests that would be necessary for proper safety evaluation of food emulsifiers?
Publication date: Available online 9 April 2019Source: Food Science and Human WellnessAuthor(s): Katalin F. Csáki, Éva SebestyénAbstractSurfactant food emulsifiers are among the most extensively used food additives. Like all authorized food additives, emulsifiers have been evaluated by risk assessors, who consider them as safe. However, there are growing concerns among scientists about their possible harmful effects on intestinal barriers and microbiota. It is also suggested that emulsifier consumption might be one of the main causes of the rising incidence of a number of diseases, such as allergic dis...
Source: Food Science and Human Wellness - April 10, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Gamma-Delta T Lymphocytes in the Diagnostic Approach of Coeliac Disease
Conclusions: A percentage of ≥14% CD3+TCRγδ+ IEL has a high specificity for CD diagnosis and can be of diagnostic help in cases where diagnosis is not straightforward. (Source: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology - April 10, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: ONLINE ARTICLES: Original Articles Source Type: research

Contribution of Non-immune Cells to Activation and Modulation of the Intestinal Inflammation
Conclusions As the intestinal mucosa surface constitutes the major surface of the body which is in direct contact with the outer environment, intestinal immune homeostasis must be accurately regulated. The interplay between commensal microbiota, intestinal stromal cells, and the mucosal immune system components should guarantee the intestinal homeostasis to avoid a sustained inflammation that could induce tissue damage. However, several factors can lead to inflammation through homeostasis breakdown. Figure 1 summarizes the main points that have been reviewed here. We have described what it is known so far about the role o...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - April 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Measurement of Forearm Bone Density by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Increases the Prevalence of Osteoporosis in Men with Celiac Disease
Guidelines advise measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with a diagnosis of celiac disease. The lumbar spine (LS) and hip sites are usually measured. Although skeletal sites rich in trabecular bone are believed to be vulnerable to osteoporosis in patients with celiac disease, most studies have not measured the cortical distal 1/3-radius. (Source: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology - April 10, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Marcella D. Walker, John Williams, Suzanne K. Lewis, Julio C. Bai, Benjamin Lebwohl, Peter HR. Green Source Type: research

Non-Celiac Wheat/Gluten Sensitivity
(Source: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology - April 9, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Anam Khan, Milena Gould Suarez, Joseph A. Murray Source Type: research

Progression of Celiac Disease in Children With Antibodies Against Tissue Transglutaminase and Normal Duodenal Architecture
Potential celiac disease is characterized by positive results from serologic tests for tissue transglutaminase antibodies (anti-TG2) but normal duodenal architecture (Marsh stages 0 –1). There is controversy over the best way to manage these patients. We investigated risk factors associated with the development of villous atrophy in children with potential celiac disease. (Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - April 9, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: R. Auricchio, R. Mandile, M.R. Del Vecchio, S. Scapaticci, M. Galatola, M.A. Maglio, V. Discepolo, E. Miele, D. Cielo, R. Troncone, L. Greco Source Type: research

Maternal genetic markers for risk of celiac disease and their potential association with neural tube defects in offspring
ConclusionIf confirmed, our results suggest that the maternal variants related to celiac disease may be involved in the risk of NTDs. (Source: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine)
Source: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine - April 9, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Thanh T. Hoang, Yunping Lei, Laura E. Mitchell, Shreela V. Sharma, Michael D. Swartz, D. Kim Waller, Richard H. Finnell, Renata H. Benjamin, Marilyn L. Browne, Mark A. Canfield, Philip J. Lupo, Paige McKenzie, Gary M. Shaw, A. J. Agopian, Th Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Maternal genetic markers for risk of celiac disease and their potential association with neural tube defects in offspring.
CONCLUSION: If confirmed, our results suggest that the maternal variants related to celiac disease may be involved in the risk of NTDs. PMID: 30968606 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Molecular Medicine)
Source: Molecular Medicine - April 9, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Hoang TT, Lei Y, Mitchell LE, Sharma SV, Swartz MD, Waller DK, Finnell RH, Benjamin RH, Browne ML, Canfield MA, Lupo PJ, McKenzie P, Shaw GM, Agopian AJ, National Birth Defects Prevention Study Tags: Mol Genet Genomic Med Source Type: research

Effects of duration of initial treatment on postoperative complications in pancreatic cancer
AbstractBackgroundWe analyzed the clinical impact of chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy as initial treatment (IT), focusing on treatment duration, on morbidity and mortality in patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.MethodsWe enrolled 509 consecutive patients, with 417 in the upfront surgery group and 92 in the IT group. The IT group was subdivided into 72 patients treated for
Source: Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences - April 9, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Suguru Yamada, Hideki Takami, Fuminori Sonohara, Masamichi Hayashi, Tsutomu Fujii, Yasuhiro Kodera Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Nonceliac Gluten and Wheat Sensitivity
Non-celiac gluten and/or wheat sensitivity (NCGS) is thought to be an immune-mediated reaction to gluten or other components of wheat (eg, fructans or amylase trypsin inhibitors) with intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms which improve once gluten and/or wheat is eliminated from the diet and after a diagnosis of celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded with appropriate testing. However, there is a great deal of skepticism within the scientific community questioning the existence of NCGS as a distinct clinical disorder. (Source: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology - April 9, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Anam Khan, Milena Gould Suarez, Joseph A. Murray Source Type: research