Misuse of prescription medicines is as prevalent as the use of recreational drugs and novel psychoactive substances in Singapore: an unrecognised public health issue?
CONCLUSION: Misuse of prescription medicine in Singapore was common, with prevalence comparable to the use of recreational drugs/NPS. A common source for misused drugs was physicians. Further studies are required to determine whether this is more widespread in Singapore and establish the different forms of drug diversion, so that appropriate prevention strategies can be implemented. PMID: 32179926 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Singapore Medical Journal)
Source: Singapore Medical Journal - March 17, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Chan WL, Dargan PI, Haynes CM, Green JL, Black JC, Dart RC, Wood DM Tags: Singapore Med J Source Type: research

Effects of Plasma Concentration of Micro-Rna Mir-27b and CYP3A4*22 on Equilibrium Concentration of Alprazolam in Patients With Anxiety Disorders, Comorbid With Alcoholism.
PMID: 32112986 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Gene)
Source: Gene - February 26, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zastrozhin MS, Skryabin VY, Smirnov VV, Petukhov AE, Pankratenko EP, Zastrozhina AK, Grishina EA, Ryzhikova KA, Bure IV, Golovinskii PA, Koporov SG, Bryun EA, Sychev DA Tags: Gene Source Type: research

Large scale consumption monitoring of benzodiazepines and z-drugs by hair analysis
The objective of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate BDZ/z-drug levels in hair for better interpretation of hair testing results. For this purpose, 4,630 authentic samples (head/body hair) from a heterogeneous cohort in Switzerland tested for the presence of 20 BDZ/BDZ metabolites and three z-drugs by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were included. Drug concentrations in hair were statistically evaluated by box-plots in 1,726 positive samples. Further, metabolite-to-parent drug ratios were determined. Zolpidem, diazepam, nordazepam, oxazepam, lorazepam, midazolam, alprazolam, and bromazepam were...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis - February 7, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Potentially inappropriate medications in Chinese community-dwelling older adults
AbstractBackground There is a lack of data on the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in community-dwelling older adults in China.Objective To assess the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medication in community dwelling older adults in China and to investigate risk factors associated with the use of  such medication.Setting Ambulatory Care Clinic of Xiangya Hospital, Central South University.Method A cross-sectional retrospective review of prescriptions for older patients (aged ≥ 65 years) was performed using the 2019 American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Beers Criteria and the...
Source: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy - February 5, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Tolerance and dependence following chronic alprazolam treatment: quantitative observation studies in female rhesus monkeys
ConclusionsChronic alprazolam treatment resulted in rapid tolerance to some behaviors (e.g., deep sedation) but no tolerance to others (e.g., rest/sleep posture). Physical dependence was observed via both spontaneous and precipitated withdrawal. Based on previous research, these phenomena may reflect differential plasticity at GABAA receptor subtypes. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Efficacy assessment of oral and sublingual sedation using alprazolam in implantology surgical procedures
Conclusion: It was concluded that both formulations were effective for sedation of the evaluated volunteers.RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a efic ácia de duas formulações de alprazolam (ALP) na sedação de voluntários submetidos à procedimentos cirúrgicos de Implantodontia. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo clinico, randomizado e cego, com 52 voluntários (ambos os gêneros) que foram divididos em 2 grupos: G1 (n=26) - administração de ALP (0,5mg) por via oral uma hora antes da sessão clínica; e G2 (n=26) - administraç&atil...
Source: RGO - Revista Gaucha de Odontologia - December 21, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

The analysis of the use of potentially inappropriate medications in elderly in the Slovak Republic
AbstractBackground The prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) using explicit criteria has been well documented in European countries, however, there is a lack of evidence in the Slovak Republic. There are no specific guidelines and there is a lack of geriatricians in Slovakia. Higher use of PIM leads to greater healthcare services use as well as increases healthcare costs.Objective The aim of this study was to perform an evaluation of the availability and the actual use of PIM by geriatric patients in the nursing homes in Slovakia.Setting Together 459 residents  ≥ 65 years living in...
Source: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Reducing Inappropriate Drug Use in Older Patients by Use of Clinical Decision Support in Community Pharmacy: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation
ConclusionWhen community pharmacists implemented CDSS alerts to reduce inappropriate drug use in older patients, they registered a persistent drug therapy change in 8.7% of the cases. Alerts triggered by a first prescription were two times more likely to be associated with a persistent drug therapy change than alerts triggered by repeat prescriptions. This study found that clinical rules can be used to detect inappropriate drug use in older patients and that drug therapy can change based on the alerts. This suggests that CDSS alerts are a useful tool for implementing guidelines on PIM in older patients in daily practice. (...
Source: Drugs and Aging - November 29, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Benzodiazepines use in Morocco: A nation wide consumption database study between 2004 and 2017.
Authors: Qriouet Z, Belaiche A, Qmichou Z, Cherrah Y, Sefrioui H Abstract Although information exists regarding the rate of benzodiazepines (BZDs) use in different countries, little information is available concerning the BZDs consumption in Morocco. To describe prescription rate in Morocco, a retrospective descriptive analysis of BZDs and their agonists use with the instituteIQIVIA database was performed during the period 2004-2017. The obtained data provide a dynamic approach to total BZDs consumption using an annual collection of sales data in Morocco and were expressed in terms of daily defined doses/ 1000 inha...
Source: Asian Journal of Psychiatry - November 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Asian J Psychiatr Source Type: research

Abuse Potential of Lasmiditan: A Phase 1 Randomized, Placebo- and Alprazolam-Controlled Crossover Study.
Abstract Lasmiditan is a centrally penetrant, highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1F (5HT1F ) agonist under development as a novel therapy for acute treatment of migraine. A phase 1 randomized, placebo- and positive-controlled crossover study assessed the abuse potential of lasmiditan in adult recreational polydrug users. Following a qualification phase, subjects were randomized into treatment sequences, each consisting of 5 study treatments: placebo, alprazolam 2 mg, lasmiditan 100, 200 (lasmiditan 100 and 200 mg are proposed therapeutic doses), and 400 mg (supratherapeutic). The abuse poten...
Source: The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology - November 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wilbraham D, Berg PH, Tsai M, Liffick E, Loo LS, Doty EG, Sellers E Tags: J Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Benzodiazepine Use Is Associated With an Increased Risk of Neurocognitive Impairment in People Living With HIV
Discussion: BZD use may elevate risk for NCI in PLWH, potentially through diffuse neurocognitive slowing and acute compromise of recall and higher-order capacities. These effects are robust to psychosocial and HIV-specific factors and occur in comparison with a tightly matched BZD− group. Prospective and interventional studies should evaluate causal associations between NCI and BZD use and explore treatment alternatives to BZDs in PLWH. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Validation of a Sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS Method for Cytochrome P450 Probe Substrates Caffeine, Tolbutamide, Dextromethorphan, and Alprazolam in Human Serum Reveals Drug Contamination of Serum Used for Research
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2019Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical AnalysisAuthor(s): Luying Chen, Richard B. van BreemenAbstractTo evaluate the potential for interactions between botanical dietary supplements and drug metabolism, Phase I clinical pharmacokinetics studies are conducted using an oral cocktail of probe substrates of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. A sensitive, specific, and fast ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for determination of caffeine (probe of CYP1A2), tolbutamide (probe of CYP2C9), de...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis - November 11, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic assessment of alprazolam-induced neonatal abstinence syndrome using physiologically based pharmacokinetic model.
In conclusion, NAS symptoms such as apnea and digestive events disappeared in parallel with the decrease of the neonate's plasma alprazolam concentrations. Moreover, PBPK modeling and simulation is a useful methodology for toxicological assessment in special characteristics populations lacking specific experimental data. PMID: 31699653 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics)
Source: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics - November 10, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Metab Pharmacokinet Source Type: research

Presence of pharmaceutical compounds, levels of biochemical biomarkers in seafood tissues and risk assessment for human health: Results from a case study in North-Western Spain.
This study assessed the presence of 27 pharmaceutically active compounds belonging to common therapeutic groups (cardiovascular, antiashmatic, psychoactive, diuretic, analgesic/anti-inflammatory, and antibiotic drugs) in the tissues of representative seafood species of bivalves, cephalopods, arthropods, and fish of high economic importance and consumption rates in North-Western Spain. Four pharmaceutical compounds, out of the 27 analyzed, were detected in the collected samples. The benzodiazepine citalopram was detected in the tissues of common octopus (14.1 ng g-1 dry weight) and pod razor (9.4 ng g-1 dw). The anx...
Source: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental health - November 6, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Martínez-Morcillo S, Rodríguez-Gil JL, Fernández-Rubio J, Rodríguez-Mozaz S, Míguez-Santiyán MP, Valdes ME, Barceló D, Valcárcel Y Tags: Int J Hyg Environ Health Source Type: research

Prevalence of illicit and prescribed neuropsychiatric drugs in three communities in Kentucky using wastewater-based epidemiology and Monte Carlo simulation for the estimation of associated uncertainties
In this study, the prevalence of 10 illicit and 19 prescribed psychoactive drugs of potential abuse was determined utilizing wastewater-based epidemiology, and compared in two adjoined urban communities and a rural community. This is the first application of the Monte Carlo simulation method to account multiple uncertainties and propagation of errors associated with the individual parameter of wastewater based epidemiological estimations in the U.S. A significantly higher prevalence of cocaine [3830 (mean difference, MD: 2960) mg/d/1000 people] was found in the central business district while the per-capita consumption rat...
Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - October 16, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Outpatient benzodiazepine utilization in Croatia: drug use or misuse
Conclusion Increased utilization and long-term treatment with benzodiazepines remains a serious challenge for the health care system in Croatia. National prescription guidelines, improved control of benzodiazepine usage and prescriptions, along with restricted release drug lists, should all be considered as potential measures to rationalize benzodiazepine prescription, control unnecessary expenditure in the country and improve the well-being of the patients. (Source: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy)
Source: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy - October 8, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Awake sedation with propofol attenuates intraoperative stress of carotid endarterectomy in regional anesthesia
carotid endarterectomy in regional anesthesia is often associated with increased perioperative stress. We assumed, that carotid endarterectomy performed under awake sedation with propofol is more beneficial to prevent such stress than alprazolam premedication only. (Source: Annals of Vascular Surgery)
Source: Annals of Vascular Surgery - September 26, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: P éter Szabó, Mátyás Mayer, Zoltán Horváth-Szalai, Krisztina Tóth, Sándor Márton, Gábor Menyhei, László Sínay, Tihamér Molnár Tags: Clinical Research, Basic Science Source Type: research

Inhibition in the somatosensory system: An integrative neuropharmacological and neuroimaging approach
Publication date: 15 November 2019Source: NeuroImage, Volume 202Author(s): C. Fioravanti, S.D. Kajal, M. Carboni, C. Mazzetti, U. Ziemann, C. BraunAbstractThe presented study investigates the functional role of GABA in somatosensory processing, using a combined neuropharmacological-neuroimaging approach. Three different GABA agonists (GABAA: alprazolam, ethanol; GABAB: baclofen) were investigated in a double blind cross-over design in 16 male participants, accomplishing a tactile perception task. Somatosensory evoked magnetic fields modulated by GABAR-agonists and placebo were recorded using whole-head magnetoencephalograp...
Source: NeuroImage - September 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prediction of Drug –Drug Interactions Between Opioids and Overdosed Benzodiazepines Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling and Simulation
ConclusionOur results appear to indicate that pharmacodynamics may play a more important role than PKs in causing DDIs between opioids and benzodiazepines. This study also demonstrated that molecular modeling can be a very useful tool to mitigate the problem of “missing metabolic reaction parameters” in PK modeling and simulation. (Source: Drugs in R&D)
Source: Drugs in R&D - September 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

APOE genetic background and sex confer different vulnerabilities to postnatal chlorpyrifos exposure and modulate the response to cholinergic drugs.
Colomina MT Abstract Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an extensively used organophosphate pesticide. Exposure to CPF has been related to neurobehavioral disorders, particularly during neurodevelopment. Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a lipid and cholesterol carrier and a susceptibility factor for cognitive impairment which can influence the response to toxic exposures. The study was aimed at assessing the effects of postnatal exposure to CPF on object recognition memory and its modulation by sex and apoE genotype. Human apoE3 and apoE4 targeted replacement mice and C57BL/6 mice were postnatally exposed to 0 or 1 mg/kg/day ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - August 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Guardia-Escote L, Basaure P, Peris-Sampedro F, Biosca-Brull J, Cabré M, Sánchez-Santed F, Domingo JL, Colomina MT Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The Prevalence of Beers Criteria Medication Use and Associations with Falls in Geriatric Patients at a Level 1 Trauma Center.
Abstract The Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication (PIM) use is a list of medications with multiple risks in older patients. Approximately 24 per cent use rate is reported in prior studies. Our objective was to determine the local PIM use and subsequent fall risk in geriatric trauma patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of PIM use in all geriatric patients evaluated at our Level 1 trauma center between 2014 and 2017. Patients were identified from our trauma database. Pre-admission medication use was determined through medication reconciliation from our electronic medical record (EMR). P...
Source: The American Surgeon - August 1, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Walker BS, Collier BR, Bower KL, Lollar DI, Faulks ER, Matos M, Nussbaum MS, Hamill ME Tags: Am Surg Source Type: research

Preclinical characterization of ACH-000029, a novel anxiolytic compound acting on serotonergic and alpha-adrenergic receptors
In this study, the anxiolytic-like effects of a novel compound, ACH-000029, 3-(2-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl) piperazine-1-yl) ethyl) quinazoline-4(3H)-one, which modulates the activities of both serotonergic and α-adrenergic receptors, is reported. This compound acts at selected serotonergic (5-HT1A and 5-HT1D partial agonism and 5-HT2A antagonism) and α-adrenergic (α-1A, 1B and 1D antagonism) receptors, with good selectivity over other G-protein-coupled receptors. ACH-000029 exhibited high blood-brain barrier permeation and acute anxiolytic effects in the marble burying (MB) and light-dark box (LDB) models of a...
Source: Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry - July 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Concerns raised over non-medical alprazolam use
The benzodiazepine alprazolam is being obtained for non-medical use in the UK, particularly among young people, a survey has found. (Source: Clinical Pharmacist)
Source: Clinical Pharmacist - July 5, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Drugs for Anxiety Disorders
Date: August 12, 2019 Issue #:  1578Summary:  Anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and various phobias) are the most common form of psychiatric illness. They can be treated effectively with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and/or pharmacotherapy. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder are now considered separate entities in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5); they can also be treated with CBT and many of the same drugs. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - June 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Alprazolam Amitriptyline Antidepressants Antihistamines Antipsychotics Atarax Ativan Beta blockers Buspirone Cannabidiol Celexa Chlordiazepoxide Cipralex Citalopram Clonazepam Clorazepate Cymbalta Diazepam Doxepin Dri Source Type: research

Determination of benzodiazepines in blood and in dried blood spots collected from post ‐mortem samples and evaluation of the stability over a three‐month period
We successfully developed and validated an LC –MS/MS method for the identification of 27 and quantification of 9 benzodiazepines and metabolites in whole blood and DBSs. The results provided a good qualitative and quantitative correlation between DBSs stored at room temperature and whole blood stored at −20°C. A good stability for a three‐ month period was observed for most of the compounds detected in real post‐mortem samples. AbstractThe aims of this study were (a) to develop a liquid chromatography −tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method for the identification of 27 benzodiazepines an...
Source: Drug Testing and Analysis - June 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Matteo Moretti, Francesca Freni, Ilaria Tomaciello, Claudia Vignali, Angelo Groppi, Silvia Damiana Vison à, Luca Tajana, Antonio Marco Maria Osculati, Luca Morini Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Combination of Alprazolam and Bailemian Capsule Improves the Sleep Quality in Patients With Post-Stroke Insomnia: A Retrospective Study
Insomnia is often ignored in the diagnosis and treatment of patients after stroke. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of alprazolam (ALP) combined with Bailemian capsule (BC, a traditional Chinese patent medicine) in the treatment of post-stroke insomnia (PSI). A total of 231 stroke patients involved in this retrospective study were treated by ALP, BC, or ALP + BC for 3 weeks. The quality of sleep was evaluated by the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and polysomnography (PSG), while self-care ability was monitored by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) before and after treatment. Compared to the baseline, th...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - June 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Tramadol, Methadone and Benzodiazepines added to Alcoholic Beverages
ConclusionsThe wide availability of addictive pharmaceutical is leading to fortification of alcoholic beverages on some countries. The addition of such depressant additives should be better known because of the potentially fatal consequences of the combination with ethanol, as well as the potential for adverse effects on behavior. (Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - June 4, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Increased sensitivity to psychostimulants and GABAergic drugs in Lsamp-deficient mice
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2019Source: Pharmacology Biochemistry and BehaviorAuthor(s): Aleksandr Bregin, Timur Mazitov, Ingrid Aug, Mari-Anne Philips, Jürgen Innos, Eero VasarAbstractLsamp, in combinations with other members of the IgLON family of cell adhesion molecules, promotes and inhibits neurite outgrowth and synapse formation during development. Mice lacking Lsamp gene display decreased social behaviour, hyperactivity; decreased anxiety level, alongside with altered balance in GABAA receptor α1 and α2 subunits; and decreased sensitivity to amphetamine, alongside with elevated seroton...
Source: Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior - June 3, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Determination of benzodiazepines in blood and in dried blood spots (DBS) collected from postmortem samples and evaluation of the stability over a three ‐month period
AbstractThe aims of this study were: a) to develop a LC ‐MS/MS method for the identification of 27 benzodiazepines and metabolites in DBS and in whole blood; b) to compare the diagnostic reliability of DBSs with blood analyses; c) to monitor analytes stability on DBS within a 3‐month period.Aliquots of 85 μL of blood from postmortem cases were pipetted on cards for DBS analysis. We collected also a tube of blood and stored it a ‐20°C. The cards were allowed to dry at room temperature. For each case, DBS were analyzed immediately (T0), within the following 3 weeks (T1, T2, T3) and after 3 months ( T4). The meth...
Source: Drug Testing and Analysis - May 24, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Matteo Moretti, Francesca Freni, Ilaria Tomaciello, Claudia Vignali, Angelo Groppi, Silvia Damiana Vison à, Luca Tajana, Antonio Marco Maria Osculati, Luca Morini Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A structural perspective on GABAA receptor pharmacology.
Abstract GABAA receptors are pentameric ligand-gated chloride channels of crucial importance for the vertebrate nervous system physiology. They typically modulate the fast inhibitory neurotransmission, and represent the target receptors for major classes of drugs used in the clinic, such as benzodiazepines and general anesthetics. Recent technological progress in structural biology, in particular single-particle cryo-electron microscopy, has led to fundamental advances in understanding the detailed organization and signalling mechanisms of major GABAA receptor subtypes. This effort culminated with the high-resolut...
Source: Current Opinion in Structural Biology - May 23, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Scott S, Aricescu AR Tags: Curr Opin Struct Biol Source Type: research

Are there pharmaceutical compounds in sediments or in water? Determination of the distribution coefficient of benzodiazepine drugs in aquatic environment.
ia SP Abstract Alprazolam, clonazepam and diazepam are drugs belonging to the benzodiazepine class. These drugs might be important environmental contaminants in aquatic media. A total understanding of behavior and fate of drugs in aquatic environment is not available for these and other drugs. Thus, in this work, a complete optimization of sample treatment and extraction of analytes from sediments and water was described, as well a study of sediment/water distribution comparing it with sample characteristics. Ultrasound for 10 min and 3 steps using 3 mL of extraction solvent were chosen as the stirring form fo...
Source: Environmental Pollution - May 8, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Nunes CN, Dos Anjos VE, Quináia SP Tags: Environ Pollut Source Type: research

The Outcome of Status Epilepticus and Long-Term Follow-Up
Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of regular care and patient follow-up. Introduction Status epilepticus (SE) is a condition and most extreme form of epilepsy (1), which leads to abnormal and prolonged seizure (at least 5 min). In case SE persists over 30 min, it may have severe long-term consequences (2). Referring to the new classification scheme of SE, there are two operational dimensions of the definition: time point 1 (T1) is associated with abnormally prolonged seizure, when therapy should be initiated, while time point 2 (T2) is related to the time of on-going seizure activity involving a risk...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Ultrasound-aasisted photodegradation of Alprazolam in aqueous media using a novel high performance nanocomosite hybridation g-C3N4/MWCNT/ZnO
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Catalysis TodayAuthor(s): Xiaolong Shi, Jia-Bao Liu, Mojgan Hosseini, Rasoul Shemshadi, Razieh Razavi, Zohreh ParsaeeAbstractnovel graphitic carbon nitride-multi wall carbon nanotubes based nanocomposites decorated with different mass fraction (x = 10-50) of bio ultrasound synthesized ZnO-NPs were fabricated. The characterization of g-C3N4/MWCNT/ZnO (x) was performed in detail using a wide range of methods such as FT-IR, XRD, FE-SEM, EDS, XPS, DRS, HRTEM and N2 physisorption. Efficiency of ultrasound wave accelerated photodegradation of anxiolytic drug A...
Source: Catalysis Today - April 20, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Depression and Anxiety among Patients with Atraumatic Lateral Epicondylitis and Ulnar-Sided Wrist Pain
Conclusions Patients with either LE, UWP or both along with depression and/or anxiety may be less likely to improve with traditional treatments. Future investigations are warranted focusing on the value of a multidisciplinary team consisting of a hand surgeon, behavioral therapist, or psychologist to optimize treatment response. Level of Evidence This is a Level IV, case series study. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Journal of Wrist Surgery)
Source: Journal of Wrist Surgery - April 17, 2019 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Pensak, Michael J. Carry, Patrick M. Entin, Jacob M. Lalka, Andy Shourbaji, Nader A. Scott, Frank A. Tags: Scientific Article Source Type: research

Baclofen but Not Diazepam Alleviates Alcohol-Seeking Behavior and Hypothalamic –Pituitary–Adrenal Axis Dysfunction in Stressed Withdrawn Mice
In conclusion, this study evidences that a pre-treatment with baclofen but not with diazepam during the withdrawal phase normalized, even after a long period of abstinence, the HPA axis response to stress, which contributes to the long-term preventing effects of this compound on alcohol-seeking behavior.IntroductionThere is substantial evidence that cognitive and neurobiological alterations are either dramatically enhanced or gradually developed after alcohol withdrawal (1–4). One of the main disturbances associated with alcohol withdrawal involves a dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HP...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

High throughput bar adsorptive microextraction: A novel cost-effective tool for monitoring benzodiazepines in large number of biological samples.
Abstract In this work, we propose an innovative high throughput (HT) apparatus using the bar adsorptive microextraction (BAμE) technique, which enables the simultaneous enrichment of up to 100 samples. This novel configuration was combined with microliquid desorption and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection to monitor trace levels of eight benzodiazepines (diazepam, prazepam, bromazepam, oxazepam, lorazepam, alprazolam, temazepam and loflazepate) in biological samples. The proposed methodology was fully developed, optimized and validated, resulting in suitable intraday and interday preci...
Source: Talanta - April 7, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Ahmad SM, Nogueira JMF Tags: Talanta Source Type: research

Cannabinoid CB1 receptors mediate the anxiolytic effects induced by systemic alprazolam and intra-periaqueductal gray 5-HT1A receptor activation
Publication date: Available online 8 March 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Luara A. Batista, Fabricio A. MoreiraAbstractThe endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the modulation of behaviors related to anxiety and panic disorders. Accordingly, facilitation of CB1 receptor signaling reduces the consequences of aversive stimuli in animal models. However, the role of the CB1 receptor in the effects of anxiolytic drugs has remained unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the anxiolytic and panicolytic responses to systemic alprazolam injection and local 5-HT1A receptor activation in the dorsolateral peri...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - March 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Galphimine-B Standardized Extract versus Alprazolam in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Ten-Week, Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial.
In conclusion, a G-B standardized extract demonstrated therapeutic effectiveness in patients with GAD, without exhibiting significant difference with Alprazolam, but showing fewer cases of daytime sleepiness. The trial was registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov by identifier: NCT03702803. PMID: 30834253 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biomed Res)
Source: Biomed Res - March 6, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Romero-Cerecero O, Islas-Garduño AL, Zamilpa A, Herrera-Arellano A, Jiménez-Ferrer E, Tortoriello J Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research

Reducing inappropriate benzodiazepine use among older adults
Benzodiazepine use in the United States is common and increases with age, used by 8.7% of patients aged 65-80 years (Olfson, King,& Schoenbaum, 2015). Benzodiazepines —which include well-known medications such as Xanax, Ativan, and Klonopin—are most commonly used for anxiety and insomnia, even though psychotherapy and alternative medications are now recommended preferentially over benzodiazepines (Baldwin, Woods, Lawson,& Taylor, 2011; Smith et al., 2014; Wu, Appleman, Salazar,& Ong, 2015).Use is a particular concern among older adults, given the links between benzodiazepine prescribing and a variet...
Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry - March 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Tomorrow Wilson, Evelina Kutyma, Julie Strominger, Frederic Blow, Donovan Maust Tags: Poster Number: EI - 53 Source Type: research

The α2,3-selective potentiator of GABAA receptors, KRM-II-81, reduces nociceptive-associated behaviors induced by formalin and spinal nerve ligation in rats
Publication date: Available online 27 February 2019Source: Pharmacology Biochemistry and BehaviorAuthor(s): J.M. Witkin, R. Cerne, P.G. Davis, K.B. Freeman, J.M. do Carmo, J.K. Rowlett, K.R. Methuku, A. Okun, S.D. Gleason, X. Li, M.J. Krambis, M. Poe, G. Li, J.M. Schkeryantz, R. Jahan, L. Yang, W. Guo, L.K. Golani, W.H. Anderson, J.T. CatlowAbstractClinical evidence indicates that positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of GABAA receptors have analgesic benefit in addition to efficacy in anxiety disorders. However, the utility of GABAA receptor PAMs as analgesics is compromised by the central nervous system side effects of n...
Source: Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior - February 28, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Quantification of eight benzodiazepines in human breastmilk and plasma by liquid-liquid extraction and liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry: Application to evaluation of alprazolam transfer into breastmilk
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2019Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical AnalysisAuthor(s): Ayako Furugen, Ayako Nishimura, Masaki Kobayashi, Takeshi Umazume, Katsuya Narumi, Ken IsekiAbstractBreastfeeding is strongly encouraged for infant and maternal health. Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are widely prescribed drugs for symptoms, such as anxiety and insomnia, which many women could experience during the postpartum period. However, limited information is currently available to evaluate the transfer of different BZDs into breastmilk. In order to assess the proprieties of this medication during breastfeed...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis - February 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

GABAA/benzodiazepine receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal gray mediate the panicolytic but not the anxiolytic effect of alprazolam in rats.
Abstract Although the etiology of panic disorder (PD) remains elusive, accumulating evidence suggests a key role for the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (dPAG). There is also evidence that this midbrain area is critically involved in mediation of the panicolytic effect of antidepressants, which with high potency benzodiazepines (e.g. alprazolam and clonazepam) are first line treatment for PD. Whether the dPAG is also implicated in the antipanic effect of the latter drugs is, however, still unknown. We here investigated the consequences of blocking GABAA or benzodiazepine receptors within the dPAG, with bicuculli...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - February 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Frias AT, Fernandes GG, Zangrossi H Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Pharmacological and Neuromodulatory Treatments for Panic Disorder: Clinical Trials from 2010 to 2018.
CONCLUSION: The current study confirmed the efficacy of tranylcypromine, paroxetine, clonazepam, alprazolam and escitalopram. Vortioxetine and TMS, with duration of 4 or more weeks, also seems to be effective. Quetiapine, pindolol and d-fenfluramine were not considered effective compounds. PMID: 30696238 [PubMed] (Source: Psychiatry Investigation)
Source: Psychiatry Investigation - January 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Psychiatry Investig Source Type: research

Characterization and biological effects of Hypericum extracts on experimentally-induced - anxiety, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats.
Authors: Sevastre-Berghian AC, Toma VA, Sevastre B, Hanganu D, Vlase L, Benedec D, Oniga I, Baldea I, Olteanu D, Moldovan R, Decea N, Filip GA, Clichici SV Abstract Anxiety disorders can associate with oxidative stress and immune system alterations. Our study aimed to chemically analyze Hypericum maculatum (HM) and Hypericum perforatum (HP) dry extracts and to evaluate their effects along with quercetin (Q), on brain oxidative stress biomarkers: malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), inflammatory cytokines: interleukin-1α, (IL-1α), IL-1β, regulated on activation norma...
Source: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology - January 28, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: J Physiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Development of a Novel LC- MS/MS Method for Detection and Quantification of Tramadol Hydrochloride in Presence of Some Mislabeled Drugs: Application to Counterfeit Study.
Abstract Counterfeiting of pharmaceuticals has become a serious problem all over the world particularly in the developing countries. In the present work, a highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of tramadol hydrochloride (TRM) in presence of some previously expected mislabeled drugs such as alprazolam (ALP), diazepam (DIZ), chlorpheniramine maleate (CHR), diphenylhydramine (DIP) and paracetamol (PAR). The prepared samples were analyzed on API 4000 mass spectrometer using Eclipse C18 column (3.5 μm, 4.6× 100 mm). The mobile phase consisting of 0.01% formic acid, aceto...
Source: Biomedical Chromatography : BMC - January 14, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Abdel-Megied AM, Badr El-Din KM Tags: Biomed Chromatogr Source Type: research

GABAA receptor signalling mechanisms revealed by structural pharmacology
GABAA receptor signalling mechanisms revealed by structural pharmacology, Published online: 02 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0832-5Cryo-electron microscopy structures are reported in which the full-length human α1β3γ2L GABAA receptor in lipid nanodiscs is bound to the channel-blocker picrotoxin, the competitive antagonist bicuculline, the agonist GABA, and the benzodiazepines alprazolam and diazepam. (Source: Nature AOP)
Source: Nature AOP - January 2, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Simonas Masiulis Rooma Desai Tomasz Ucha ński Itziar Serna Martin Duncan Laverty Dimple Karia Tomas Malinauskas Jasenko Zivanov Els Pardon Abhay Kotecha Jan Steyaert Keith W. Miller A. Radu Aricescu Source Type: research

Neuroacanthocytosis with unusual clinical features: A case report
Rationale: Neuroacanthocytosis (NA) is a heterogeneous group of inherited neurodegenerative disorders characterized by misshapen spiculated erythorcytes and symptoms that resemble Huntington's disease. Patient concerns: A 59-year-old female who developed hyperkinetic involuntary movements that became progressively more obvious during the course of a year. Diagnoses: Acanthocytes were observed in a peripheral blood smear. The patient had elevated levels of serum creatine kinase (CK). Gene sequencing did not reveal a genetic mutation. Interventions: The patient was administered oral tiapride, alprazolam, B1 and B1...
Source: Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research

Urine Drug Tests: Ordering and Interpreting Results.
Abstract Urine drug testing is an essential component of monitoring patients who are receiving long-term opioid therapy, and it has been suggested for patients receiving long-term benzodiazepine or stimulant therapy. Family physicians should be familiar with the characteristics and capabilities of screening and confirmatory drug tests. Immunoassays are qualitative tests used for initial screening of urine samples. They can give false-positive and false-negative results, so all results are considered presumptive until confirmatory testing is performed. Immunoassays for opioids may not detect commonly prescribed sem...
Source: American Family Physician - January 1, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Kale N Tags: Am Fam Physician Source Type: research

Monitoring of five benzodiazepines using a novel polymeric interface prepared by layer by layer strategy
Publication date: Available online 28 December 2018Source: Microchemical JournalAuthor(s): Hamideh Ashrafi, Ahmad Mobed, Mohammad Hasanzadeh, Parinaz Babaie, Khalil Ansarin, Abolghasem JouybanAbstractAn electrochemical sensor has been successfully demonstrated for the sensitive determination of some benzodiazepines with poly dopamine-poly folic acid (P(DA-FA)) nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (P(DA-FA)-GCE). Cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and square wave voltammetry techniques were used to investigate the electrochemical behavior of clonazepam, diazepam, alprazolam, chlordiazepoxide, oxaze...
Source: Microchemical Journal - December 28, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Sensitive detection and determination of benzodiazepines using silver nanoparticles-N-GQDs ink modified electrode: A new platform for modern pharmaceutical analysis
Publication date: March 2019Source: Microchemical Journal, Volume 145Author(s): Hamideh Ashrafi, Soodabeh Hassanpour, Arezoo Saadati, Mohammad Hasanzadeh, Khalil Ansarin, Sibel Ayşil Ozkan, Nasrin Shadjou, Abolghasem JouybanAbstractIn this work, a unique conductive nano-ink based on silver nanoparticle‑nitrogen doped graphene quantum dots (Ag/N-GQD) was synthesized and utilized for development of a novel, unique and sensitive biosensor for determination of alprazolam, chlordiazepoxide bis, diazepam, oxazepam and clonazepam. Electrochemical deposition, as a well-controlled synthesis procedure, has been utilized for subse...
Source: Microchemical Journal - December 21, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research