Warm bodies, cool wings: regional heterothermy in flying bats.
Abstract Many endothermic animals experience variable limb temperatures, even as they tightly regulate core temperature. The limbs are often cooler than the core at rest, but because the large locomotor muscles of the limbs produce heat during exercise, they are thought to operate at or above core temperature during activity. Bats, small-bodied flying mammals with greatly elongated forelimbs, possess wings with large surfaces lacking any insulating fur. We hypothesized that during flight the relatively small muscles that move the elbow and wrist operate below core body temperature because of elevated heat ...
Source: Biology Letters - September 12, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Rummel AD, Swartz SM, Marsh RL Tags: Biol Lett Source Type: research
The youngest meningioma? A historic Maya adolescent from Tipu, Belize
We present a hyperostotic cranial lesion in an adolescent from the early historic population of Tipu in west central Belize. It fits most clinical and epidemiological patterns of meningeal expression in modern children, and differential diagnosis finds other possible conditions, including dietary deficiencies and genetic anaemias, unlikely. The often subtle characteristics of meningiomas, which can be both osteolytic and osteoblastic, need to be described in detail to diffe rentiate them from other conditions, especially porotic hyperostosis. The Tipu case is the only nonadult example to correspond with published clinical ...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - September 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Marie Elaine Danforth, Kelly Kramer, Della Collins Cook, Mark N. Cohen Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Fipronil and ivermectin treatment of cattle reduced the survival and ovarian development of field-collected Anopheles albimanus in a pilot trial conducted in northern Belize
Most malaria vector control programmes rely on indoor residual spraying of insecticides and insecticide-treated bed nets. This is effective against vector species that feed indoors at night and rest inside the... (Source: Malaria Journal)
Source: Malaria Journal - August 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Staci M. Dreyer, Donovan Leiva, Marla Maga ña, Marie Pott, Jonathan Kay, Alvaro Cruz, Nicole L. Achee, John P. Grieco and Jefferson A. Vaughan Tags: Research Source Type: research
The Youngest Meningioma? An Historic Maya Adolescent from Tipu, Belize
We present a hyperostotic cranial lesion in an adolescent from the early Historic population of Tipu in west central Belize. It fits most clinical and epidemiological patterns of meningeal expression in modern children, and differential diagnosis finds other possible conditions, including dietary deficiencies and genetic anemias, unlikely. The often subtle characteristics of meningiomas, which can be both osteolytic and osteoblastic, need to be described in detail to differentiate them from other conditions, especially porotic hyperostosis. The Tipu case is the only non‐adult exam ple to correspond with published clinica...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - August 27, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Marie Elaine Danforth, Kelly Kramer, Della Collins Cook, Mark N. Cohen Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Adolescents´ perception of harms, benefits and intention to use marijuana within the context of regulatory changes in belize
Conclusion: the Belizean school-aged adolescents are more than likely to smoke marijuana because of friends ’ influence, low perception of risks and if marijuana is legally available and accessible to them.RESUMEN Objetivo: evaluar la percepci ón de los daños y beneficios del uso de la marihuana en adolescentes, para determinar la prevalencia de consumo de marihuana a lo largo de la vida, en el último año y en el último mes; y analizar la relación entre el consumo de marihuana y la percepción de los daños y beneficios de su uso. Métodos: se utilizó un estudio multicéntrico para el método de corte transvers...
Source: Texto e Contexto - Enfermagem - August 23, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Perception of harm and benefits of cannabis use among adolescents from latin america and caribe
Conclusion: statistics revealed that a strong perception of benefits, a low perception of risk, and friends ’ use of cannabis were associated with individual use as well as intention to use within a hypothetical context of regulatory change.RESUMEN Objetivo: investigar la percepci ón de daños y beneficios asociados al uso de marihuana en adolescentes y cómo los cambios regulatorios pueden afectar la intención de uso. Método: estudio multicéntrico, cuantitativo y transversal tipo encuesta. los participantes fueron 2,717 estudiantes entre 15 y 17 años de 10 ciudades de Belice, Brasil. Chile, Colombia, Repúbl...
Source: Texto e Contexto - Enfermagem - August 15, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Dreams Can Come True: Fighting the Stigma of Cancer and Facilitating Access to Safe, Appropriate Care in Belize
This article describes a national effort to open access to cancer services and treatment for persons living with cancer in the developing, low-income country of Belize. The journey to establish the Belize Cancer Center Dangriga, located in the depressed southern region of the country, that provides affordable, culturally sensitive care primarily to low-income patients and families is explained. The challenges of establishing this center, the only multisectorial, multidisciplinary cancer center in the country to date, given the stigma associated with cancer, are discussed. (Source: Nurse Leader)
Source: Nurse Leader - May 25, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Dellone M. Pascascio Source Type: research
Pathogenicity and transmission of virulent Newcastle disease virus from the 2018-2019 California outbreak and related viruses in young and adult chickens.
Abstract In May of 2018, virulent Newcastle disease virus was detected in sick, backyard, exhibition chickens in southern California. Since, the virus has affected 401 backyard and four commercial flocks, and one live bird market in California, and one backyard flock in Utah. The pathogenesis and transmission potential of this virus, along with two genetically related and widely studied viruses, chicken/California/2002 and chicken/Belize/2008, were evaluated in both 3-week- and 62-week-old chickens given a low, medium, or high challenge dose. All three viruses were highly virulent causing clinical signs, k...
Source: Virology - March 21, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Dimitrov KM, Ferreira HL, Pantin-Jackwood MJ, Taylor TL, Goraichuk IV, Crossley BM, Killian ML, Bergeson NH, Torchetti MK, Afonso CL, Suarez DL Tags: Virology Source Type: research
The Evolution of Marine Larval Dispersal Kernels in Spatially Structured Habitats: Analytical Models, Individual-Based Simulations, and Comparisons with Empirical Estimates.
Abstract Understanding the causes of larval dispersal is a major goal of marine ecology, yet most research focuses on proximate causes. Here we ask how ultimate, evolutionary causes affect dispersal. Building on Hamilton and May's classic 1977 article "Dispersal in Stable Habitats," we develop analytic and simulation models for the evolution of dispersal kernels in spatially structured habitats. First, we investigate dispersal in a world without edges and find that most offspring disperse as far as possible, opposite the pattern of empirical data. Adding edges to our model world leads to nearly all offspri...
Source: The American Naturalist - February 24, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Shaw AK, D'Aloia CC, Buston PM Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research
Ethnobotany of Mexican and northern Central American cycads (Zamiaceae)
This study documents cycad-human relationships in Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras over the last 6000 years. The impetus was acute need for a better understanding of previously undocumented... (Source: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine)
Source: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine - January 18, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Mark Bonta, Mar ía Teresa Pulido-Silva, Teresa Diego-Vargas, Aurelia Vite-Reyes, Andrew P. Vovides and Angélica Cibrián-Jaramillo Tags: Research Source Type: research
Osteophageous insect damage on human bone from Je'reftheel, a Maya mortuary cave site in west ‐central Belize
This study represents the first detailed exploration of the effects of osteophageous insects on bones from the Maya area and thus expands on recent e fforts by other researchers working in the region to document taphonomic processes and distinguish them from intentional mortuary treatments. (Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology)
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - December 6, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Gabriel D. Wrobel, Jack Biggs Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Reconstructing the Deep Population History of Central and South America
We report genome-wide ancient DNA from 49 individuals forming four parallel time transects in Belize, Brazil, the Central Andes, and the Southern Cone, each dating to at least ∼9,000 years ago. The common ancestral population radiated rapidly from just one of the two early branches that contributed to Native Americans today. We document two previously unappreciated streams of gene flow between North and South America. One affected the Central Andes by ∼4,200 years ago, while the other explains an affinity between the oldest North American genome associated with the Clovis culture and the oldest Central and South Americ...
Source: Cell - November 9, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Salt and marine products in the Classic Maya economy from use-wear study of stone tools [Anthropology]
Microscopic study of the edges of Late to Terminal Classic Maya (AD 600–900) chert stone tools from the Paynes Creek Salt Works, Belize, indicates most tools were used for cutting fish or meat or working hide, which was unexpected, given the virtual absence of fish or other animal remains at... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 23, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Heather McKillop, Kazuo Aoyama Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research
Genetic diversity, infection prevalence, and possible transmission routes of < i > Bartonella < /i > spp. in vampire bats
by Daniel J. Becker, Laura M. Bergner, Alexandra B. Bentz, Richard J. Orton, Sonia Altizer, Daniel G. StreickerBartonella spp. are globally distributed bacteria that cause endocarditis in humans and domestic animals. Recent work has suggested bats as zoonotic reservoirs of some humanBartonella infections; however, the ecological and spatiotemporal patterns of infection in bats remain largely unknown. Here we studied the genetic diversity, prevalence of infection across seasons and years, individual risk factors, and possible transmission routes ofBartonella in populations of common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) in Peru ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 27, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Daniel J. Becker Source Type: research