Windkessel Effect In Aorta With Experimental Evidence!
Windkessel effect is applicable to large elastic arteries like aorta, which are situated close to the heart. They have more of elastic tissue than muscular tissue. The term Windkessel comes from German language and means air chamber. Here is an illustration of the Windkessel, used in 18th century, by fire fighters. The additional pressure built up in the air chamber will ensure continuous delivery of water for fire fighting. A similar thing occurs in elastic arteries like aorta. During systole, more blood enters the aorta, than what leaves the aorta, because aorta expands. This additional blood received during systole, is ...
Source: Cardiophile MD - March 24, 2024 Category: Cardiology Authors: Johnson Francis Tags: General Cardiology Source Type: blogs

Gardner Treadmill Protocol
Gardner Treadmill Protocol, also known as Gardner-Skinner Protocol was described in 1991 [1]. It is used mainly in the evaluation of peripheral arterial disease. The seminal article evaluated the effect of handrail support on claudication distance. Handrail support reduces energy cost of treadmill walking, and can affect claudication distance and hemodynamic responses in persons with peripheral vascular disease. Reliability of tests may also be reduced unless same pressure is applied to the handrails over repeated tests. Gardner treadmill protocol is a symptom limited one with progressive graded workload having constant s...
Source: Cardiophile MD - October 6, 2023 Category: Cardiology Authors: Johnson Francis Tags: General Cardiology Source Type: blogs

Can You Run In Marathons With Hypertension?
Marathons and hypertension: Understand the risks, learn how to stay safe while running, and explore alternative activities to keep your heart healthy and thriving. Quick Summary Marathons pose risks for individuals with hypertension: The intense physical exertion can lead to sudden increases in blood pressure, dehydration, irregular heart rhythms, and strain on the kidneys, potentially causing serious complications like heart attacks or strokes. Safety measures for hypertensive individuals: If participating in a marathon, monitor blood pressure regularly, follow a supervised training regimen, stay hydrated, w...
Source: The EMT Spot - June 10, 2023 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Michael Rotman, MD, FRCPC, PhD Tags: Blood Pressure Source Type: blogs

27 Dangers And Risks Of High Blood Pressure
Conclusion Despite its silent nature, high blood pressure gradually damages organs over time. The interconnectedness of the circulatory system means that all organs reachable by blood are at risk. Hypertension can lead to critical complications such as heart enlargement, coronary artery disease, stroke, cognitive decline, erectile dysfunction, kidney disease, proteinuria, vision problems, and vascular damage. The importance of proactive measures to manage and prevent these adverse effects is emphasized. Regular blood pressure monitoring, adopting a healthy lifestyle, and working with healthcare professionals ar...
Source: The EMT Spot - June 1, 2023 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Michael Rotman, MD, FRCPC, PhD Tags: Blood Pressure Source Type: blogs

Dangers And Risks Of High Blood Pressure
Conclusion Despite its silent nature, high blood pressure gradually damages organs over time. The interconnectedness of the circulatory system means that all organs reachable by blood are at risk. Hypertension can lead to critical complications such as heart enlargement, coronary artery disease, stroke, cognitive decline, erectile dysfunction, kidney disease, proteinuria, vision problems, and vascular damage. The importance of proactive measures to manage and prevent these adverse effects is emphasized. Regular blood pressure monitoring, adopting a healthy lifestyle, and working with healthcare professionals ar...
Source: The EMT Spot - June 1, 2023 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Michael Rotman, MD, FRCPC, PhD Tags: Blood Pressure Source Type: blogs

Clinical Examination of Cardiovascular System For Medical Students
Discussion on blood pressure is not included here as a separate topic is dedicated to it. Though the most commonly examined pulse is the radial, to check some of the characteristics, a more proximal pulse like the brachial or carotid needs to be examined. Following parameters of the pulse are routinely documented: 1. The rate: Normal rate in adult is 60-100 per minute. It is higher in children. Younger the child, higher the pulse rate. Rhythm: Regular and irregular rhythms are possible. Mild variation with respiration is called respiratory sinus arrhythmia, with higher rate in inspiration. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia may...
Source: Cardiophile MD - May 30, 2023 Category: Cardiology Authors: Johnson Francis Tags: General Cardiology Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, March 13th 2023
In this study, we report the extensive and progressive accumulation of misfolded proteins during natural aging/senescence in different models, in the absence of disease. We coined the term age-ggregates to refer to this subset of proteins. Our findings demonstrate that age-ggregates exhibit the main characteristics of misfolded protein aggregates implicated in PMDs, including insolubility in detergents, protease-resistance, and staining with dyes specific for misfolded aggregates. Misfolded protein aggregates with these characteristics are thought to be implicated in some of today most prevalent diseases, including Alzheim...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 12, 2023 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Evidence for Reduced Dementia Incidence to be Driven by Improved Vascular Health
Dementia risk for individuals has decreased in recent decades, even as the population grows and ages to the point at which overall number of cases expands. Since individual risk of suffering cardiovascular disease has also decreased over the same period of time, it is reasonable to ask whether reduced dementia risk is a direct consequence of improvements in long term vascular health. Researchers here provide evidence to suggest that this is the case, noting that levels of amyloid-β aggregates in post-mortem brains are much the same across recent decades, while vascular health improves. Misfolding and aggregation of amyloi...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 6, 2023 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, February 6th 2023
In conclusion, our study reveals that aging enhances atherosclerosis via increased inflammation of visceral fat. Our study suggests that future therapies targeting the visceral fat may reduce atherosclerosis diseaseburden in the expanding older population. Is the Gut a Significant Source of Amyloid-β in Alzheimer's Disease? https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2023/02/is-the-gut-a-significant-source-of-amyloid-%ce%b2-in-alzheimers-disease/ The early stages of Alzheimer's disease are characterized by rising levels of amyloid-β in the brain and the formation of misfolded amyloid aggregates. It is present...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 5, 2023 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Innate Immune Signaling and the Inflammation that Drives Cerebrovascular Disease
In the progression of degenerative aging, a process of constant, unresolved inflammatory signaling is one of the most important ways in which low-level molecular damage gives rise to widespread dysfunction of tissue and organs. In today's open access paper, researchers discuss what is known of the way in which the innate immune system reacts to molecular signs of aging, the damage-associated molecular patterns such as DNA debris from dysfunctional mitochondrial and stressed and dying cells. This reaction is amplified by the rest of the immune system into a constant, disruptive state of chronic inflammation that changes cel...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 3, 2023 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Isolated Systolic Hypertension: Causes, Treatments, and More
ConclusionWhat Is Isolated Systolic Hypertension? If you have isolated systolic hypertension, your systolic blood pressure (the top number in the BP reading) is high, but your diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) is normal. Stages of Isolated Systolic Hypertension Normal BP: 120/80 mmHg Elevated BP: 120-129/80 mmHg Hypertension Stage 1: 130-39/80-89 mmHg Hypertension Stage 2:  139 mmHg />89 mmHg Isolated systolic hypertension is more common in older adults. This condition is also more prevalent in men than women. Untreated isolated systolic hypertension can lead to serious health prob...
Source: The EMT Spot - November 11, 2022 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Michael Kutryk Tags: Guides Blood Pressure Source Type: blogs

What is Windkessel effect? Cardiology Basics
The term ‘Windkessel effect’ is used in the setting of large elastic arteries like aorta. Elastic arteries  have elastic tissue much more than the muscular arteries and are located nearer to the heart. Elasticity helps these blood vessels to maintain a relatively constant pressure gradient and flow though, the heart is pumping only intermittently. The original term ‘Windkessel’ means ‘air chamber’ in German language. It was an air chamber used in fire engines in the 18th century, to maintain continuous delivery of water for fire-fighting. In the case of aorta, the aortic elasticity causes expansion and te...
Source: Cardiophile MD - October 7, 2022 Category: Cardiology Authors: Johnson Francis Tags: General Cardiology Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, September 5th 2022
Conclusion Coupled with the animal data, and the existing human trial data for safety, the results here suggests that someone should run a formal, controlled trial of flagellin immunization in older people, 65 and over. The goal would be to see whether (a) this sort of outcome holds up in a larger group of people, and (b) there is a meaningful impact on chronic inflammation and other parameters of health that are known to be affected by the aging of the gut microbiome. The most interesting part of the data is perhaps the decline in microbial diversity, when considered against the gains elsewhere. Microbial dive...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 4, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Searching for Age-Slowing Drugs in the Antidiabetic Portfolio
Data for the ability of metformin to slow aging has researchers looking at other antidiabetic drugs these days, even given that the evidence for metformin to have a meaningful impact on aging in non-diabetic animals is not great, very mixed, and even the human data for a modest addition of a few years in type 2 diabetes patients is most likely not as good as the impact of exercise and control of weight. Still, repurposing drugs to produce modest effects in a different condition has long been a going concern; regulators make it so hard to develop new drugs that it makes economic sense to repurpose existing drugs, even when ...
Source: Fight Aging! - August 31, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, July 25th 2022
This study further demonstrates that AMD is not a single condition or an isolated disease, but is often a signal of systemic malfunction which could benefit from targeted medical evaluation in addition to localized eye care." Microglia in the Aging Brain, Both Protective and Harmful https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2022/07/microglia-in-the-aging-brain-both-protective-and-harmful/ A growing body of evidence implicates the changing behavior of microglia in the aging of the brain and onset of neurodegeneration. Microglia are analogous to macrophages, innate immune cells unique to the central nervous sys...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 24, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs