Approaching a brainstem high-grade glioma (HGG) with the assistance of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) technology: a new strategy for an old surgical challenge
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - April 30, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Adult Brainstem Gliomas: Correlation of Clinical and Molecular Features
Brainstem gliomas are rare in adults and overall have superior survival outcomes compared to pediatric brainstem gliomas. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - April 18, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Brett J. Theeler, Benjamin Ellezam, Isaac Melguizo-Gavilanes, John F. de Groot, Anita Mahajan, Kenneth D. Aldape, Janet M. Bruner, Vinay K. Puduvalli Source Type: research

Treatment Responses in Adult Brainstem Gliomas with IDH1/2 Mutations (P3.127)
CONCLUSIONS: Adult brainstem gliomas are uncommon and those with IDH1/2 mutations are exceedingly rare. There is no standardized protocol for treatment of these tumors in adults and current strategies are extrapolated from data on supratentorial tumors. Our series reports treatment response for two patients with brainstem glioma.Disclosure: Dr. Hodges has nothing to disclose. Dr. Malafronte has nothing to disclose. Dr. Skinner has nothing to disclose. Dr. Carter has nothing to disclose. Dr. Gilhooly has nothing to disclose. Dr. Theeler has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)
Source: Neurology - April 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Hodges, S., Malafronte, P., Skinner, W., Carter, C., Gilhooly, J., Theeler, B. Tags: Neuro-oncology: Glioma Therapeutics Source Type: research

Hydrocephalus in Neurofibromatosis-Three cases with different etiologies. (P2.104)
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NF I hydrocephalus can be caused by different types of lesions but uniquely it can also be of unknown etiology and without any clinical symptoms or signs. 1. A. Dincer. Hydrocephalus in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1: MR imaging findings and the outcome of endoscopic third ventriculostomy. American Journal of Neuroradiology 2. Creange, A. Neurological complications of neurofibromatosis type 1 in adulthood. Brain. Journal of Neurology. Oct 1998. Volume 122, Issue 3, pp473-481Disclosure: Dr. Elgallab has nothing to disclose. Dr. Graber has received personal compensation for activities ...
Source: Neurology - April 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Elgallab, J., Graber, J. Tags: Neurogenetics and Ataxia Source Type: research

Intraparenchymal, primary central nervous system lymphoma of low-grade B cell malignancy: a case report with review of the literature on therapeutic consideration
We present a case of HIV negative, non-dural, low-grade primary central nervous system B cell lymphoma. A 35 year-old man presented with memory and visual disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a high intensity lesion on T2 weighted images in right medial temporal lobe to basal ganglia, with irregular enhancement by gadorinium. The lesion was suspected to be high-grade glioma, however, intraoperative frozen pathology suggested lymphoma. Histopathological examination showed diffuse perivascular infiltration of small atypical lymphocyte which were positive for CD20 and CD79a. The lesion was positive for immuno...
Source: International Cancer Conference Journal - April 1, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Comparison of direct side to end and end to end hypoglossal-facial anastomosis for facial nerve repair
Conclusion With the side-to-end HFA technique the functional restoration outcome is at least as good as that following the classic end-to-end HFA but the complications related to the complete hypoglossal nerve transection can be avoided. Best results are achieved if this procedure is performed within the first two years after facial nerve injury. Patients with facial palsy of longer duration have also chances for good functional restoration after HFA. (Source: World Neurosurgery)
Source: World Neurosurgery - March 27, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Biopsy of Brainstem Gliomas Using Flexible Endoscopes
Conclusion The use of flexible endoscops for biopsy of ventral, dorsal (tectum lamina quadrigemina), and diffuse brainstem tumors is a useful, effective, and safe procedure that also allows to treat obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to the tumors.[...]Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals:Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Journal of Neurological Surgery Part A: Central European Neurosurgery)
Source: Journal of Neurological Surgery Part A: Central European Neurosurgery - March 23, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Torres Corzo, Jaime GerardoRodriguez, Jose SanchezCastillo, Juan LucinoEscobedo, Reynaldo FalconCervantes, DominicDella Vecchia, Roberto RodriguezVinas Rios, Juan Manuel Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Imaging of Important Causes of Brain Stem Enlargement: Beyond the Low-Grade Glioma
No abstract available (Source: Contemporary Diagnostic Radiology)
Source: Contemporary Diagnostic Radiology - March 20, 2015 Category: Radiology Tags: CME Quiz: Volume 38, Number 8 Source Type: research

Imaging of Important Causes of Brain Stem Enlargement: Beyond the Low-Grade Glioma
The brain stem is a critical part of the central nervous system (CNS); it houses the cranial nerve nuclei and cardiopulmonary centers, and serves as a conduit for descending tracts into the spinal cord. The brain stem is located in the posterior fossa, and anatomically is composed of the midbrain (most rostral part of the brain stem), pons, and medulla. Gliomas are the most common cause of brain stem enlargement. However, a variety of other pathologic processes such as infection, metastasis, inflammation or demyelination, hemorrhagic lesions, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, and hypertrophic olivary degenerati...
Source: Contemporary Diagnostic Radiology - March 20, 2015 Category: Radiology Tags: Article Source Type: research

Histone H3 mutations—a special role for H3.3 in tumorigenesis?
Abstract Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. Pediatric high-grade glioma (HGG) accounts for ∼8–12 % of these brain tumors and is a devastating disease as 70–90 % of patients die within 2 years of diagnosis. The failure to advance therapy for these children over the last 30 years is largely due to limited knowledge of the molecular basis for these tumors and a lack of disease models. Recently, sequencing of tumor cells revealed that histone H3 is frequently mutated in pediatric HGG, with up to 78 % of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) carrying K27M and 36 % of non...
Source: Chromosoma - March 14, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Imaging of adult brainstem gliomas
Publication date: April 2015 Source:European Journal of Radiology, Volume 84, Issue 4 Author(s): Bela Purohit , Ali A. Kamli , Spyros S. Kollias Brainstem gliomas (BSGs) are uncommon in adults accounting for about 2% of all intracranial neoplasms. They are often phenotypically low-grade as compared to their more common paediatric counterparts. Since brainstem biopsies are rarely performed, these tumours are commonly classified according to their MR imaging characteristics into 4 subgroups: (a) diffuse intrinsic low-grade gliomas, (b) enhancing malignant gliomas, (c) focal tectal gliomas and (d) exophytic gliomas/oth...
Source: European Journal of Radiology - February 28, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Malignant Glioma: Is VMAT Truly better than 3DCRT?
Malignant glioma is a devastating primary tumour located in the brain with a median survival less than two years. Standard of care for gliomas is maximal surgical resection followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The standard dose used is 60 Gy in 30 fractions to the post-operative bed with 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT). This technique has been shown to have a definitive impact on patient survival. These tumours are often nearby or abutting dose limiting OARs such as the brainstem or optical structures. (Source: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences)
Source: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences - February 27, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Lucy Ward Tags: Technical and Clinical Inquiry Source Type: research

Pediatric Brainstem Gliomas: New Understanding Leads to Potential New Treatments for Two Very Different Tumors
Abstract Pediatric brainstem gliomas include low-grade focal brainstem gliomas (FBSG) and high-grade diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG). These tumors share a crucial and eloquent area of the brain as their location, which carries common challenges for treatment. Otherwise, though, these two diseases are very different in terms of presentation, biology, treatment, and prognosis. FBSG usually present with greater than 3 months of symptoms, while DIPG are usually diagnosed within 3 months of symptom onset. Surgery remains the preferred initial treatment for FBSG, with chemotherapy used for persiste...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 22, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Endovascular superselective treatment of brain tumors: a new endovascular era? A quick review
Conclusions If the SIACI method for delivering bevacizumab after disruption of the blood–brain barrier is proved to be safe and effective in larger phase II and III trials, this paradigm may significantly alter the way chemotherapies are delivered to patients with both diffusely infiltrating low-grade and those with high-grade malignant brainstem gliomas and open a new endovascular era. (Source: Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery)
Source: Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery - February 12, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Peschillo, S., Miscusi, M., Missori, P. Tags: Tumor embolization Source Type: research

A new approach to integrate toxicity grade and repeated treatment cycles in the analysis and reporting of phase I dose-finding trials
Conclusions Dedicated methods can be used to analyze toxicities from all cycles of treatment. They do not delay accrual and should be integrated in the analysis and reporting of phase I dose-finding trials. (Source: Annals of Oncology)
Source: Annals of Oncology - January 23, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Doussau, A., Thiebaut, R., Geoerger, B., Schoffski, P., Floquet, A., Le Deley, M. C., Mathoulin-Pelissier, S., Rizzo, E., Fumoleau, P., Le Tourneau, C., Paoletti, X. Tags: clinical trials Source Type: research