Mitochondrial physiology and responses to elevated hydrogen sulphide in two isogenic lineages of an amphibious mangrove fish [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Keri E. Martin, Suzanne Currie, and Nicolas Pichaud Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is toxic and can act as a selective pressure on aquatic organisms facilitating a wide range of adaptations for life in sulphidic environments. Rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) inhabit mangrove swamps and have developed high tolerance to environmental H2S. Rivulus are hermaphroditic and can self-fertilize, producing distinct isogenic lineages with different sensitivity to H2S. Here, we tested the hypothesis that observed differences in responses to H2S are the result of differences in mitochondrial functions. For this purpose, we performed two expe...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 9, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Martin, K. E., Currie, S., Pichaud, N. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Outcomes from international field trials with Male < i > Aedes < /i > Sound Traps: Frequency-dependent effectiveness in capturing target species in relation to bycatch abundance
by Kyran M. Staunton, Donovan Leiva, Alvaro Cruz, Joelyn Goi, Carlos Arisqueta, Jianyi Liu, Mark Desnoyer, Paul Howell, Francia Espinosa, Azael Che Mendoza, Stephan Karl, Jacob E. Crawford, Wei Xiang, Pablo Manrique-Saide, Nicole L. Achee, John P. Grieco, Scott A. Ritchie, Thomas R. Burkot, Nigel SnoadAedes aegypti andAedes albopictus vector dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. With both species expanding their global distributions at alarming rates, developing effective surveillance equipment is a continuing priority for public health researchers. Sound traps have been shown, in limited testing, to be highly species-spec...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - February 25, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kyran M. Staunton Source Type: research

Using fisher-contributed secondary fins to fill critical shark-fisheries data gaps.
Abstract Developing-world shark fisheries are typically not assessed or actively managed for sustainability; one fundamental obstacle is the lack of species and size-composition catch data. We tested and implemented a new and potentially widely applicable approach for collecting these data: mandatory submission of low-value secondary fins (anal fins) from landed sharks by fishers and use of the fins to reconstruct catch species and size. Visual and low-cost genetic identification were used to determine species composition, and linear regression was applied to total length and anal fin base length for catch...
Source: Conservation Biology - February 4, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Quinlan JR, O'Leary SJ, Fields AT, Benavides M, Stumpf E, Carcamo R, Cruz J, Lewis D, Wade B, Amato G, Kolokotronis SO, Clementi GM, Chapman DD Tags: Conserv Biol Source Type: research

Eumycetoma: A Perspective for Military Primary Care.
Authors: Tunnage J, Vignali J, Eickhoff C Abstract This is a case report of a 42-year-old woman who presented to a clinic with a history of progressive left foot and ankle swelling. She had a suspected history of myectoma, but had never been officially diagnosed despite repeated cultures and debridements over the course of decades. The inciting event occurred approximately 30 years prior in her home country of Belize. Her wound culture revealed Scedosporium apiospermum as the causative agent. Treatment included surgical debridement and oral antifungal therapy. This case represents an interesting adjunct to...
Source: Military Medicine - January 6, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Mil Med Source Type: research

Using cognitive mapping to understand conservation planning.
Abstract We considered a common research tool for understanding the mental models behind conservation decisions: cognitive mapping. Developed by cognitive psychologists, the elicitation of mental models with cognitive mapping has been used to understand soil management in Spain, invasive grass management in Australia, community forest management in the Bolivian Amazon, and small-scale fisheries access in Belize, among others. A generalized cognitive mapping process considers specific factors associated with the design, data-collection, data-analyses, and interpretation phases of research. We applied this t...
Source: Conservation Biology - November 29, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Biedenweg K, Trimbach D, Delie J, Schwarz B Tags: Conserv Biol Source Type: research

Complete genome reconstruction and genetic analysis of Taura syndrome virus of shrimp from archival Davidson's-fixed paraffin embedded tissue.
In this study, next generation sequencing (NGS) was used to reconstruct the complete genome of three geographical isolates (Belize, Venezuela and Hawaii) of a ~10 kb length RNA virus of shrimp, Taura syndrome virus (TSV), from DFPE tissues that have been archived for 15 years. Phylogenetic analyses showed that TSV isolates from Belize, Venezuela and Hawaii formed well supported clusters with homologous isolates from the corresponding regions submitted in the GenBank database. This is the first study to demonstrate the utility of archived tissue samples for identification of RNA viruses and evolutionary studies involving a...
Source: Virology - November 24, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Cruz-Flores R, Mai HN, Dhar AK Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Genes, Vol. 11, Pages 1346: Ancient DNA Studies in Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica
Llamas Mesoamerica is a historically and culturally defined geographic area comprising current central and south Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, and border regions of Honduras, western Nicaragua, and northwestern Costa Rica. The permanent settling of Mesoamerica was accompanied by the development of agriculture and pottery manufacturing (2500 BCE&amp;ndash;150 CE), which led to the rise of several cultures connected by commerce and farming. Hence, Mesoamericans probably carried an invaluable genetic diversity partly lost during the Spanish conquest and the subsequent colonial period. Mesoamerican ancient DN...
Source: Genes - November 13, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Xavier Roca-Rada Yassine Souilmi Jo ão C. Teixeira Bastien Llamas Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sepsis Epidemiology and the Performance of Sepsis Screening Tools in an ED in Belize
We sought to characterize the sepsis burden among patients admitted to a hospital in Belize and the generalizability of the quick Sequential Organ Function Assessment (qSOFA) score and Emergency Triage and Treatment (ETAT) emergency signs as sepsis screening tools for the respective adult and pediatric population. (Source: The Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The Journal of Emergency Medicine - November 1, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: M. Jaung, S. Gunter, I. Espina, M. Bolgiano, D. Huynh, P. Koradia, K. Richards, A. Sutaria, M. Habet, J. Hidalgo, J. Mackey Source Type: research

B-vitamins and metabolic syndrome in Mesoamerican children and their adult parents.
CONCLUSIONS: Vitamins of the methionine-homocysteine cycle are associated with metabolic syndrome in different directions. The associations differ between children and adults. PMID: 33023697 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Public Health Nutrition)
Source: Public Health Nutrition - October 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Villatoro-Santos CR, Ramirez-Zea M, Villamor E, Nine Mesoamerican Countries Metabolic Syndrome (NiMeCoMeS) Study group Tags: Public Health Nutr Source Type: research

Efficacy of Distance-Based EMS Education in a Low-Resource Country.
CONCLUSIONS: This synchronously presented distance-based EMS educational program showed gains in both immediate and delayed knowledge acquisition among a small sample size. These results show promise that online, distance-based education is a viable option for continuing graduate medical education in low-resource countries. PMID: 33091286 [PubMed - in process] (Source: WMJ)
Source: WMJ - September 1, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Seymour L, Montejo R, Watson BW Tags: WMJ Source Type: research

The Botfly, A Tropical Menace: A Distinctive Myiasis Caused by Dermatobia hominis
AbstractDermatobia hominis, also known as the human botfly, is native to tropical and subtropical Central and South America and seen in travelers from endemic to temperate regions including the United States and Europe. Cutaneous infestation botfly myiasis involves the development ofD. hominis larvae in the skin and is common in tropical locations. The distinct appearance of a cutaneousD. hominis infestation facilitates early diagnosis and intervention where cases are common. However, the identification ofD. hominis in temperate regions may prove challenging due to its rarity.D. hominis may be misdiagnosed as folliculitis,...
Source: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology - August 13, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Depth Influences Symbiodiniaceae Associations Among Montastraea cavernosa Corals on the Belize Barrier Reef
In Belize, shallow populations (10 and 16 m) of the coral species Montastraea cavernosa from the back reef and reef crest are genetically differentiated from deeper populations on the fore reef and reef wall (25 and 35 m). Like many species of scleractinian corals, M. cavernosa has an obligate symbiosis with dinoflagellate microalgae from the family Symbiodiniaceae. Here, we describe the Symbiodiniaceae taxa found within previously sampled and genotyped M. cavernosa populations along a depth gradient on the Belize Barrier Reef by implementing high-throughput sequencing of the ITS2 region of Symbiodiniaceae ribosomal DNA an...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 8, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Population genetic structure and habitat connectivity for jaguar (Panthera onca) conservation in Central Belize
Connectivity among jaguar (Panthera onca) populations will ensure natural gene flow and the long-term survival of the species throughout its range. Jaguar conservation efforts have focused primarily on connecting... (Source: BMC Genetics)
Source: BMC Genetics - December 27, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Angelica Menchaca, Natalia A. Rossi, Jeremy Froidevaux, Isabela Dias-Freedman, Anthony Caragiulo, Claudia Wultsch, Bart Harmsen, Rebecca Foster, J. Antonio de la Torre, Rodrigo A. Medellin, Salisa Rabinowitz and George Amato Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Mangroves reduce the vulnerability of coral reef fisheries to habitat degradation
by Alice Rogers, Peter J. Mumby Despite general and wide-ranging negative effects of coral reef degradation on reef communities, hope might exist for reef-associated predators that use nursery habitats. When reef structural complexity is lost, refuge density declines and prey vulnerability increases. Here, we explore whether the presence of nursery habitats can promote high predator productivity on degraded reefs by mitigating the costs of increased vulnerability in early life, whilst allowing for the benefits of increased food availability in adulthood. We apply size-based ecosystem models of coral reefs with high and lo...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 11, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Alice Rogers Source Type: research

An ICP study and an ICR/MALDI study at high mass resolution of two ancient Maya greenstone artifacts from Pacbitun, Belize, and two decorative jade specimens.
Abstract Two Early Classic period (ca 250-600 CE) Maya carved, greenstone jade pendants, Specimens A and B, were recovered from the Pacbitun site in Belize in 1987. Novel highly-resolved polyatomic ions from jade grit have been observed using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS), specifically using the Bruker Daltonics, SolariX XR mass spectrometer, combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI); the matrix material was α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid. Mass scans of resolution ~600,000 were obtained for the jade pendants and two British Columbia jade orn...
Source: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry : RCM - November 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: March RE Tags: Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom Source Type: research