Use of hamstring autograft to reconstruct the patellar tendon after endoprosthetic replacement of the proximal tibia for bone sarcomas
We describe the surgical technique and, using an illustrative case, compare the outcome of this technique with the outcome following reconstruction without reinforcement. Level of evidence: Level III. (Source: Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics B)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics B - August 4, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Bone Tumours Source Type: research

Clinical course of grafted cartilage in osteoarticular frozen autografts for reconstruction after resection of malignant bone and soft-tissue tumor involving an epiphysis
Publication date: Available online 2 August 2020Source: Journal of Bone OncologyAuthor(s): Katsuhiro Hayashi, Norio Yamamoto, Akihiko Takeuchi, Shinji Miwa, Kentaro Igarashi, Takashi Higuchi, Kensaku Abe, Yuta Taniguchi, Hisaki Aiba, Yoshihiro Araki, Hirotaka Yonezawa, Sei Morinaga, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya (Source: Journal of Bone Oncology)
Source: Journal of Bone Oncology - August 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Does concentrated growth factor used with allografts in maxillary sinus lifting have adjunctive benefits? ’
Recent studies have shown that the use of platelet concentration products alone, or in combination with variable graft materials, accelerates the new bone formation associated with sinus augmentation. The aim of this study was to measure the adjunctive effects of concentrated growth factor (CGF) used with allograft on new bone formation and augmentation stability in sinus lifting. (Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery)
Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery - August 4, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Emine Adali, Meltem Ozden Yuce, Tayfun Gunbay, Sevtap Gunbay Source Type: research

Mycobacterium bovis infection of an aortobifemoral bypass graft with Streptococcus intermedius superinfection after intravesical bacillus Calmette-Gu érin immunotherapy for bladder cancer
ConclusionsAmong 35 cases of mycotic aneurysm reported after BCG therapy in the last 10  years, only one involved a vascular prosthesis. Surgical repair of such aneurysms using prosthetic grafts is commonly performed, associated with anti-mycobacterial treatment. Prognosis is poor with mortality of 14% (4/35) and a 26% rate of aneurysm recurrence under treatment (9/35). (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - August 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Outcomes are comparable using free bone block autografts versus allografts for the management of anterior shoulder instability with glenoid bone loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis of “The Non-Latarjet”
ConclusionGlenoid augmentation using free bone block autograft or allograft in the setting of recurrent anterior shoulder instability with glenoid bone loss is effective and safe. Outcomes and complication incidence using autografts and allografts were comparable. Due to the high degree of heterogeneity in the data and outcomes reported in available studies, which consist primarily of retrospective case series, future prospective trials investigating long-term outcomes using free bone block autograft versus allograft for anterior shoulder instability with glenoid bone loss are warranted.Level of evidenceIV. (Source: Knee S...
Source: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy - August 4, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 5624: Synthetic Bone Grafting in Aseptic Loosening of Acetabular Cup: Good Clinical and Radiological Outcomes in Contained Bone Defects at Medium-Term Follow Up
We reported five cases of minor migration of the cup, and radiolucent lines were visible in seven patients at the last-follow up. The graft was well-incorporated in all patients. The results presented in this study suggest the HA bone substitute is an effective and safe bone graft when facing hip revision surgery; thus, longer follow-up studies are required. (Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - August 4, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Parchi Simonetti Bonicoli Piolanti Scaglione Tags: Article Source Type: research

Immediate Reconstruction of the Infraorbital Nerve after Maxillectomy: Is it Feasible?
Ablative procedures of the midface may require sacrifice of the inferior orbital nerve (ION) resulting in permanent paresthesia of its dermatome. Since the ION is not commonly reconstructed, the goal of this study is to determine the feasibility of nerve allograft reconstruction. (Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery)
Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery - August 4, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Nicholas Callahan, Michael Miloro, Michael R. Markiewicz Source Type: research

Endoscopic-Assisted Anatomic Reconstruction of Chronic Proximal Hamstring Avulsion With Achilles Allograft
Publication date: Available online 2 August 2020Source: Arthroscopy TechniquesAuthor(s): Aaron Leininger, Robert A. Duerr, Aakash Chauhan, Ryan P. McGovern, John J. Christoforetti (Source: Arthroscopy Techniques)
Source: Arthroscopy Techniques - August 3, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Management of an adolescent with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate using fan-shaped expander and secondary alveolar bone graft: A case report
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2020Source: International OrthodonticsAuthor(s): Maheen Ahmed, Mubassar Fida, Waqar Jeelani (Source: International Orthodontics)
Source: International Orthodontics - August 2, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Two dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography detects cardiac allograft stage III vasculopathy in recipients of heart transplants with preserved systolic function.
Authors: Ghali MGZ, Stewart R, Ghali GZ, Blitzer W Abstract Facile identification of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), extensively prevalently identifiable across recipients of cardiac explanted allografts, has proven challenging using non-invasive modalities exclusively. We consequently sought to evaluate diagnostic precision and accuracy of two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) to the end of detecting international society heart & lung transplantation stage III graft vasculopathy (ISHLT-CAV3) in individuals having received cardiac allografts by the meritorious pre-mortem scripted or v...
Source: Acta Cardiologica - August 2, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Acta Cardiol Source Type: research

Outcome of Single Stage Revision ACL Reconstruction. Retrospective Study and Review of Literature.
CONCLUSIONS: 1. Good outcomes of single stage revision ACL reconstruction surgery are achievable as de-monstrated in our cohort. 2. There is need for good quality research to identify whether BTB, hamstrings or quadriceps autografts are better for ACL Reconstruction. PMID: 32732443 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Ortopedia Traumatologia Rehabilitacja)
Source: Ortopedia Traumatologia Rehabilitacja - August 2, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Ortop Traumatol Rehabil Source Type: research

Clinical Outcome of Fixed Versus Adjustable Loop Cortical Suspension Devices in Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.
CONCLUSION: Both fixed loop and adjustable loop devices in ACL reconstruction provided good clinical outcomes but without significant statistical difference between both groups from the clinical point of view postoperatively using the Lysholm score. PMID: 32732442 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Ortopedia Traumatologia Rehabilitacja)
Source: Ortopedia Traumatologia Rehabilitacja - August 2, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Ortop Traumatol Rehabil Source Type: research

The Evaluation and Management of the Failed Primary Arthroscopic Bankart Repair.
Authors: Waterman BR, Leroux T, Frank RM, Romeo AA Abstract Primary arthroscopic Bankart repair is a common procedure that is increasing in popularity; however, failure rates can approach up to 6% to 30%. Factors commonly attributed to failure include repeat trauma, poor or incomplete surgical technique, humeral and/or glenoid bone loss, hyperlaxity, or a failure to identify and address rare pathology such as a humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament lesion. A thorough clinical and radiographic assessment may provide insight into the etiology, which can assist the clinician in making treatment recommendations...
Source: The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons - August 1, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Tags: J Am Acad Orthop Surg Source Type: research

Combined ACL-PCL-Medial and Lateral Side Injuries (Global Laxity)
The multiple ligament injured knee is a complex problem in orthopedic surgery. These injuries may or may not present as acute knee dislocations, and careful assessment of the extremity vascular and neurological status is essential because of the possibility of arterial and/or venous compromise, and nerve injury. These complex injuries require a systematic approach to evaluation and treatment. Physical examination and imaging studies enable the surgeon to make a correct diagnosis and formulate a treatment plan. Knee stability is improved postoperatively when evaluated with knee ligament rating scales, arthrometer testing, a...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - August 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

A Long-Term Follow-up, Multicenter, Comparative Study of the Radiologic, and Clinical Results Between a CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 Bioactive Glass Ceramics (BGS-7) Intervertebral Spacer and Titanium Cage in 1-Level Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion
Study Design: This is a prospective, stratified randomized, multicenter, 4-year follow-up study. Objective: The authors aimed to evaluate the long-term clinical efficacy and safety of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass ceramics (BGS-7) spacers in 1-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) at a 4-year follow-up. Summary of Background Data: According to 1-year follow-up results, BGS-7 spacer showed similar fusion rates and clinical outcomes compared with titanium cage. A long-term follow-up study beyond 2 years is necessary to investigate the status of intervertebral bone graft volumes. Moreover, longer follow-up is mand...
Source: Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques - August 1, 2020 Category: Surgery Tags: PRIMARY RESEARCH Source Type: research

Cost-utility analysis of normothermic liver perfusion with OrganOx compared to static cold storage in the United Kingdom.
Conclusions: Use of OrganOx metra for the perfusion and transportation of livers prior to transplantation is a cost-effective strategy. Key Points for Decision MakersIntroduction of OrganOx metra into NHS could increase the utilisation of donated livers with patients experiencing lower rates of early allograft dysfunction and adverse events, compared with current practice.Results of the economic analysis indicate that the OrganOx metra is highly likely to be cost-effective and result in improved patient outcomes. PMID: 32729749 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Economics)
Source: Journal of Medical Economics - July 31, 2020 Category: Health Management Tags: J Med Econ Source Type: research

Dehydrated human amnion and chorion allograft versus standard of care alone in treatment of Wagner 1 diabetic foot ulcers: A trial-based health economics study.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrated that dHACA added to SOC compared to SOC alone was extremely cost-effective in the defined trial population. PMID: 32729342 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Economics)
Source: Journal of Medical Economics - July 31, 2020 Category: Health Management Tags: J Med Econ Source Type: research

Cover Image
On the Cover: Arthroscopic anteromedial portal view of the right knee after quad tendon autograft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The graft replicates native anterior cruciate ligament obliquity. Upper arrow shows femoral tunnel entrance; lower arrow shows graft. View the accompanying video and see the related article atwww.arthroscopytechniques.org. Courtesy of Tyler Robert Johnston, M.D., M.S., Jessica Hu, B.S., Bonnie Gregory, M.D., Jordan Liles, M.D., and Jonathan Riboh, M.D. (Source: Arthroscopy - Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery)
Source: Arthroscopy - Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery - July 31, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Editorial Commentary: Rotator Cuff Tear: Know When Not to Operate So You Don't Make It Worse
Shoulder rotator cuff repair results in significantly improved outcomes compared with conservative treatment, but some repairs result in retear and, worst of all, enlarged retears (i.e., tears larger after surgery than primarily). Elevated serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels and fatty infiltration of the infraspinatus are significantly related to symptomatic failed rotator cuff repair. Hypertension could also be a risk factor. In such cases, nonoperative treatment, reverse shoulder prosthesis (in older patients), or alternative joint-preserving procedures (superior capsular reconstruction, subacromia...
Source: Arthroscopy - Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery - July 31, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Frederik O. Lambers Heerspink, Oscar Dorrestijn Tags: Editorial Commentary Source Type: research

Editorial Commentary: Patellar Tendon or Hamstring: Which Kind of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Patient Are You?
The role of graft selection on clinical and functional outcomes following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has gained significant attention in the orthopaedic sports medicine community in recent years. Bone –patellar tendon–bone (BPTB) and semitendinosus/gracilis hamstring tendon (HT) autografts are 2 of the most commonly used grafts, given their low failure rates, predictable outcomes, and ability to incorporate appropriately at the graft site. However, multiple studies have recently shown each of these graft options to have some potentially less-desirable characteristics in regards to outcomes ...
Source: Arthroscopy - Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery - July 31, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: John Wilson Belk, Eric McCarty Tags: Editorial Commentary Source Type: research

Editorial Commentary: Long-Term Survivorship of Knee Meniscal Transplant Surgery —The Importance of Patient-Reported Outcomes With Magnetic Resonance Imaging Demonstration of Retained Meniscal Transplant Function
The altered knee joint function and symptomatic state in younger patients after meniscectomy and progressive tibiofemoral arthritis remain an important unsolved treatment dilemma. Meniscal allograft transplantation has evolved as an acceptable treatment because there are few (if any) other options. The procedure is effective in most patients, who experience a decrease in tibiofemoral pain and improved knee function, even allowing a return to light recreational activities. However, biological remodeling of the implant occurs over time, with replacement of the complex circumferential and radial fibers with disorganized colla...
Source: Arthroscopy - Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery - July 31, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Frank R. Noyes Tags: Editorial Commentary Source Type: research

Surgical treatment of extensive hepatic alveolar echinococcosis using a three-dimensional visualization technique combined with allograft blood vessels: A case report
Rationale: Hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE) presents a high pathogenicity and case fatality rate. The main treatment for HAE is surgical resection. Giant lesions in the liver and invasion of the pathogen into the retrohepatic inferior vena cava are usually associated with a poor prognosis when radical resection cannot be performed. Patient concerns: A 56-year-old man who underwent hydatidectomy 7 years prior noted a recurrence of HAE. He was subsidized and admitted to our hospital for the purpose of surgical treatment. Diagnosis: By computed tomography, angiography and three-dimensional (3D) computed tomograph...
Source: Medicine - July 31, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research

Premature closure of the distal radial physis without evident history of trauma: A case report
We present a case of premature closure of the distal radial physis without evident history of trauma in a girl. Patient concerns: A 14-year-old girl presented with chronic progressive deformity and painful functional limitation of her right forearm. The right wrist pain had begun when the patient was 5 years old. There was no evident history of trauma. The deformity and persistent right wrist pain had prevented her from performing sports activities and activities of daily living. Diagnoses: Radiography and computed tomography showed a volarly angulated distal radius and dorsally protruding distal ulna with a length d...
Source: Medicine - July 31, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research

Hamstring autograft versus patellar tendon autograft for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, which graft has a higher contralateral anterior cruciate ligament injury rate?: A meta-analysis of 5561 patients following the PRISMA guidelines
Background: Contralateral anterior cruciate ligament (CACL) injury is one of the devastating complications after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Whether the risk of CACL tear is related to graft selection remains controversial due to contradictory results in studies. There are no meta-analyses to compare which graft has a higher CACL injury rate. Hence, this meta-analysis was conducted to compare the incidence of the CACL injury after ACL reconstruction with bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autografts compared with hamstring (HT) autografts. Methods: A comprehensive search of literature published betw...
Source: Medicine - July 31, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Source Type: research

Implant and Prosthetic Success Following Peri-implant Guided Bone Regeneration in the Esthetic Zone Using an Equine Cortical Bone Membrane and an Equine Enzyme-Treated Bone Graft: A Retrospective Study with 9-year Follow-Up.
CONCLUSION: The equine cortical bone membrane and the enzyme-treated bone graft used in this case series achieved a medium-term implant and prosthetic success rate that was not dissimilar to that of other resorbable membranes and grafts for peri-implant guided bone regeneration augmentation. Preliminary medium-term histologic and CBCT data suggest that the membrane may be occlusive for a period of at least 4 months and may contribute to preserve the ridge thickness over time. PMID: 32724937 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants)
Source: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants - July 31, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants Source Type: research

Graftless Maxillary Sinus Floor Augmentation with Simultaneous Porcine Bone Layer Insertion: A 1- to 5-Year Follow-up Study.
CONCLUSION: This study confirms the validity of the graftless sinus elevation surgery when simultaneous implant placement is performed. The use of a porcine cortical bone layer seems to increase, from a radiologic point of view, the amount of bone around the implants, reducing healing time, cost, and biologic complications for the patient. PMID: 32724935 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants)
Source: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants - July 31, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants Source Type: research

Cytotoxicity of Donor Natural Killer Cells to Allo-Reactive T Cells Are Related With Acute Graft-vs.-Host-Disease Following Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation
This study quantitatively analyzed the cytotoxicity of donor NK cells toward allo-reactive T cells, and investigated their relationship with acute GVHD (aGVHD).Methods: We evaluated NK dose, subgroup, and receptor expression in allografts from 98 patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). A CD107a degranulating assay was used as a quantitative detection method for the cytotoxic function of donor NK cells to allo-reactive T cells. In antibody-blocking assay, NK cells were pre-treated with anti-DNAM-1(CD226), anti-NKG2D, anti-NKP46, or anti-NKG-2A monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) befor...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - July 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Strategies for Deliberate Induction of Immune Tolerance in Liver Transplantation: From Preclinical Models to Clinical Application
The liver exhibits intrinsic immune regulatory properties that maintain tolerance to endogenous and exogenous antigens, and provide protection against pathogens. Such an immune privilege contributes to susceptibility to spontaneous acceptance despite major histocompatibility complex mismatch when transplanted in animal models. Furthermore, the presence of a liver allograft can suppress the rejection of other solid tissue/organ grafts from the same donor. Despite this immune privilege of the livers, to control the undesired alloimmune responses in humans, most liver transplant recipients require long-term treatment with imm...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - July 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Femoral Nerve Catheters Are Associated with Limb Strength Asymmetry at 6 Months After Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Pediatric Patients.
CONCLUSION: Though time to return to sport did not differ, patients in the femoral nerve catheter group exhibited greater single-leg squat asymmetry than did those in the femoral nerve blockade group approximately6 months postoperatively. Persistent functional deficits may be important to consider when treating pediatricpatients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. PMID: 32735731 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatric Anaesthesia)
Source: Paediatric Anaesthesia - July 31, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Parikh HB, Gagliardi AG, Howell DR, Albright JC, Mandler TN Tags: Paediatr Anaesth Source Type: research

Neurotization of the Nipple-Areola Complex during Implant-Based Reconstruction: Evaluation of Early Sensation Recovery
Summary: The concept of sensate autologous breast reconstruction is not novel, and prior literature has focused mainly on sensate abdominally based breast reconstruction. The goal of this article is to present the authors’ results with a novel technique performing sensate implant-based reconstruction. A database was prospectively maintained for patients who underwent implant-based sensate breast reconstruction. The anterior branch of the lateral fourth intercostal is identified and preserved during the mastectomy by the breast surgeon. A processed nerve allograft is used as an interpositional graft connecting the d...
Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - July 30, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Breast: Ideas and Innovations Source Type: research

Amyloid A Amyloidosis After Renal Transplantation: An Important Cause of Mortality
Conclusions. AA amyloidosis is associated with higher risk of mortality after kidney transplantation. Inflammatory indicators should be monitored closely, and persistent high levels of acute-phase reactants should raise concerns about amyloid recurrence in allograft. (Source: Transplantation)
Source: Transplantation - July 30, 2020 Category: Transplant Surgery Tags: Original Clinical Science—General Source Type: research

Significance of Best Spirometry in the First Year After Bilateral Lung Transplantation: Association With 3-Year Outcomes
Background. Spirometry is the cornerstone of monitoring allograft function after lung transplantation (LT). We sought to determine the association of variables on best spirometry during the first year after bilateral LT with 3-year posttransplant survival. Methods. We reviewed charts of patients who survived at least 3 months after bilateral LT (n = 157; age ± SD: 54 ± 13 y, male:female = 91:66). Best spirometry was calculated as the average of 2 highest measurements at least 3 weeks apart during the first year. Airway obstruction was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1-second (FEV1)/forced vital ca...
Source: Transplantation - July 30, 2020 Category: Transplant Surgery Tags: Original Clinical Science—General Source Type: research

Pretransplant Opioid Use and Survival After Lung Transplantation
Conclusions. Pretransplant opioid use was not associated with retransplant-free survival in our cohort and should not necessarily preclude listing. Further work stratifying opioid use by indication and the association with opioid use disorder would be worthwhile. (Source: Transplantation)
Source: Transplantation - July 30, 2020 Category: Transplant Surgery Tags: Original Clinical Science—General Source Type: research

Protocol Biopsies in Patients With Subclinical De Novo Donor-specific Antibodies After Kidney Transplantation: A Multicentric Study
Conclusions. Performing a kidney graft biopsy for the occurrence of dnDSA without renal dysfunction leads to the diagnosis of a sAMR in over 40% of cases. Nevertheless, we did not observe any effect of standard treatment in acute sAMR. (Source: Transplantation)
Source: Transplantation - July 30, 2020 Category: Transplant Surgery Tags: Original Clinical Science—General Source Type: research

Transient-mixed Chimerism With Nonmyeloablative Conditioning Does Not Induce Liver Allograft Tolerance in Nonhuman Primates
Conclusions. These data show the transient chimerism protocol does not induce tolerance to livers, likely due to greater CD8 T cell responses than in the kidney model. Successful tolerance induction may depend on greater control or deletion of CD8 T cells in this model. (Source: Transplantation)
Source: Transplantation - July 30, 2020 Category: Transplant Surgery Tags: Original Basic Science—Liver Source Type: research

Delayed Implantation of Pumped Kidneys Decreases Renal Allograft Futility in Combined Liver–Kidney Transplantation
Conclusions. Delayed implantation of pumped kidneys is associated with improved patient and renal allograft survival and decreased hospital length of stay despite longer kidney cold ischemia. These data should inform the ethical debate as to the futility of performing CLKT in high-acuity recipients. (Source: Transplantation)
Source: Transplantation - July 30, 2020 Category: Transplant Surgery Tags: Original Clinical Science—Liver Source Type: research

Peripheral Donor-specific Antibodies Are Associated With Histology and Cellular Subtypes in Protocol Liver Biopsies of Pediatric Recipients
Conclusions. T cells (CD3+) and macrophages (CD68+) were the most prevalent cell-types in PB. In the presence of inflammation, portal tracts were enriched in CD3+, CD20+ but displayed fewer CD68+. This coincided with the presence and number of de novo DSA. How these cellular and humoral actors interact is unclear, but peripheral DSA may be a marker of immune cellular activity in the seemingly quiescent allograft. (Source: Transplantation)
Source: Transplantation - July 30, 2020 Category: Transplant Surgery Tags: Original Clinical Science—Liver Source Type: research

Alloimmunity in pancreas transplantation
Purpose of review Despite significant improvement in pancreas allograft survival, rejection continues to be a major clinical problem. This review will focus on emerging literature related to the impact of pretransplant and de-novo DSA (dnDSA) in pancreas transplant recipients, and the diagnosis and treatment of T-cell-medicated rejection (TCMR) and antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) in this complex group of patients. Recent findings Recent data suggest that pretransplant DSA and the emergence of dnDSA in pancreas transplant recipients are both associated with increased risk of ABMR. The pancreas allograft biopsy is es...
Source: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation - July 30, 2020 Category: Surgery Tags: KIDNEY PANCREAS: Edited by Jim Kim Source Type: research

Pediatric kidney transplantation in the United States
Purpose of review Pediatric kidney transplantation has made great strides over the preceding years. It has become an accepted and successful remedy for thousands of patients worldwide. For best outcomes, it must be viewed and treated as a distinct entity from adult transplantation with focus on the unique challenges particular to its cohort. Recent findings Although efforts have been made to decrease geographic disparity and increase allograft access throughout, an unintended consequence has been prolonged wait times for pediatric patients. Concurrently, ideally size-matched organs from older pediatric donors are also...
Source: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation - July 30, 2020 Category: Surgery Tags: KIDNEY PANCREAS: Edited by Jim Kim Source Type: research

Risk stratification and management of QuantiFERON-positive solid-organ living donors
Purpose of review Donor-derived disease with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is likely to become more common as donor pools expand due to increasing transplant volume coupled with patterns of migration and global mobility. Our article reviews the current literature and provides a rational approach for clinicians managing the scenario of a living donor who has epidemiologic risk factors for tuberculosis exposure. Recent findings Tuberculous bacilli, formerly thought to exist latently only in pulmonary granulomas, are now known reside dormant in nonpulmonary organs. Kidney and liver grafts are thus vectors for donor tr...
Source: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation - July 30, 2020 Category: Surgery Tags: INFECTIOUS DISEASES: Edited by Emily Blodget Source Type: research

Infectious complications of vascularized composite allograft transplantation
Purpose of review Vascularized composite allograft (VCA) transplants constitute multiple tissues transplanted together as one functional unit. These procedures are increasing in frequency and complexity, yet data about graft survival, quality of life, and infection risk remain limited. Recent findings Informative guidance for this patient population is often inferred from the solid organ transplantation literature. Yet, it is important to understand that VCA transplantation additionally carries its own significant and distinctive risk factors for infection. Summary In this review, we give an overview of previously ...
Source: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation - July 30, 2020 Category: Surgery Tags: INFECTIOUS DISEASES: Edited by Emily Blodget Source Type: research

Update on Nocardia infections in solid-organ transplantation
Purpose of review Nocardia is a ubiquitous pathogen associated with life-threatening opportunistic infections. Organ transplant recipients are uniquely predisposed to Nocardia infections due to their iatrogenic cell-mediated immune deficit necessary to maintain allograft function. This review aims to address recent updates in the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostics, treatment, and outcomes of Nocardia infections in solid-organ transplant recipients. Recent findings The incidence of Nocardia infection depends on multiple patient and environmental factors. Among transplant recipients, lung recipients are mo...
Source: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation - July 30, 2020 Category: Surgery Tags: INFECTIOUS DISEASES: Edited by Emily Blodget Source Type: research

Precision transplant pathology
Purpose of review Transplant pathology contributes substantially to personalized treatment of organ allograft recipients. Rapidly advancing next-generation human leukocyte antigen (HLA) sequencing and pathology are enhancing the abilities to improve donor/recipient matching and allograft monitoring. Recent findings The present review summarizes the workflow of a prototypical patient through a pathology practice, highlighting histocompatibility assessment and pathologic review of tissues as areas that are evolving to incorporate next-generation technologies while emphasizing critical needs of the field. Summary Succ...
Source: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation - July 30, 2020 Category: Surgery Tags: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by Javier Briceño Source Type: research

Recent advances in precision medicine for individualized immunosuppression
Purpose of review The current tools to proactively guide and individualize immunosuppression in solid organ transplantation are limited. Despite continued improvements in posttransplant outcomes, the adverse effects of over-immunosuppression or under-immunosuppression are common. The present review is intended to highlight recent advances in individualized immunosuppression. Recent findings There has been a great focus on genomic information to predict drug dose requirements, specifically on single nucleotide polymorphisms of CYP3A5 and ABCB1. Furthermore, biomarker studies have developed ways to better predict clinic...
Source: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation - July 30, 2020 Category: Surgery Tags: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by Javier Briceño Source Type: research

Artificial neural network and bioavailability of the immunosuppression drug
Purpose of review The success of organ transplant is determined by number of demographic, clinical, immunological and genetic variables. Artificial intelligence tools, such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) or classification and regression trees (CART) can handle multiple independent variables and predict the dependent variables by deducing the complex nonlinear relationships between variables. Recent findings In the last two decades, several researchers employed these tools to identify donor-recipient matching pairs, to optimize immunosuppressant doses, to predict allograft survival and to minimize adverse drug re...
Source: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation - July 30, 2020 Category: Surgery Tags: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by Javier Briceño Source Type: research

Long-term Outcomes of Living-Related Conjunctival Limbal Allograft Compared With Keratolimbal Allograft in Patients With Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency
Conclusions: lr-CLAL demonstrates lower rejection rates, improved graft survival, and better BCVA compared with KLAL. Both careful preoperative donor selection and triple-agent systemic immunosuppression (including tapered systemic corticosteroids) are critical to optimizing the ocular surface stem cell transplantation outcomes. (Source: Cornea)
Source: Cornea - July 30, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Usage of Tacrolimus and Mycophenolic Acid During Conception, Pregnancy, and Lactation, and Its Implications for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring: A Systematic Critical Review
Conclusions: Tac treatment during conception, pregnancy and lactation seems to be relatively safe. Due to pharmacokinetic changes during pregnancy, a higher Tac dose might be indicated to maintain target concentrations. However, more evidence is needed to make recommendations on both Tac dose adjustments and alternative matrices than whole-blood for TDM of Tac during pregnancy. MPA treatment in men during conception seems to have no adverse effect on pregnancy outcomes, whereas MPA use in women during conception and pregnancy is strongly discouraged. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Clinical Follow-up Study of the Reconstruction of the Femoral Head With Transferred Vascularized Greater Trochanter Bone Graft for Association Research Circulation Osseous III–IV Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 30, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Clinical Outcomes of Double-Screw Fixation with Autologous Bone Grafting for Unstable Scaphoid Delayed or Nonunions with Cavitary Bone Loss
Conclusion Double-screw fixation with bone grafting and early active range of motion is a safe and effective technique for management of delayed and nonunited unstable scaphoid fractures with cavitary bone loss. This potentially allows for earlier return to function, without compromise to union rates. Level of Evidence This is a Level IV, retrospective case series study. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Journal of Wrist Surgery)
Source: Journal of Wrist Surgery - July 30, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Ek, Eugene T. Johnson, Paul R. Bohan, Carmel M. Padmasekara, Gayan Tags: Scientific Article Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance elastography vs. point shear wave ultrasound elastography for the assessment of renal allograft dysfunction
Publication date: September 2020Source: European Journal of Radiology, Volume 130Author(s): Paul Kennedy, Octavia Bane, Stefanie J. Hectors, Sonja Gordic, Mark Berger, Veronica Delaney, Fadi Salem, Sara Lewis, Madhav Menon, Bachir Taouli (Source: European Journal of Radiology)
Source: European Journal of Radiology - July 29, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research