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An update on biomarker discovery and use in systemic sclerosis.
Authors: Matsushita T, Takehara K Abstract INTRODUCTION: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by excessive extracellular matrix deposition in the skin and internal organs. Three major abnormalities, autoimmunity, vasculopathy, and fibrosis, are considered to play important roles in the pathophysiology of SSc. SSc is a heterogeneous disease with clinical features, disease progress, therapeutic response, and prognosis. Therefore, identification of biomarkers, which can predict the course of the disease, is required for the progress of clinical practice. Area covered: This review focuses on ...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - July 22, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Clonal analysis of regulatory T cell defect in patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 suggests intrathymic impairment
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology)
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology - July 22, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tuisku ‐Tuulia Koivula, Sini M. Laakso, Heikki J. Niemi, Eliisa Kekäläinen, Pia Laine, Lars Paulin, Petri Auvinen, T. Petteri Arstila Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research

Investigational therapies for the treatment of narcolepsy.
Authors: de Biase S, Nilo A, Gigli GL, Valente M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterized by a pentad of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, and disturbed nocturnal sleep. While non-pharmacological treatments are sometimes helpful, more than 90% of narcoleptic patients require a pharmacological treatment. Areas covered: The present review is based on an extensive Internet and PubMed search from 1994 to 2017. It is focused on drugs currently in development for the treatment of narcolepsy. Expert opinion: Currently t...
Source: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs - July 22, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Investig Drugs Source Type: research

Myo-inositol and selenium reduce the risk of developing overt hypothyroidism in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis.
Authors: Ferrari SM, Fallahi P, Di Bari F, Vita R, Benvenga S, Antonelli A Abstract OBJECTIVE: The beneficial effects obtained by myo-inositol in association with seleno-methionine in patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism have been recently demonstrated. Here, we evaluate the immune-modulating effect of myo-inositol in association with seleno-methionine in patients with euthyroid autoimmune thyroiditis (AT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-one consecutive Caucasian patients with newly diagnosed euthyroid chronic AT were evaluated. All subjects were treated with myo-inositol in association with selenium (...
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - July 22, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Inflammatory Joint Disorders and Neutrophilic Dermatoses: a Comprehensive Review
AbstractRheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis are inflammatory joint disorders with an autoimmune pathogenesis and systemic involvement. The skin is one of the most frequently affected extraarticular sites with a number of manifestations or distinct diseases, including common conditions, such as rheumatoid nodules and psoriasis, and rare diseases like neutrophilic dermatoses. The latter are clinically characterised by polymorphic lesions, including pustules, bullae, abscesses, papules, nodules, plaques and ulcers, and histologically by neutrophil-rich inflammatory infiltrates. Inflammatory joint disorders and neutroph...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 22, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Appearance of anti ‐desmocollin 1 autoantibodies leading to a vegetative lesion in a pemphigus vulgaris patient
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: British Journal of Dermatology)
Source: British Journal of Dermatology - July 22, 2017 Category: Dermatology Authors: Y. Yamaguchi, S. Shinkuma, N. Ishii, S. Takashima, K. Natsuga, H. Ujiie, H. Iwata, T. Nomura, Y. Fujita, A. Hamasaka, K. Hamasaka, T. Hashimoto, H. Shimizu Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research

One year in review 2017: systemic lupus erythematosus.
Authors: La Paglia GMC, Leone MC, Lepri G, Vagelli R, Valentini E, Alunno A, Tani C Abstract Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease that predominately affects women. It is characterised by a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, however, its course and organ involvement are unpredictable. Although over the last few decades an improvement in survival for SLE patients has been observed, pathogenic mechanisms underlying this disease are still unclear. Comorbidities, due to both disease and treatment, as well as multiple aspects of SLE, are under intensive investigation. Following the p...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology - July 21, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Tags: Clin Exp Rheumatol Source Type: research

Screening for hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity: Current recommendations
Publication date: March 2017 Source:Apollo Medicine, Volume 14, Issue 1 Author(s): Nikunjkumar Dadhaniya, Isha Sood, Abhishek Patil, Himanshu Aggarwal, Sundeep Kumar Upadhyaya, Rohini Handa, Sirinder Jit Gupta Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a commonly used drug for the treatment of various autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Though HCQ may be associated infrequently with systemic side effects, its long-term use is associated with retinal toxicity in some patients. Most patients with HCQ associated retinal toxicity are asymptomatic initially. Retinal toxicity if allowed to pers...
Source: Apollo Medicine - July 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Impact of hepatitis C virus infection on disease activity, functional status and ultrasonography findings in Egyptian rheumatoid arthritis patients
Conclusion Concomitant HCV infection in RA patients had an impact on disease activity. RA patients with concomitant HCV infection (RA/HCV) had higher DAS28 and MHAQ scores, with higher US7 synovitis scores compared to RA patients. US7 score is a valuable objective tool for the assessment of RA disease activity. (Source: The Egyptian Rheumatologist)
Source: The Egyptian Rheumatologist - July 21, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research

Calcitriol-mediated reduction in IFN- γ output in T cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia requires vitamin D receptor upregulation
Publication date: Available online 20 July 2017 Source:The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Author(s): M. Paige Kulling, C. Kristine Olson, L. Thomas Olson, E. Cait Hamele, N. Kathryn Carter, J. David Feith, P. Thomas Loughran Constitutively activated STAT1 and elevated IFN-γ are both characteristic of T cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia (T-LGLL), a rare incurable leukemia with clonal expansion of cytotoxic T cells due to defective apoptosis. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is an inflammatory cytokine that correlates with worse progression and symptomology in multiple autoimmune diseases a...
Source: The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - July 21, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Regulatory T ‐cell therapy in liver transplantation
Summary Modern immunosuppression drug regimens have produced excellent short‐term survival after liver transplantation but it is generally accepted that the side effects of these medications remain a significant contributing factor for less satisfactory long term outcomes. The liver has unique tolerogenic properties as evidenced by the higher rates of operational tolerance seen in liver transplant recipients compared to other solid organ transplants, and therefore, liver transplantation offers an attractive setting in which to study tolerizing therapies. CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial for maintena...
Source: Transplant International - July 21, 2017 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Gavin P. Whitehouse, Andrew Hope, Alberto Sanchez ‐Fueyo Tags: Review Source Type: research

Role of TGF- β in Self-Peptide Regulation of Autoimmunity
AbstractTransforming growth factor (TGF)- β has been implicated in regulation of the immune system, including autoimmunity. We have found that TGF-β is readily produced by T cells following immunization with self-peptide epitopes that downregulate autoimmune responses in type 1 diabetes (T1D) prone nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. These incl ude multiple peptide epitopes derived from the islet β-cell antigens GAD65 (GAD65 p202-221, GAD65 p217-236), GAD67 (GAD67 p210-229, GAD67 p225-244), IGRP (IGRP p123-145, IGRP p195-214) and insulin B-chain (Ins. B:9-23) that protected NOD mice from T1D. Immunization of NOD m...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - July 21, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Rare presentation of alopecia universalis congenita and twenty-nail dystrophy in siblings
We report a rare case of two siblings with alopecia universalis congenita with twenty-nail dystrophy. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first case to be reported with such association in both siblings. This case reports highlights the fact that alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease with a genetic predisposition as in our case both siblings had alopecia universalis and nail dystrophy. There was no evidence of any other ectodermal dyplasia and had normal teeth and seat glands. The skin biopsy ruled out congenital atrichia and was suggestive of alopecia areata. (Source: International Journal of Trichology)
Source: International Journal of Trichology - July 21, 2017 Category: Dermatology Authors: Debdeep Mitra Reetu Agarwal Ajay Chopra Renu Kandpal Source Type: research

In Vivo Enrichment of Diabetogenic T Cells
We describe a method to enrich and harvest autoimmune T cells in vivo by using a biomaterial scaffold loaded with protein antigens. In model antigen systems, we found that antigen-specific T cells become enriched within scaffolds containing their cognate antigens. When scaffolds containing lysates from an insulin-producing β-cell line were implanted subcutaneously in autoimmune diabetes–prone NOD mice, β-cell–reactive T cells homed to these scaffolds and became enriched. These T cells induced diabetes after adoptive transfer, indicating their pathogenicity. Furthermore, T-cell receptor (TCR) sequencin...
Source: Diabetes - July 21, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Thelin, M. A.; Kissler, S.; Vigneault, F.; Watters, A. L.; White, D.; Koshy, S. T.; Vermillion, S. A.; Mooney, D. J.; Serwold, T.; Ali, O. A. Tags: Immunology Immunology and Transplantation Source Type: research

Infection-mediated autoimmune movement disorders
Infectious diseases remain the most common cause of neurological disability in the world. A number of movement disorders can develop in adults and children in response to infections. These can occur in isolation or as part of a broader neurological illness, with movement abnormalities consequent to an encephalopathy or a broader brain dysfunction. While most infection-related movement disorders are direct consequences of an active infectious process affecting cerebral structures implied in the motor network, at times a delayed immune-mediated process in response to a previous infectious is responsible for the neurological ...
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Alberto Cucca, Hamzeh A. Migdadi, Alessandro Di Rocco Source Type: research

Longitudinal assessment of interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features is encouraged
We appreciate the interests expressed by Alberto Scir é et al. in our recent publication describing the phenotypic characteristics and natural history of a cohort of patients that fulfill classification criteria for interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) [1]. In their letter they suggest that the designation of IPAF may be a transient condition and that some patients that initially are classified as IPAF will evolve into a characterizable connective tissue disease (CTD). We agree and believe this should highlight the need for longitudinal surveillance for evolution to characterizable forms of CTD. (S...
Source: Respiratory Medicine - July 21, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sandra Chartrand, Joyce S. Lee, Aryeh Fischer Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Is Parkinson's Disease an Autoimmune Disease? Where the Research Is Leading
No abstract available (Source: Neurology Today)
Source: Neurology Today - July 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Features Source Type: research

Progressive hippocampal sclerosis after viral encephalitis: potential role of NMDA receptor antibodies
Conclusion This case series presents the first tentative evidence in support of chronic autoimmune inflammation driving disease progression after viral encephalitis beyond the known acute immune-mediated relapses. The anecdotal nature of the data does not, however, permit conclusive judgement on causality.;1;1; Should our findings be replicated in larger cohorts, the treatment of post-infectious epilepsy could potentially be expanded to include immunosuppressive strategies in antibody-positive cases. (Source: Seizure)
Source: Seizure - July 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Vaccination and autoimmune diseases: is prevention of adverse health effects on the horizon?
AbstractAutoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes mellitus, affect about 5% of the worldwide population. In the last decade, reports have accumulated on various autoimmune disorders, such as idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura, myopericarditis, primary ovarian failure, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), following vaccination. In this review, we discuss the possible underlying mechanisms of autoimmune reactions following vaccinations and review cases of autoimmune diseases that have been correlated with vaccination. Molecular mimicry and bystander activation are reported as possible mechanis...
Source: EPMA Journal - July 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Cholangiocytes: Cell transplantation
Conclusions Transplantation of adult hepatocytes showed transient benefits but requires immune-suppression that is a major pitfall in patients with advanced liver diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells transplanted into patients with liver diseases are not able to replace resident hepatocytes but, rather they target autoimmune or inflammatory processes into the liver. Stem cells isolated from fetal or adult liver have been recently proposed as an alternative cell sources for advanced liver cirrhosis and metabolic liver disease. We demonstrated the presence of multipotent cells expressing a variety of...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Basis of Disease - July 20, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of NLRP1 mediated autoinflammatory disease in humans and mice
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2017 Source:Journal of Molecular Biology Author(s): Chien-Hsiung Yu, Jonas Moecking, Matthias Geyer, Seth L. Masters NLRP1 was the first NLR protein described to form an inflammasome, recruiting ASC to activate caspase-1, which processes interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 to their active form. A wealth of new genetic information has now redefined our understanding of this innate immune sensor. Specifically, rare loss-of-function variants in the N-terminal pyrin domain (PYD) indicate that this part of NLRP1 is autoinhibitory, and normally acts to prevent a familial autoinflamm...
Source: Journal of Molecular Biology - July 20, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

BPAG1 in muscles: structure and function in skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle
Publication date: Available online 20 July 2017 Source:Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology Author(s): Masao Horie, Nozomu Yoshioka, Hirohide Takebayashi BPAG1, also known as Dystonin or BP230, belongs to the plakin family of proteins, which has multiple cytoskeleton-binding domains. Several BPAG1 isoforms are produced by a single BPAG1 genomic locus using different promoters and exons. For example, BPAG1a, BPAG1b, and BPAG1e are predominantly expressed in the nervous system, muscle, and skin, respectively. Among BPAG1 isoforms, BPAG1e is well studied because it was first identified as an autoantigen in patien...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - July 20, 2017 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Diagnosis and management of diabetes in older people
Abstract The incidence of diabetes has plateaued since 2004, although the prevalence continues to rise. The highest incidence is in people over the age of 70 years, most of whom have type 2 diabetes; a minority have type 1, which can present at any age. Type 1 diabetes may present more slowly in older people, a condition sometimes known as latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). Older people with diabetes have more than double the risk of cardiovascular disease compared to their non‐diabetic peers, and the risk of diabetes‐related major lower limb amputation is twice as high in those over 75 years compared with th...
Source: Practical Diabetes - July 20, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Anne Kilvert, Charles Fox Tags: Review Source Type: research

Autoimmune Liver Disease in Children with Sickle Cell Disease
To assess the incidence, clinical features, and outcome of autoimmune liver disease (AILD) in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 20, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Suttiruk Jitraruch, Emer Fitzpatrick, Maesha Deheragoda, Annamaria Deganello, Giorgina Mieli-Vergani, Susan Height, David Rees, Nedim Hadzic, Marianne Samyn Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Hepcidin And Metallothioneins As Molecular Base For Sex-Dependent Differences In Clinical Course Of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Chronic Iron Overload
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system characterised by inflammatory and degenerative changes. It is considered that disease arises from the influence of environmental factors on genetically susceptible individuals. Recent researches, using magnetic resonance imaging, connected iron deposits in different brain regions with demyelinating process in multiple sclerosis patients. Although iron is an essential trace element important for many biological functions it could be harmful because iron excess can induce the production of reactive oxygen species, development of oxidative str...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 20, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Bo žena Ćurko-Cofek, Tanja Grubić Kezele, Vesna Barac-Latas Source Type: research

L-form bacteria cohabitants in human blood: significance for health and diseases.
Authors: Markova ND Abstract From a historical perspective, intriguing assumptions about unknown "live units" in human blood have attracted the attention of researchers, reflecting their desire to define a new class of microorganisms. Thus, the concept of "blood microbiota" brings about many questions about the nature, origin, and biological significance of the "unusual microbial cohabitants" in human blood. In contrast to current views that bloodstream in healthy humans is sterile, the hypothesis about the existence of microbes as L-forms (cell wall deficient bacteria) in human blood ...
Source: Discovery Medicine - July 19, 2017 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

The IL –10/STAT3 axis: Contributions to immune tolerance by thymus and peripherally derived regulatory T‐cells
The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins are important mediators for the integration of extrinsic signals provided by cytokines and hormones and thereby adapt cellular processes to their surroundings. In the past decade, the involvement of STAT3 in the regulation of T‐cell responses has become a topic of increasing interest. STAT3 is activated in response to multiple cytokines, many of which have been shown to influence T‐cell responses. Interestingly, many of these factors have been described with apparent opposing roles, such as the highly pro–inflammatory potency of IL–6 and t...
Source: European Journal of Immunology - July 19, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Klaus G. Schmetterer, Winfried F. Pickl Tags: Review Source Type: research

The effect of tocilizumab on clinical signs and laboratory findings in rheumatoid arthritis patients resistant to methotrexate
AbstractRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease that mainly affects joint damage followed by increased morbidity and mortality rates. The progressive increase of inflammation factors, especially IL-6, is seen during the course of this condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tocilizumab (TCZ) in patients with severe to moderate resistant RA with an inadequate response to treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). We also reviewed the safety of the drug and related complications. Twelve selected RA patients received 8  mg/kg of TCZ every ...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - July 19, 2017 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The peritoneum: healing, immunity and diseases
Abstract The peritoneum defines a confined microenvironment, which is stable under normal conditions, but is exposed to the damaging effect of infections, surgical injuries, and other neoplastic and non‐neoplastic events. Its response to damage includes the recruitment, proliferation and activation of a variety of haematopoietic and stromal cells. In physiologic conditions, effective responses to injuries are organized, inflammatory triggers are eliminated, inflammation quickly abates, and the normal tissue architecture is restored. However, if inflammatory triggers are not cleared, fibrosis or scarring occur and impaire...
Source: The Journal of Pathology - July 19, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Annalisa Capobianco, Lucia Cottone, Antonella Monno, Angelo A. Manfredi, Patrizia Rovere ‐Querini Tags: Review Source Type: research

Induction of experimental autoimmune orchitis in mice: responses to elevated circulating levels of the activin-binding protein, follistatin
Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is a rodent model of chronic testicular inflammation that mimics the pathology observed in some types of human infertility. In a previous study, testicular expression of the inflammatory/immunoregulatory cytokine, activin A, was elevated in adult mice during the onset of EAO, indicating a potential role in the regulation of the disease. Consequently, we examined the development of EAO in mice with elevated levels of follistatin, an endogenous activin antagonist, as a potential therapeutic approach to testicular inflammation. Prior to EAO induction, mice received a single intramuscular...
Source: Reproduction - July 19, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Nicolas, N., Muir, J. A., Hayward, S., Chen, J. L., Stanton, P. G., Gregorevic, P., de Kretser, D. M., Loveland, K. L., Bhushan, S., Meinhardt, A., Fijak, M., Hedger, M. P. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Gastrin-releasing peptide and its receptor increase arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes invasiveness through activating the PI3K/AKT pathway
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2017 Source:Peptides Author(s): Vanessa Schuck Clarimundo, Mirian Farinon, Renata Ternus Pedó, Vivian Oliveira Nunes Teixeira, Carolina Nör, Percio S. Gulko, Ricardo Machado Xavier, Patricia Gnieslaw de Oliveira Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that leads to joint destruction. The fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) has a central role on the disease pathophysiology. The present study aimed to examine the role of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor (GRPR) on invasive behavior of mice fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), as well as to evalua...
Source: Peptides - July 19, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

The role of sleep in pemphigus: a review of mechanisms and perspectives
AbstractPemphigus is an autoimmune bullous disease that causes the development of blisters and erosions on the skin and/or mucosa. Its inflammatory process is mediated by cytokines, which interact with sleep in a bidirectional manner. Pain, a frequent symptom due to pemphigus lesions, is well known to impair sleep quality. Depression is also associated with pemphigus and pro-inflammatory cytokines and may impair sleep. Additionally, a common relationship among other dermatological diseases and sleep has increasingly been described. Poor sleep quality is associated with an increased risk for autoimmune diseases, and insomni...
Source: Archives of Dermatological Research - July 19, 2017 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Role of the Long Non ‐Coding RNA GAS5 in Glucocorticoid Response in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 19, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Marianna Lucaf ò, Alessia Di Silvestre, Maurizio Romano, Alice Avian, Roberta Antonelli, Stefano Martelossi, Samuele Naviglio, Alberto Tommasini, Gabriele Stocco, Alessandro Ventura, M D Giuliana Decorti, Sara De Iudicibus Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Sustained benefit from combined plasmapheresis and allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells transplantation therapy in systemic sclerosis
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease involving the skin and several internal organs. Most therapies available for this disease are symptomatic. Given the difficulty in treating SSc, we conducted t... (Source: Arthritis Research and Therapy)
Source: Arthritis Research and Therapy - July 19, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Huayong Zhang, Jun Liang, Xiaojun Tang, Dandan Wang, Xuebing Feng, Fan Wang, Bingzhu Hua, Hong Wang and Lingyun Sun Source Type: research

Genetic deficiency of Wnt5a diminishes disease severity in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the joints, leading to bone erosion and joint dysfunction. Despite the recent successes of disease-modifying an... (Source: Arthritis Research and Therapy)
Source: Arthritis Research and Therapy - July 19, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Susan MacLauchlan, Maria A. Zuriaga, Jos é J. Fuster, Carla M. Cuda, Jennifer Jonason, Fernanda Behzadi, Jennifer Parker Duffen, G. Kenneth Haines III, Tamar Aprahamian, Harris Perlman and Kenneth Walsh Source Type: research

Pathogenic roles of CXCL10 signaling through CXCR3 and TLR4 in macrophages and T cells: relevance for arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by uncontrolled joint inflammation and destruction of bone and cartilage. We previously reported that C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10; a... (Source: Arthritis Research and Therapy)
Source: Arthritis Research and Therapy - July 19, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Jong-Ho Lee, Bongjun Kim, Won Jong Jin, Hong-Hee Kim, Hyunil Ha and Zang Hee Lee Source Type: research

[Research Articles] The microvascular niche instructs T cells in large vessel vasculitis via the VEGF-Jagged1-Notch pathway
We report that adventitial microvascular endothelial cells (mvECs) perform immunoregulatory functions by up-regulating the expression of the Notch ligand Jagged1. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), abundantly present in GCA patients’ blood, induced Jagged1 expression, allowing mvECs to regulate effector T cell induction via the Notch–mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1) pathway. We found that circulating CD4 T cells in GCA patients have left the quiescent state, actively signal through the Notch pathway, and differentiate into TH1 and TH17 effector cells. In an in vivo model of large vessel ...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - July 19, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Wen, Z., Shen, Y., Berry, G., Shahram, F., Li, Y., Watanabe, R., Liao, Y. J., Goronzy, J. J., Weyand, C. M. Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Mucosal ‐associated invariant (MAIT) cells are deficient in systemic sclerosis
ConclusionWe demonstrate that in SSc the frequencies and absolute numbers of MAIT and γδ T cells are significantly reduced in comparison to healthy controls. MAIT and γδ T cells did not correlate with C‐reactive protein, BNP, pulmonary involvement or median skin fibrosis scale, steroid amount or disease duration. In addition, MAIT and γδ T cells decrease did not stratify with gender, interstitial lung disease or active digital ulcers. Functional studies are necessary to determine the signification of MAIT cells decrease in systemic sclerosis.This article is protected by copyright. All ...
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology - July 18, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ars ène Mekinian, Thibaut Mahevas, Mohamad Mohty, Vincent Jachiet, Sébastien Rivière, Olivier Fain, Béatrice Gaugler Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research

Readability of Wikipedia Pages on Autoimmune Disorders: Systematic Quantitative Assessment
Conclusions: Wikipedia pages related to autoimmune disorders are characterized by a low level of readability. The onus is, therefore, on physicians and health authorities to improve the health literacy skills of patients and their families and to create, together with patients themselves, disease-specific readable sites, disseminating highly accessible health-related online information, in terms of both clarity and conciseness. (Source: Journal of Medical Internet Research)
Source: Journal of Medical Internet Research - July 18, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Abdulla Watad Nicola Luigi Bragazzi Francesco Brigo Kassem Sharif Howard Amital Dennis McGonagle Yehuda Shoenfeld Mohammad Adawi Source Type: research

De Novo HHV ‐8 tumors induced by rituximab in autoimmune or inflammatory systemic diseases
Conclusions: Patients with high skin phototype and at risk for HHV‐8 have to be carefully screened for HHV‐8 before rituximab therapy. Safety of rituximab especially in non‐lymphomatous disorders has to be carefully evaluated in patients at risk for HHV‐8 tumors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)
Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism - July 18, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Amandine Perier, L éa Savey, Anne‐Geneviève Marcelin, Philippe Serve, David Saadoun, Stéphane Barete Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

The Significance of Antibodies against Domain I of Beta-2 Glycoprotein I in Antiphospholipid Syndrome
Semin Thromb Hemost DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1601329The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by vascular thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity with the persistent presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs). Progress is being made in understanding the pathogenesis of the syndrome, but difficulties persist in the identification of patients at risk for thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity. Beta-2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI), a plasma protein consisting of five sushi domains, is thought to be the main antigenic target of aPLs. Antibodies recognizing domain I of β2GPI are predominantly present in patients with ...
Source: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis - July 18, 2017 Category: Hematology Authors: Kelchtermans, Hilde Chayou â, Walid Laat, Bas de Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

IgLON5 antibody: Neurological accompaniments and outcomes in 20 patients
Conclusions: IgLON5-IgG is diagnostic of a potentially treatable neurological disorder, where autoimmune clues are otherwise lacking. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - July 18, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Honorat, J. A., Komorowski, L., Josephs, K. A., Fechner, K., St Louis, E. K., Hinson, S. R., Lederer, S., Kumar, N., Gadoth, A., Lennon, V. A., Pittock, S. J., McKeon, A. Tags: Autoimmune diseases, All Movement Disorders, Parasomnias, Sleep apnea Article Source Type: research

IgG4-related disease and IgG4-mediated neurological autoimmune disorders: One and the same?
We recently read with great interest the short communication published by Raibagkar et al. (2017) in the Journal. They reported a patient with anti-muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) myasthenia gravis (MG) associated with lymphadenopathy histopathologically consistent with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). At the end of their communication, they concluded with a series of questions. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 18, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Guillermo Delgado-Garc ía, Teresa Corona-Vázquez Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Introducing treat-to-target strategies of autoimmune extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus infection.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is recognized as one of the hepatic viruses most often associated with extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs). It is currently accepted that cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV) is the key autoimmune extrahepatic disease associated with HCV infection. Therapeutic approaches have mainly been based on the use of old antiviral interferon (IFN)-based regimens and immunosuppressive therapies, often with an inadequate balance between therapeutic benefits and excess side effects. AREAS COVERED. Therapeutic management of HCV patients with EHMs, including both non-autoimmune (card...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - July 18, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Retamozo S, Brito-Zeron P, Quartuccio L, De Vita S, Ramos-Casals M Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Serum Neuroinflammatory Disease-Induced Central Nervous System Proteins Predict Clinical Onset of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Itay Raphael, Johanna Webb, Francisco Gomez-Rivera, Carol A. Chase Huizar, Rishein Gupta, Bernard P. Arulanandam, Yufeng Wang, William E. Haskins, Thomas G. Forsthuber (Source: Frontiers in Immunology)
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - July 17, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

[Manifestations of autoimmune disorders in otorhinolaryngology : Classical symptoms and diagnostic approach].
Authors: Hofauer B, Chaker A, Thürmel K, Knopf A Abstract Manifestations of autoimmune disorders represent a diagnostic challenge. Many autoimmune disorders show typical manifestations in the ear, nose and throat and should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis. Sjogren's syndrome, various vasculitides and sarcoidosis represent the most common autoimmune disorders in otorhinolaryngology, but IgG4-related diseases, relapsing polychondritis and autoimmune disorders of the mucosa are also observed. Autoimmune diseases can lead to sensorineural deficits. Both hypo- and hyperthyroidism can be cau...
Source: HNO - July 17, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: HNO Source Type: research

β‐catenin regulation of farnesoid X receptor signaling and bile acid metabolism during murine cholestasis
Conclusion: We have identified a novel FXR/β‐catenin interaction whose modulation via β‐catenin suppression promotes FXR activation and decreases hepatic BA, which may provide unique therapeutic opportunities in cholestatic liver diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Hepatology)
Source: Hepatology - July 17, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Michael D. Thompson, Akshata Moghe, Pamela Cornuet, Rebecca Marino, Jianmin Tian, Pengcheng Wang, Xiaochao Ma, Marc Abrams, Joseph Locker, Satdarshan P. S. Monga, Kari Nejak ‐Bowen Tags: Autoimmune, Cholestatic and Biliary Disease Source Type: research

MiR-30a Positively Regulates the Inflammatory Response of Microglia in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a classical inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia are the main resident immune cells in the CNS and are closely associated with the pathogenesis of MS. In the present study, we found that miR-30a was highly expressed in jellyfish-like microglia in chronic active lesions of MS patients, as well as in the microglia of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) at the chronic phase.In vitro, the conditioned supernatant of mouse microglia overexpressing miR-30a promoted the apoptosis of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and inhi...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - July 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Alopecia Areata: a Comprehensive Review of Pathogenesis and Management
AbstractAlopecia areata is a common hair loss condition that is characterized by acute onset of non-scarring hair loss in usually sharply defined areas ranging from small patches to extensive or less frequently diffuse involvement. Depending on its acuity and extent, hair loss is an important cause of anxiety and disability. The current understanding is that the condition represents an organ-specific autoimmune disease of the hair follicle with a genetic background. Genome-wide association studies provide evidence for the involvement of both innate and acquired immunity in the pathogenesis, and mechanistic studies in mouse...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 17, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Risk of coronary artery disease in celiac disease population
Conclusions: The prevalence of CAD increased nearly two-fold in patients with CD. (Source: The Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: The Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology - July 17, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Rama D Gajulapalli Deepak J Pattanshetty Source Type: research