Multicenter evaluation of the new QIAstat Gastrointestinal Panel for the rapid syndromic testing of acute gastroenteritis
AbstractIn acute gastroenteritis (AGE), identification of the infectious agent is important for patient management. Since symptoms do not reliably identify the agent, microbiological diagnostics are important. Conventional methods lack sensitivity and often take days. Multiplex PCR panels offer fast and sensitive alternatives. Our aim was to assess the performance of the new QIAstat Gastrointestinal Panel (GIP) detecting 24 different gastroenteric pathogens from stool in Cary-Blair transport medium (Adenovirus F 40/41, Astrovirus, Norovirus GI/GII, Rotavirus A, Sapovirus,Campylobacter spp.,Clostridium difficile,Plesiomonas...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Specific detection of the novel goose astrovirus using a TaqMan real-time RT-PCR technology
In this study, we developed a TaqMan-based real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay for the detection of N-GoAstV infection. After the optimization of the qRT-PCR assay conditions, the results demonstrated that the lower limit of detection for N-GoAstV was 33.4 copies/μL. No cross-reactivity was observed with other goose-origin viruses. Intra-assay and inter-assay variability were ≤1.36% and 2.34%, respectively. N-GoAstV was detected in both field samples, embryos and newly hatched goslings by qRT-PCR assay, provided the view that N-GoAstV may be both horizontally and vertically transmitted. The established qRT-PCR method sh...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - October 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Development and application of a multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of feline panleukopenia virus, feline bocavirus, and feline astrovirus
AbstractA multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay was developed to detect and distinguish feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline bocavirus (FBoV) and feline astrovirus (FeAstV). Three pairs of primers were designed based on conserved regions in the genomic sequences of the three viruses and were used to specifically amplify targeted fragments of 237 bp from the VP2 gene of FPV, 465 bp from the NP1 gene of FBoV and 645 bp from the RdRp gene of FeAstV. The results showed that this mPCR assay was effective, because it could detect at least 2.25-4.04 × 104 copies of genomic DNA of the three viruses per μl, ...
Source: Archives of Virology - September 30, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Involvement of Egyptian Foods in Foodborne Viral Illnesses: The Burden on Public Health and Related Environmental Risk Factors: An Overview
AbstractFoodborne viral diseases are a major public health threat and pose a huge burden on the economies of both developed and developing countries. Enteric viruses are the causative agents of most foodborne illnesses and outbreaks. Egypt is classified by WHO among the regions with intermediate to high endemicity for various enteric viruses. This is manifested by the high prevalence rates of different enteric virus infections among Egyptian population such as Hepatitis A and E viruses, human rotaviruses, human noroviruses, human astroviruses, and human adenovirus. Recently, a number of foodborne gastroenteritis and acute ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - September 27, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A novel method to rescue and culture duck Astrovirus type 1 in vitro
Reverse genetics systems enable the manipulation of viral genomes and therefore serve as robust reverse genetic tools to study RNA viruses. A DNA-launched rescue system initiates the transcription of viral gen... (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - September 5, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Ruihua Zhang, Jingjing Lan, Haie Li, Junhao Chen, Yupeng Yang, Shaoli Lin, Zhijing Xie and Shijin Jiang Tags: Research Source Type: research

Multicenter Clinical Validation of the Molecular BD Max Enteric Viral Panel for Detection of Enteric Pathogens [Virology]
The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the BD Max enteric viral panel (Max EVP) assay for identification of viral pathogens in stool specimens from individuals with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis, enteritis, or colitis. Prospective and archival stool specimens from adult and pediatric patients with diarrhea were collected in Cary-Blair medium or unpreserved containers. The results for specimens tested by the Max EVP (on the BD Max platform) were compared to those obtained by the reference method (alternate PCR assays, followed by bidirectional sequencing). Positive percent agreement (PPA) and neg...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - August 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Stokes, W., Simner, P. J., Mortensen, J., Oethinger, M., Stellrecht, K., Lockamy, E., Lay, T., Bouchy, P., Pillai, D. R. Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Characterization of Norovirus and Other Human Enteric Viruses in Sewage and Stool Samples Through Next-Generation Sequencing
This study aimed to optimize a method to identify human enteric viruses in sewage and stool samples using random primed next-generation sequencing. We tested three methods, two employed virus enrichment based on the binding properties of the viral capsid using pig-mucin capture or by selecting viral RNA prior to library preparation through a capture using the SureSelect target enrichment. The third method was based on a non-specific biophysical precipitation with polyethylene glycol. Full genomes of a number of common human enteric viruses including norovirus, rotavirus, husavirus, enterovirus and astrovirus were obtained....
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - August 24, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Occurrence and molecular characterization of enteric viruses in bivalve shellfish marketed in Vietnam
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): E. Suffredini, Q.H. Le, S. Di Pasquale, T.D. Pham, T. Vicenza, M. Losardo, K.A. To, D. De MediciAbstractViral contamination of bivalve molluscs is an extensively document food safety issue. Limited data are available, however, on the prevalence and quantitative levels of such viruses in countries, as Vietnam, with an important shellfish production, both for internal consumption and for export. The aim of this study was to evaluate both the occurrence and the quantitative levels of different viruses, including Norovirus (NoV genogroups I, II and...
Source: Food Control - August 21, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Genes, Vol. 10, Pages 625: Viral Sequences Detection by High-Throughput Sequencing in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Individuals with and without Central Nervous System Disease
Lenggenhager Cordey Kaiser : Meningitis, encephalitis, and myelitis are various forms of acute central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, which can coexist and lead to serious sequelae. Known aetiologies include infections and immune-mediated processes. Despite advances in clinical microbiology over the past decades, the cause of acute CNS inflammation remains unknown in approximately 50% of cases. High-throughput sequencing was performed to search for viral sequences in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected from 26 patients considered to have acute CNS inflammation of unknown origin, and 10 patients wit...
Source: Genes - August 19, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Schibler Brito Zanella Zdobnov Laubscher L ’Huillier Ambrosioni Wagner Posfay-Barbe Docquier Schiffer Savoldelli Fournier Lenggenhager Cordey Kaiser Tags: Article Source Type: research

Establishment of a Simultaneous Detection Method for Ten Duck Viruses Using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry.
In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used for simultaneous detection and genotyping of ten viruses in duck, including Duck hepatitis A virus 1 (DHAV-1), DHAV-3, Duck astrovirus 1 (DAstV-1), DAstV-2, Duck reovirus 1 (DRV-1), DRV-2, Tembusu virus (TMUV), Avian influenza virus (AIV), Goose parvovirus (GPV) and Duck enteritis virus (DEV). The low detection limits of this proposed method for ten duck viruses ranged from 1.3 copies/μl to 7.8 copies/μl. The novel detection method with high sensitivity, good specificity and high throughput has the pote...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - August 17, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Liu N, Wang L, Cai G, Zhang D, Lin J Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

A novel astrovirus identified in wild rhesus monkey feces in China
AbstractThe discovery and analysis of pathogens carried by non-human primates are important for understanding zoonotic infections in humans. We identified a highly divergent astrovirus (AstV) from fecal matter from a rhesus monkey in China, which has been tentatively named “monkey-feces-associated AstV” (MkAstV). The full-length genome of MkAstV was determined to be 7377 nt in length. It exhibits the standard genomic AstV organization of three open reading frames (ORFs) and is most closely related to duck AstV (28%, 49%, and 35% amino acid sequence identity in ORF 1a, ORF1b, and ORF2, respectively). Coincidenta...
Source: Archives of Virology - August 3, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

High genetic diversity and recombination events of porcine astrovirus strains identified from ill and asymptomatic pigs in 2017, Hunan Province, China
AbstractAstroviruses (AstV) are associated with enteric and systemic disease in mammals and birds. Astroviruses have received increased attention recently as they have been found to be associated with sporadic neurologic disease in mammals including humans. In pigs, porcine astrovirus (PoAstV) can be widely detected and has been grouped in five genotypes (PoAstV1 to PoAstV5). In the present study, we detected multiple PoAstVs in serum samples, nasal swabs, and fecal swabs collected from pigs suffering from respiratory disease or diarrhea but also from asymptomatic pigs, indicating a wide tissue tropism of the identified Po...
Source: Virus Genes - August 1, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 707: Molecular Evolution of Classic Human Astrovirus, as Revealed by the Analysis of the Capsid Protein Gene
Wang Classic human astroviruses (HAstV) are major global viral agents for gastroenteritis, but the molecular characteristics of classic HAstVs are not well understood. Here, we presented the molecular evolution of all classic HAstV serotypes by the analysis of the capsid protein sequences. Our results show that classic HAstVs can be divided into four groups with the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of 749. The overall evolutionary rate of classic HAstVs on the capsid gene was 4.509×10−4 substitutions/site/year, and most of the serotypes present a clock-like evolution with an amino acid ...
Source: Viruses - August 1, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Zhou Zhou Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 2588: Detection of Hepatitis A Virus and Other Enteric Viruses in Shellfish Collected in the Gulf of Naples, Italy
This study demonstrates the presence of different enteric viruses within bivalve mollusks, highlighting the limitations of the current EU classification system for shellfish growing waters. (Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - July 19, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Fusco Anastasio Kingsley Amoroso Pepe Fratamico Cioffi Rossi Rosa Boccia Tags: Article Source Type: research

Development of a novel DNA based reverse genetic system for classic human astroviruses.
S, Arias CF Abstract Human astroviruses (HAstVs) are a frequent cause of gastroenteritis in young children and immunocompromised patients. The current report describes a new approach to recover genetically defined HAstVs through the use of a reverse genetics system based on a single DNA plasmid. This plasmid, carrying the full-length virus genome under a T7 promoter, is directly transfected into cells expressing T7 RNA polymerase, resulting in the rapid and robust recovery of infectious HAstV. The efficiency of the system was tested with the generation of a chimeric astrovirus having the HAstV serotype 1 replicati...
Source: Virology - July 4, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Sandoval-Jaime C, Guzmán-Ruiz L, López S, Arias CF Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 585: Novel Human Astroviruses: Prevalence and Association with Common Enteric Viruses in Undiagnosed Gastroenteritis Cases in Spain
In conclusion, common enteric viruses may be frequently found in children with undiagnosed gastroenteritis, indicating the need to implement more sensitive diagnostic methods. Novel astroviruses circulate in the community and could be the cause of gastroenteritis among young children. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - June 27, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Diem-Lan Vu Aurora Sabri à Nuria Aregall Kristina Michl Virginia Rodriguez Garrido Lidia Goterris Albert Bosch Rosa Maria Pint ó Susana Guix Tags: Article Source Type: research

Novel encephalomyelitis-associated astrovirus in a muskox (Ovibos moschatus): a surprise from the archives
The small, single-stranded positive-sense RNA astroviruses are mostly known to be enteric viruses. In recent years, though, different astroviruses were reported in association with neurological disease in vari... (Source: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica)
Source: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica - June 24, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: C éline Louise Boujon, Michel Christoph Koch, Ronja Véronique Kauer, Elsbeth Keller-Gautschi, Melanie Michaela Hierweger, Stefan Hoby and Torsten Seuberlich Tags: Research Source Type: research

Prevalence of Enteropathogens in Outpatients with Acute Diarrhea from Urban and Rural Areas, Southeast China, 2010-2014.
Abstract Acute diarrhea is an important public health issue. Here, we focused on the differences of enteropathogens in acute diarrhea between urban and rural areas in southeast China. Laboratory- and sentinel-based surveillance of acute diarrhea (≥ 3 loose or liquid stools/24 hours) was conducted at 16 hospitals. Fecal specimens were tested for bacterial (Aeromonas sp., Campylobacter sp., diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Plesiomonas shigelloides, non-typhoidal Salmonella, Shigella sp., Vibrio sp., and Yersinia sp.) and viral (adenovirus, astrovirus, Norovirus, Rotavirus, and Sapovirus) pathogens. Descriptive sta...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - June 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chen C, Wang LP, Yu JX, Chen X, Wang RN, Yang XZ, Zheng SF, Yu F, Zhang ZK, Liu SJ, Li ZJ, Chen Y Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Identification and genetic characterization of a porcine hepe-astrovirus (bastrovirus) in the United States
AbstractHere we describe the identification and genetic characterization of a porcine hepe-astrovirus, or bastrovirus, obtained from feces from pigs in the United States. The genome of the new bastrovirus is 5,955 nt long and contains two open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a protein containing three domains, viral methyltransferase, RNA helicase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and is closely related to the RdRp of hepatitis E virus. The ORF2 protein shares similarities with the astrovirus capsid precursor protein. Although structural features of bastroviruses may resemble those of astroviruses, distinct char...
Source: Archives of Virology - June 7, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The First Case of Bovine Astrovirus-Associated Encephalitis in the Southern Hemisphere (Uruguay), Uncovers Evidence of Viral Introduction to the Americas From Europe
Astrovirus species members of the Mamastrovirus genus (family Astroviridae) have been increasingly recognized as neuroinvasive pathogens in various mammals, including humans, mink, cattle, sheep, and pigs. While cases of astrovirus-associated encephalitis have been reported in North America, Europe and Asia, their presence has never been documented in the Southern hemisphere. This paper describes a case of astrovirus-associated encephalitis in cattle in Uruguay that broadens the geographic distribution and genetic diversity of neuroinvasive astroviruses and provides phylogeographic evidence of viral introduction to the Ame...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - June 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Astrovirus and the microbiome
Publication date: August 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 37Author(s): Valerie Cortez, Elisa Margolis, Stacey Schultz-CherryAlthough astroviruses are most commonly associated with acute gastrointestinal illness in humans, their ability to infect a broad range of hosts and cause a spectrum of disease makes them widespread and complex pathogens. The precise mechanisms that dictate the course of astrovirus disease have not been studied extensively but are likely driven by multifactorial host–microbe interactions. Recent insights from studies of animal astrovirus infections have revealed both beneficial an...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - June 2, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Interlaboratory Comparative Study to Detect Potentially Infectious Human Enteric Viruses in Influent and Effluent Waters
In this study, we evaluated a protocol based on aluminum adsorption –precipitation to concentrate several human enteric viruses, including norovirus genogroup I (NoV GI), NoV GII, hepatitis A virus (HAV), astrovirus (HAstV), and rotavirus (RV), with limits of detection of 4.08, 4.64, 5.46 log genomic copies (gc)/L, 3.31, and 5.41 log PCR units (PCRU)/L, respectiv ely. Furthermore, the method was applied in two independent laboratories to monitor the presence of NoV GI, NoV GII, and HAV in effluent and influent waters collected from five WWTPs at two different sampling dates. Concomitantly, a viability PMAxx-RT-q...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - June 1, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Investigation of suspected Newcastle disease (ND) outbreaks in Egypt uncovers a high virus velogenic ND virus burden in small-scale holdings and the presence of multiple pathogens.
In this study we aimed to verify clinical ND suspicions in poultry holdings in Egypt suffering from respiratory distress and elevated mortality, comparing two groups of ND-vaccinated poultry holdings in three governorates. Besides testing for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), samples were screened for infectious bronchits virus (IBV) and avian influenza virus (AIV) by RT-qPCR as well as by non-directed cell-culture approach on LMH-cells. Virulent NDV was confirmed only in group A (n = 16) comprising small-scale holdings. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein gene of 11 NDV-positive samples obtained from th...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 15, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Moharam I, Razik AAE, Sultan H, Ghezlan M, Meseko C, Franzke K, Harder T, Beer M, Grund C Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 1573: Molecular Detection and Epidemiological Features of Selected Bacterial, Viral, and Parasitic Enteropathogens in Stool Specimens from Children with Acute Diarrhea in Thi-Qar Governorate, Iraq
This study aims to investigate the occurrences and epidemiology of selected bacterial (Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp.), viral (adenovirus, norovirus GI and GII, and astrovirus), and parasitic (Entamoeba spp. and Giardia spp.) agents in stool samples from 155 child diarrheal cases enrolled between March and August 2017, in a hospital-based cross-sectional study in Thi-Qar, southeastern Iraq. Using molecular techniques and sequence-based characterization, adenovirus was the most frequently detected enteropathogen (53/155 (34.2%)), followed by Salmonella spp. (23/155 (14.8%)), Entamoeba spp. (21/155 (13.5%)), and Camp...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - May 6, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Ali Harb Sam Abraham Bertha Rusdi Tanya Laird Mark O ’Dea Ihab Habib Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viral agents of gastroenteritis and their correlation with clinical symptoms in rotavirus-vaccinated children.
CONCLUSIONS: The diarrhea severity reduction in children provides evidence that the rotavirus vaccination program in the northwest of Mexico has been successful, even among children infected by the rotavirus emergent strain G12, however, norovirus resulted as the leading severe gastroenteritis-causing agent in children with rotavirus vaccine. PMID: 31063865 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution)
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - May 4, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Quintero-Ochoa G, Romero-Argüelles R, Aviles-Hernández A, Cejudo-Flores M, Calleja-García P, Domínguez-Gámez M, Cantú-Bernal S, Icedo-García R, Soñanez-Organis J, Rosas-Rodríguez J, Romo-Saenz C, Tamez-Guerra P, Flores-Mendoza L, González-Ochoa Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

[Acute Viral Gastroenteritis: Viruses Other Than Norovirus].
Abstract Acute Viral Gastroenteritis: Viruses Other Than Norovirus Abstract. Norovirus is the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis. Norovirus is highly contagious, thus outbreaks of norovirus in hospitals and long-term care facilities are feared. Usually, stool samples of patients with a potentially viral gastroenteritis are first checked for the presence of norovirus. In recent years, sapovirus and astrovirus were increasingly reported as cause of acute gastroenteritis. Outbreaks of acute viral gastroenteritis caused by sapovirus or astrovirus are hardly distinguishable from those caused by norovirus beca...
Source: Praxis - April 5, 2019 Category: General Medicine Authors: Zbinden A Tags: Praxis (Bern 1994) Source Type: research

Genetically highly divergent RNA virus with astrovirus-like (5'-end) and hepevirus-like (3'-end) genome organization in carnivorous birds, European roller (Coracias garrulus).
In this study, a novel astrovirus/hepevirus-like virus with +ssRNA genome (Er/SZAL5/HUN/2011, MK450332) was serendipitously identified and characterized from 3 (8.5%) out of 35 European roller (Coracias garrulus) faecal samples by RT-PCR in Hungary. The complete genome of Er/SZAL5/HUN/2011 (MK450332) is 8402 nt-long and potentially composed three non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs): ORF1a (4449 nt/1482aa), ORF1b (1206 nt/401aa) and ORF2 (1491 nt/496aa). The ORF1ab has an astrovirus-like genome organization containing the non-structural conserved elements (TM, CC, NLS, VPg) and enzyme residues (trypsine-like ...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - April 5, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Pankovics P, Boros Á, Kiss T, Engelmann P, Reuter G Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Experimental infection of conventional newly-weaned piglets with porcine astrovirus.
This study shows for the first time the effects of porcine astrovirus infection on conventional newly-weaning piglets. Keywords: porcine astrovirus; newly-weaned piglets. PMID: 30879318 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Virologica)
Source: Acta Virologica - March 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ulloa JC, Olarte-Aponte AM, Ospina JC, Rincon MA Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Performance evaluation of Gastrointestinal Viral ELIte Panel multiplex RT-PCR assay for the diagnosis of rotavirus, adenovirus and astrovirus infection.
In this study, the diagnostic accuracy of InGenius Gastrointestinal Viral (GV) Elite Panel, a newly developed one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay simultaneously detecting rotavirus, adenovirus and astrovirus, was evaluated retrospectively analyzing an archival collection of 128 stool samples of children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis. The overall sensitivity and specificity for the GV assay was 100% and 96.2% for rotavirus, 96.9% and 100% for astrovirus, 100% and 100% for adenovirus, respectively. The InGenius GV assay showed a high concordance with the reference methods and was able to detect all tested gen...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - March 19, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: De Grazia S, Bonura F, Pepe A, Li Muli S, Cappa V, Filizzolo C, Mangiaracina L, Urone N, Giammanco GM Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

Genomic characterization of a novel recombinant porcine astrovirus isolated in northeastern China
In this study, a novel type 4 porcine astrovirus strain (designated as PAstV4/Tianjin/2018) was identified in a fecal sample from a diarrheal piglet in Tianjin, China and its complete genomic sequence was determined by RT-PCR. Sequence analysis showed that this strain had a capsid protein with a highly variable C-terminal domain, a typical ribosomal frameshifting signal, and a conserved subgenomic promoter sequence. Recombination analysis indicated that PAstV4/Tianjin/2018 was a novel recombinant strain, and a recombination breakpoint was identified at nt position 4220 of the genome. The novel recombinant porcine astroviru...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular Epidemiology of Human Astrovirus in Stool Samples From Patients With Acute Gastroenteritis in Korea, 2013-2017.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide recent epidemiological data on HAstVs in Korea between 2013 and 2017. The finding of three distinct clades of HAstV Type 1 according to collection time suggests genetic evolution of HAstVs. These findings can enhance our knowledge on HAstV infection and viral evolution. PMID: 30809982 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Laboratory Medicine)
Source: Annals of Laboratory Medicine - March 1, 2019 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Ann Lab Med Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 173: Targeting the Viral Polymerase of Diarrhea-Causing Viruses as a Strategy to Develop a Single Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Therapy
We describe the functional and structural similarities of the different viral polymerases, the antiviral effect of reported polymerase inhibitors and highlight common features that might be exploited in an attempt of designing such pan-polymerase inhibitor. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - February 20, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Marcella Bassetto Jana Van Dycke Johan Neyts Andrea Brancale Joana Rocha-Pereira Tags: Review Source Type: research

An Outbreak of Gastroenteritis Associated with GII.17 Norovirus -Contaminated Secondary Water Supply System in Wuhan, China, 2017
AbstractA gastroenteritis outbreak occurred in a university in May, 2017, Wuhan, China. The epidemiological survey and pathogen analysis were conducted to identify the pathogen and control this outbreak. Feces or anal swabs from individuals, water, and swabs taken from tap surfaces of the secondary water supply system (SWSS) and foods were collected for the detection of viruses and pathogenic enteric bacteria by real-time RT-PCR and culture, respectively. Nucleotide sequences were determined by RT-PCR and direct sequencing. Genotyping, phylogenetic, and recombination analyses were conducted by a web-based genotyping tool, ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - February 9, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

An outbreak of human astrovirus lineage 1b in a middle school in Guangxi, Southern China in 2017.
PMID: 30681500 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Chinese Medical Journal)
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - January 27, 2019 Category: General Medicine Authors: Tan Y, He WT, Chen MM, Mo JJ, Ju Y, Chen M Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research

Astrovirus evolution and emergence.
Abstract Astroviruses are small, non-enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that belong to the Astroviridae family. Astroviruses infect diverse hosts and are typically associated with gastrointestinal illness; although disease can range from asymptomatic to encephalitis depending on the host and viral genotype. Astroviruses have high genetic variability due to an error prone polymerase and frequent recombination events between strains. Once thought to be species specific, recent evidence suggests astroviruses can spread between different host species, although the frequency with which this occurs a...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - January 10, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wohlgemuth N, Honce R, Schultz-Cherry S Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Detection of novel astroviruses among rodents of Gabon, Central Africa.
Abstract Astroviruses (AstVs) are mostly responsible for mild to severe gastroenteritis infections in humans and animals. AstVs infect a wide range of host species, have a large genetic diversity with different circulating variants and are thus a high zoonotic risk for human populations. Among these host species, rodents are known to harbor several AstVs variants. Therefore, it is important to identify in rodent species which AstVs are circulating and evaluate their potential zoonotic risk for humans. In this context, this study aimed to screen the presence of AstVs in 267 rodents trapped in 2012 in Franceville an...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - December 4, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mombo IM, Suquet E, Boundenga L, Mveang-Nzoghe A, Maganga-Mboga C, Arnathau C, Sidobre C, Leroy EM, Rougeron V Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Shiga-like Toxin Producing E. coli Identified in Patients with Multiple Myeloma (MM) Hospitalized Due to Acute Onset Diarrhea; First Report on the Clinical Use of the Biofire Film Array Gastrointestinal Panel
Conclusion: In our experience using the PCR- Biofire assay we show that this approach is feasible and can be used safely to tailor therapy in immunocompromised patients. In all cases, E.Coli was found, most frequently STEC (Shiga-like toxin producing E. coli). Using this approach enable us to identify new pathogens causing diarrhea in immunocompromised patients, extremely quickly. These preliminary results reveal the need for more clinical experience using the Biofire FilmArray as a diagnostic test for patients with MM and other haematological malignancies, who present acutely with severe diarrhea.DisclosuresTadmor: NOVART...
Source: Blood - November 21, 2018 Category: Hematology Authors: Kreiniz, N., Tadmor, T., Polliack, A., Abu-Ahmad, A., Golan-Shani, O., Alona, P. Tags: 203. Lymphocytes, Lymphocyte Activation, and Immunodeficiency, including HIV and Other Infections Source Type: research

Human astroviruses: in silico analysis of the untranslated region and putative binding sites of cellular proteins.
acute;a-Morales L Abstract Human astrovirus (HAstV) constitutes a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in children. The viral 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTR) have been involved in the regulation of several molecular mechanisms. However, in astrovirues have been less characterized. Here, we analyzed the secondary structures of the 5' and 3' UTR of HAstV, as well as their putative target sites that might be recognized by cellular factors. To our knowledge, this is the first bioinformatic analysis that predicts the HAstV 5' UTR secondary structure. The analysis showed that both the UTR sequence and secondary str...
Source: Molecular Biology Reports - November 17, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: De Nova-Ocampo M, Soliman MC, Espinosa-Hernández W, Velez-Del Valle C, Salas-Benito J, Valdés-Flores J, García-Morales L Tags: Mol Biol Rep Source Type: research

Discovery of highly divergent lineages of plant-associated astro-like viruses sheds light on the emergence of potyviruses.
We report the discovery of 11 highly divergent lineages of viruses with genomic architectures that resemble those of the astroviruses. These genomes were initially identified through a sequence homology search in more than 6,600 plant transcriptome projects from the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) using astrovirus representatives as query. Seed-based viral genome assembly of unprocessed SRA data for several dozens of the most promising hits resulted in two viral genome sequences with full-length coding regions, nine partial genomes and a much larger number of short sequence fragments. Genomic and phylogenetic characterization ...
Source: Virus Research - November 16, 2018 Category: Virology Authors: Lauber C, Seifert M, Bartenschlager R, Seitz S Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Broadly reactive real ‐time reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of human sapovirus genotypes
In this study, we report the development of a broader‐range sapovirus real‐time RT‐PCR assay. The assay can detect 2.5 × 107 and 2.5  × 101 copies of sapovirus  and therefore is as sensitive as the previous test. Analysis using clinical stool specimens or synthetic DNA revealed that the new system detected strains representative of all the 18 human sapovirus genotypes: GI.1‐7, GII.1‐8, GIV.1, and GV.1, 2. No cross‐reactivity was observed against oth er representative common enteric viruses (norovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus). This new assay will be use...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - November 15, 2018 Category: Virology Authors: Tomoichiro Oka, Nobuhiro Iritani, Seiji P. Yamamoto, Kohji Mori, Tomoko Ogawa, Chika Tatsumi, Shinichiro Shibata, Seiya Harada, Fang ‐Tzy Wu Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Detection of Human Enteric Viruses in French Polynesian Wastewaters, Environmental Waters and Giant Clams
AbstractLack of wastewater treatment efficiency causes receiving seawaters and bivalve molluscan shellfish to become contaminated, which can lead to public health issues. Six wastewater samples, five seawater samples and three batches of giant clams from Tahiti (French Polynesia) were investigated for the presence of enteric viruses, but also if present, for the diversity, infectivity and integrity of human adenoviruses (HAdV). Enteroviruses (EV), sapoviruses (SaV) and human polyomaviruses (HPyV) were detected in all wastewater samples. In decreasing frequency, noroviruses (NoV) GII and HAdV, rotaviruses (RoV), astroviruse...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 13, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Changing pattern of prevalence and genetic diversity of rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, and bocavirus associated with childhood diarrhea in Asian Russia, 2009-2012.
Abstract This hospital-based surveillance study was carried out in Novosibirsk, Asian Russia from September 2009 to December 2012. Stool samples from 5486 children with diarrhea and from 339 healthy controls were screened for rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, and bocavirus by RT-PCR. At least one enteric virus was found in 2075 (37.8%) cases with diarrhea and 8 (2.4%) controls. In the diarrhea cases, rotavirus was the most commonly detected virus (24.9%), followed by norovirus (13.4%), astrovirus (2.8%) and bocavirus (1.1%). Mixed viral infections were identified in 4.3% cases. The prevalence of enteric viruses va...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - November 8, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zhirakovskaia E, Tikunov A, Tymentsev A, Sokolov S, Sedelnikova D, Tikunova N Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

First report and genetic characterization of porcine astroviruses of lineage 4 and 2 in diarrheic pigs in India
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases,Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-. (Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases)
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - October 31, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Jobin Jose Kattoor, Yashpal Singh Malik, Sharad Saurabh, Shubhankar Sircar, Obli Rajendran Vinodhkumar, Durlav Prasad Bora, Kuldeep Dhama, Souvik Ghosh, Krisztian Banyai, Nadia Touil, Ahmed Sayed Abdel Moneim, Anastasia N. Vlasova, Nobumichi K Source Type: research

Genome analysis of newly emerging goose-origin nephrotic astrovirus in China reveals it belongs to a novel genetically distinct astrovirus.
Abstract Since 2017, a new type of goose-origin astrovirus (GoAstV) disease occurred in China. This disease can cause joint swelling of sick geese, and the anatomy shows a clear urate precipitation in the viscera. The rate of death or amputation can reach more than 30%, revealing its severe pathogenicity. One novel goose-origin astrovirus strain, designated as CXZ18, was isolated from diseased geese with a fatal infection characterized by visceral urate deposition. Similar clinical anatomy symptoms were partially reproduced by attacking infection of healthy geese. The CXZ18 has no hemagglutination with chicken ery...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - October 23, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Yuan X, Meng K, Zhang Y, Yu Z, Ai W, Wang Y Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Molecular detection of enteric viruses and the genetic characterization of porcine astroviruses and sapoviruses in domestic pigs from Slovakian farms
Surveillance and characterization of pig enteric viruses such as transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), rotavirus, astrovirus (PAstV), sapovirus (PSaV), kobuvirus a... (Source: BMC Veterinary Research)
Source: BMC Veterinary Research - October 19, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Slavomira Salamunova, Anna Jackova, Rene Mandelik, Jaroslav Novotny, Michaela Vlasakova and Stefan Vilcek Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Use of quantitative molecular diagnostic methods to assess the aetiology, burden, and clinical characteristics of diarrhoea in children in low-resource settings: a reanalysis of the MAL-ED cohort study
Publication date: Available online 1 October 2018Source: The Lancet Global HealthAuthor(s): James A Platts-Mills, Jie Liu, Elizabeth T Rogawski, Furqan Kabir, Paphavee Lertsethtakarn, Mery Siguas, Shaila S Khan, Ira Praharaj, Arinao Murei, Rosemary Nshama, Buliga Mujaga, Alexandre Havt, Irene A Maciel, Timothy L McMurry, Darwin J Operario, Mami Taniuchi, Jean Gratz, Suzanne E Stroup, James H Roberts, Adil KalamSummaryBackgroundOptimum management of childhood diarrhoea in low-resource settings has been hampered by insufficient data on aetiology, burden, and associated clinical characteristics. We used quantitative diagnosti...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - October 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Genetic characterization of a new astrovirus in goslings suffering from gout
AbstractSince early 2016, the Chinese goose industry has experienced severe outbreaks of gout; however, the etiological factor of the disease is still unclear. Here, we investigated the possible involvement of viral infection in the disease. Using sequence-independent PCR amplification, astrovirus sequences were generated from a gout case. Full-length genomic sequencing and sequence analysis of three goose astrovirus (GoAstV) strains revealed that they belong to a new avastrovirus most closely related to viruses classified within speciesAvastrovirus 3. The GoAstV was detected in 16/16 gout cases collected from two province...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 1, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

PCR assays for detection of human astroviruses: in silico evaluation and design, and in vitro application to samples collected from patients in the Netherlands
Following the discovery of astrovirus in human stool [1], diverse astroviruses were described in humans and other hosts. They were classified in the family Astroviridae that is composed of two genera, Mamastrovirus and Avastrovirus [2]. Human astroviruses (HAstV) belong to the genus Mamastrovirus that includes four established species: Mamastrovirus 1 (MAstV1; classic HAstV or HAstV-C, types 1-8), Mamastrovirus 6 (MAstV6; known as HAstV-MLB, types 1-3), and closely related Mamastrovirus 8 and Mamastrovirus 9 (MAstV8 and MAstV9; both known as HAstV-VA/HMO, types 1-5 and A-C, respectively), and HAstV-BF34 a prototype of a pu...
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - September 13, 2018 Category: Virology Authors: R.H.T. Nijhuis, I.A. Sidorov, P.K. Chung, E. Wessels, A.A Gulyaeva, J.J. de Vries, E.C.J. Claas, A.E. Gorbalenya Source Type: research

[Coinfection by astrovirus and Neisseria B meningitidis in a girl].
We describe a child who suffered a tonic-clonic seizure with hypotension, tachycardia and low Glasgow Coma Scale. She maintained an altered mental status and required hemodynamic stabilization in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Wide spectrum antibiotherapy was initiated. She suffered large and foul-smelling liquid not bloody stools which were cultured and studied by polymerase chain reaction. The cerebrospinal fluid was normal. Later the polymerase chain reaction stools were positive to astrovirus, and the blood polymerase chain reaction was positive to Neisseria meningitidis group B. As far as we know, this is the firs...
Source: Herpes - September 12, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: García-Salido A, García-Brunet A, Pérez-Sebastiána I, Blanco-Iglesias E, Unzueta-Roch JL, Serrano-González A Tags: Arch Argent Pediatr Source Type: research

Epidemiology of human astroviruses among children younger than 5 years: Prospective hospital ‐based sentinel surveillance in South Africa, 2009‐2014
Journal of Medical Virology,Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-. (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - September 7, 2018 Category: Virology Authors: Sandrama Nadan , Maureen B. Taylor , Michelle J. Groome , Cheryl Cohen , Shabir A. Madhi , Nicola A. Page Source Type: research