N-acetylcysteine and glycyrrhizin combination: Benefit outcome in a murine model of acetaminophen-induced liver failure.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that, compared to N-acetylcysteine alone, co-administration of glycyrrhizin decreases the liver necrosis score and improves survival in a murine model of acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Our study opens a potential new therapeutic pathway in the prevention of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. PMID: 33033567 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - October 10, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

N-acetylcysteine alleviates liver injury by suppressing macrophage-mediated inflammatory response post microwave ablation.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that N-acetyl-cysteine application alleviate macrophages aggregation and inflammatory response in liver suffering microwave ablation, and mitigating liver injury and cell apoptosis. PMID: 32438077 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Immunopharmacology)
Source: International Immunopharmacology - May 17, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zhou H, Sun Y, Wang Q, Li Z, Zhong W, Wang X, Dai X, Kong L Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research

Diabetes aggravates myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury via activating Nox2-related programmed cell death in an AMPK-dependent manner.
This study was designed to expose the crosstalk between oxidative stress and AMPK, a vital molecule that controls biological energy metabolism, in myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury (I/RI) in diabetic rats. Diabetes was stimulated in rats using streptozotocin injection. Rats were separated on random into control, control + I/R, Diabetes, Diabetes + I/R, Diabetes + I/R + N-acetylcysteine and Diabetes + I/R + Vas2870 groups. Myocardial infarct size was determined, and the predominant Nox family isoforms were analysed. In vitro, the H9C2 cells were administered ...
Source: J Cell Mol Med - April 28, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Wang C, Zhu L, Yuan W, Sun L, Xia Z, Zhang Z, Yao W Tags: J Cell Mol Med Source Type: research

Intratympanic application of poloxamer 407 hydrogels results in sustained N-acetylcysteine delivery to the inner ear.
This study focused on (i) the evaluation of concentration-time profiles of N-acetylcysteine in perilymph, cerebrospinal fluid and plasma after intratympanic administration, (ii) the influence of the dosage form, i.e. a thermoreversible poloxamer 407 hydrogel versus a solution, on N-acetylcysteine pharmacokinetics, and (iii) the development of a pH- and osmolality-adjusted formulation for intratympanic N-acetylcysteine delivery. 49 female albino guinea pigs were randomized into two treatment groups, receiving either a single intratympanic injection of a 4% N-acetylcysteine poloxamer 407 hydrogel or a 4% N-acetylcysteine sol...
Source: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics - March 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Clara Gausterer J, Saidov N, Ahmadi N, Zhu C, Wirth M, Reznicek G, Arnoldner C, Gabor F, Honeder C Tags: Eur J Pharm Biopharm Source Type: research

Alternatively activated macrophages promote resolution of necrosis following acute liver injury
After an overdose of acetaminophen (paracetamol), some patients present to hospital too late for the current antidote (n-acetylcysteine) to be effective. We tested whether macrophages, an injury-responsive leukocyte that can scavenge dead/dying cells, could serve as a cell-based therapy in an experimental model of acetaminophen overdose. Injection of alternatively-activated macrophages rapidly reduced liver injury and reduced several mediators of inflammation. Macrophages show promise to serve as a potential cell-based therapy for acute liver injury. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - March 10, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Philip Starkey Lewis, Lara Campana, Niya Aleksieva, Jennifer Ann Cartwright, Alison Mackinnon, Eoghan O ’Duibhir, Timothy Kendall, Matthieu Vermeren, Adrian Thomson, Victoria Gadd, Benjamin Dwyer, Rhona Aird, Tak-Yung Man, Adriano Giorgio Rossi, Lesley Source Type: research

Protective effect of N-acetyl cysteine against radiotherapy-induced cardiac damage.
Conclusion: Our findings suggested that NAC may be a potential radioprotector which is capable of preventing cardiac damage. PMID: 31990607 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - January 29, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

p38 MAP-kinase inhibitor protects against platelet-activating factor-induced death in mice.
Abstract Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent inflammatory agonist. In Swiss albino mice, intraperitoneal injection of PAF causes sudden death with oxidative stress and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), characterized by prolonged prothrombin time, thrombocytopenia, reduced fibrinogen content, and increased levels of fibrinogen degradation products. However, the underlying mechanism (s) is unknown. The PAF-R antagonist WEB-2086 protected mice against PAF-induced death by reducing DIC and oxidative stress. Accordingly, general antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, gallic acid, a...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - August 19, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Abhilasha KV, Sumanth MS, Chaithra VH, Jacob SP, Thyagarajan A, Sahu RP, Rajaiah R, Prabhu KS, Kemparaju K, Travers JB, Chen CH, Marathe GK Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Tolerizing CTL by Sustained Hepatic PD-L1 Expression Provides a New Therapy Approach in Mouse Sepsis
Conclusion: These results suggest that, contrary to common assumption, maintaining PD-L1 expression on hepatocytes improves liver damage and survival of mice during sepsis. We conclude that administering recombinant PD-L1 or inhibiting NOX2 activity might offer a new therapeutic option in sepsis. (Source: Theranostics)
Source: Theranostics - June 13, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Andreas von Knethen, Anne Sch ä fer, Laura Kuchler, Tilo Knape, Urs Christen, Edith Hintermann, Beate Fi ß lthaler, Katrin Schr ö der, Ralf P. Brandes, Berit Genz, Kerstin Abshagen, Brigitte M. P ü tzer, Lisa K. Sha, Andreas Weigert, Shahzad N. Syed, Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

1H NMR profiling of the 6-OHDA parkinsonian rat brain reveals metabolic alterations and signs of recovery after N-acetylcysteine treatment
Publication date: Available online 12 June 2019Source: Molecular and Cellular NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Ana Virel, Ilona Dudka, Rutger Laterveer, Sara af BjerkénAbstractParkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease caused by degeneration of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. The origin and causes of dopamine neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease are not well understood but oxidative stress may play an important role in its onset. Much effort has been dedicated to find biomarkers indicative of oxidative stress and neurodegenerative processes in parkinsonian brains. By using 1H NMR (nu...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience - June 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Acetylcysteine-Decorated Prussian Blue Nanoparticles for Strong Photothermal Sterilization and Focal Infection Treatment
Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019Source: Colloids and Surfaces B: BiointerfacesAuthor(s): Suya Cai, Jun Qian, Sen Yang, Liangju Kuang, Daoben HuaAbstractThe major challenge in bacterial infection in clinical settings is the development of antimicrobial materials in the treatment of drug-resistant bacteria. Herein, we report a new strategy for efficient near-infrared radiation (NIR) photothermal sterilization and focal infection treatment by acetylcysteine-modified Prussian blue nanoparticles (AC-PB). Specifically, AC-PB is fabricated as a multifunctional therapeutic agent via a co-precipitation approach, where ...
Source: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces - May 17, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Is Aberrant Reno-Renal Reflex Control of Blood Pressure a Contributor to Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Hypertension?
Sara AlMarabeh, Mohammed H. Abdulla and Ken D. O'Halloran* Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Renal sensory nerves are important in the regulation of body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and blood pressure. Activation of renal mechanoreceptor afferents triggers a negative feedback reno-renal reflex that leads to the inhibition of sympathetic nervous outflow. Conversely, activation of renal chemoreceptor afferents elicits reflex sympathoexcitation. Dysregulation of reno-renal reflexes by suppression of the inhibitory refle...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 23, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Apelin-13 Suppresses Neuroinflammation Against Cognitive Deficit in a Streptozotocin-Induced Rat Model of Alzheimer ’s Disease Through Activation of BDNF-TrkB Signaling Pathway
Apelin-13 Suppresses Neuroinflammation Against Cognitive Deficit in a Streptozotocin-Induced Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease Through Activation of BDNF-TrkB Signaling Pathway Huaiqing Luo1, Yang Xiang1, Xiangping Qu1, Huijun Liu1, Chi Liu1, Guangyi Li2, Li Han3*† and Xiaoqun Qin1*† 1Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Science, Central South University, Changsha, China 2Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Changsha Medical University, Changsha, China 3Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Science, Changsha Medical University, Changsha, China Alzheimer&rsq...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - April 15, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Oral Cannabidiol Prevents Allodynia and Neurological Dysfunctions in a Mouse Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
In conclusion, our data show some of the brain modifications probably responsible for the behavioral phenotype associated with TBI and suggest the CBD as a pharmacological tool to improve neurological dysfunctions caused by the trauma. Introduction The phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, exhibits a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic properties, including neuroprotective effects in Central Nervous System (CNS) disorders (Fernández-Ruiz et al., 2013; De Gregorio et al., 2018; Schonhofen et al., 2018). Through a multitarget mechanism, CBD shows pot...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - April 15, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Thymoquinone Attenuates Acetaminophen Overdose-Induced Acute Liver Injury and Inflammation Via Regulation of JNK and AMPK Signaling Pathway.
Abstract Thymoquinone (TQ) is a main aromatic component of Nigella sativa L. seeds or Agastache rugosa (Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Kuntze. The protective mechanism of TQ against acute liver injury induced by acetaminophen (APAP), however, remains unclear. We aimed to investigated the hepato-protective mechanism of TQ on the development of APAP-induced acute liver injury. Male kunming mice were pretreated with TQ or N-acetylcysteine (NAC) before a single APAP injection. Human Chang liver cells were incubated with TQ, SP600125 or AICAR in presence of APAP for 24 h. TQ pretreatment reduced levels of serum aminotransferas...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 10, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Cui BW, Bai T, Yang Y, Zhang Y, Jiang M, Yang HX, Wu M, Liu J, Qiao CY, Zhan ZY, Wu YL, Kang DZ, Lian LH, Nan JX Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

03:00 PM Abstract No. 393 A phase I/II study of direct injection of Bromelain and Acetylcysteine in patients with inoperable mucinous peritoneal tumours
Many patients with mucinous peritoneal tumours achieve long-term recurrence free and overall survival from cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy, however recurrence is frequently seen. Repeat surgical interventions have a negative impact on quality of life, risks may outweigh any potential benefits and repeated admissions have a considerable impact on healthcare systems. The deconditioned patient is eventually deemed inoperable with no treatment option for their disease. In an attempt to modify these outcomes, we discovered remarkable synergy in extensive preclinical studies between Bromelain (Br) and Acet...
Source: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology : JVIR - February 23, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: S. Valle, J. Akhter, D. Glenn, M. Power, S. Lodh, W. Liauw Tags: Scientific Session 41: Other Nonvascular Interventions Source Type: research

Tuberous sclerosis complex–mediated mTORC1 overactivation promotes age-related hearing loss
The underlying molecular mechanisms of age-related hearing loss (ARHL) in humans and many strains of mice have not been fully characterized. This common age-related disorder is assumed to be closely associated with oxidative stress. Here, we demonstrate that mTORC1 signaling is highly and specifically activated in the cochlear neurosensory epithelium (NSE) in aging mice, and rapamycin injection prevents ARHL. To further examine the specific role of mTORC1 signaling in ARHL, we generated murine models with NSE-specific deletions of Raptor or Tsc1, regulators of mTORC1 signaling. Raptor-cKO mice developed hearing loss consid...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - November 2, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Xiaolong Fu, Xiaoyang Sun, Linqing Zhang, Yecheng Jin, Renjie Chai, Lili Yang, Aizhen Zhang, Xiangguo Liu, Xiaochun Bai, Jianfeng Li, Haibo Wang, Jiangang Gao Source Type: research

Protective effect of N-acetylcysteine against cisplatin ototoxicity in rats: a study with hearing tests and scanning electron microscopy
ConclusionCisplatin ototoxicity can be detected by auditory brain stem responses and otoacoustic emissions testing in rats. N-acetylcysteine may protect the cochlear cells from histopathological changes. We concluded that N-acetylcysteine given 4 h after cisplatin injection has a potential otoprotective effect against cisplatin ototoxicity. which suggests it could be used in clinical trials.ResumoIntroduçãoA ototoxicidade é um problema de saúde que surge após certos tipos de tratamentos para condições graves de saúde. Às vezes é inevitável qu...
Source: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology - September 15, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Oxidative stress mediated mitochondrial damage plays roles in pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy rat.
Authors: Chen X, Fang M Abstract OBJECTIVE: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is considered as a complication of diabetes and accounts for about 40%. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level continues to increase in DN. However, whether specific ROS levels can alleviate renal damage by improving mitochondrial function has not been investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DN model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The rats were divided into normal group, STZ model group, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) group. Fasting blood glucose was tested to assess the modeling. The renal injury was evaluated by...
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - September 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Peroxiredoxin I maintains luteal function by regulating unfolded protein response.
CONCLUSION: These observations provide the first evidence regarding the basic mechanisms connecting PRDX1 and progesterone production in the functional stage of CL. PMID: 30111318 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reproductive Biology)
Source: Reproductive Biology - August 15, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Park HJ, Lee DG, Seong JB, Lee HS, Kwon OS, Kang BS, Park JW, Lee SR, Lee DS Tags: Reprod Biol Endocrinol Source Type: research

A comparison of the effects of thymoquinone, silymarin and N-acetylcysteine in an experimental hepatotoxicity
This study investigated the effects of thymoquinone, silymarin, and N-acetylcysteine in a rat model with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. Although numerous similar studies are available, we aimed to compare the efficacy of these agents by considering N-acetylcysteine as a reference compound. A total of 50 male Wistar albino rats were randomly designated as 5 groups: Group I, CCl4; group II, thymoquinone and CCl4; group III, silymarin and CCl4; group IV, N-acetylcysteine and CCl4; group V, control group. CCl4 was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 1.5 mL/kg (a mixture of CCl4: olive...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - July 31, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Brain Infarction by N-Acetylcysteine Derivatives [Basic Sciences]
Conclusions—The results indicate that detoxification of acrolein by NAC derivatives is caused through glutathione conjugation with acrolein catalyzed by glutathione S-transferases, which can be stabilized by NAC derivatives. This is a new concept of acrolein detoxification by NAC derivatives. (Source: Stroke)
Source: Stroke - June 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Takeshi Uemura, Kenta Watanabe, Kenta Ko, Kyohei Higashi, Noriyuki Kogure, Mariko Kitajima, Hiromitsu Takayama, Koichi Takao, Yoshiaki Sugita, Akihiko Sakamoto, Yusuke Terui, Toshihiko Toida, Keiko Kashiwagi, Kazuei Igarashi Tags: Animal Models of Human Disease, Ischemia, Oxidant Stress, Ischemic Stroke Original Contributions Source Type: research

Fast and reliable BIA/amperometric quantification of acetylcysteine using a nanostructured double hydroxide sensor.
This study reports the preparation and characterization of nickel/lead hydroxide nanoparticles used to construct electrochemical sensors, which were investigated for amperometric quantification of N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The newly synthesised material presents good uniformity, with the lead (II) ions homogenously incorporated into the alpha nickel hydroxide crystal structure, confirmed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. Films of nanoparticles (3 nm in size) were prepared on conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass slides and used connected to a sp...
Source: Talanta - May 24, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Correa AL, Gonçalves JM, Rossini PO, Bernardes JS, Neves CA, Araki K, Angnes L Tags: Talanta Source Type: research

Kaempferol protects against propacetamol-induced acute liver injury through CYP2E1 inactivation, UGT1A1 activation, and attenuation of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in mice.
In this study, we investigated the protective effect of kaempferol on propacetamol-induced ALI and its underlying mechanism in mice. Kaempferol pretreatment (125 mg/Kg) before propacetamol injection significantly decreased propacetamol-induced serum ALT and AST activities, and DNA fragmentation. Kaempferol administration also reduced propacetamol-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) formation partly through downregulation of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression, upregulation of UDP glucuronosyltransferase family 1 member A1 (UGT1A1) expressio...
Source: Toxicology Letters - March 21, 2018 Category: Toxicology Authors: Tsai MS, Wang YH, Lai YY, Tsou HK, Liou GG, Ko JL, Wang SH Tags: Toxicol Lett Source Type: research

Endocrine disrupting chemicals, 4 ‐nonylphenol, bisphenol A and butyl benzyl phthalate, impair metabolism of estradiol in male and female rats as assessed by levels of 15α‐hydroxyestrogens and catechol estrogens in urine
Abstract Bisphenol A (BPA), 4‐nonylphenol (NP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), termed endocrine‐disrupting chemicals, are known to mimic estrogen activity. The effects of these chemicals on 17β‐estradiol (E2) metabolism in vivo in rats were examined. Male and female rats were given NP (250 mg kg–1 day–1), BPA (250 μg kg–1 day–1) or BBP (500 mg kg–1 day–1) by gavage for 14 days, followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of E2 (5 mg kg–1) on the final day. The urinary excretion over 72 hours of 2‐hydroxyestrone 1‐N...
Source: Journal of Applied Toxicology - December 18, 2017 Category: Toxicology Authors: Madoka Nakagomi, Emako Suzuki, Yoshiaki Saito, Tetsuji Nagao Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

N-acetylcysteine ameliorates contrast ‑induced kidney injury in rats with unilateral hydronephrosis.
N-acetylcysteine ameliorates contrast‑induced kidney injury in rats with unilateral hydronephrosis. Mol Med Rep. 2017 Nov 21;: Authors: Xia Q, Liu C, Zheng X Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of N‑acetylcysteine (NAC) on contrast‑induced acute kidney injury in rats with unilateral hyronephrosis. Eighty‑two male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to undergo sham operation (n=14) or unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) (n=68). After 3 weeks, the UUO animals were randomized to three groups: NAC gastric perfusion, UUO+iohexol+NAC (n=24); normal s...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - December 6, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research

Inhibition of Advanced Glycation Endproduct (AGE) Rescues against Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: Role of Autophagy and ER Stress.
This study was designed to assess the role of inhibition of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic cardiac dysfunction. Cardiac contractile function was assessed in normal C57BL/6 and STZ (200mg/kg, single injection and maintained for 2 wks)-induced diabetic mice treated with or without the AGE inhibitor aminoguanidine (50mg/kg/d in drinking water) for 2 weeks using echocardiography and IonOptix MyoCam techniques. Diabetes compromised cardiac contractile function shown as reduced fractional shortening and ejection fraction, enlarged left ventricular end systolic/diastolic diameters, d...
Source: Toxicology Letters - November 22, 2017 Category: Toxicology Authors: Pei Z, Deng Q, Babcock SA, He EY, Ren J, Zhang Y Tags: Toxicol Lett Source Type: research

Effects of particulate matter from straw burning on lung fibrosis in mice
Conclusion Exposure of mice with BLM-induced IPF to PM2.5 from straw burning exacerbated lung inflammation and fibrosis and increased mortality; NAC increased the mouse survival, indicating protective effects. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 8, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Mitigation of Acute Aluminum Toxicity by Sodium Selenite and N-Acetylcysteine in Adult Male Rats.
The objective of this study is to investigate the toxic effects of aluminum and the potential alleviation of selenite and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on this toxicity. Acute aluminum toxicity was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of AlCl3 (30 mg Al(3+)/kg) for four consecutive days. Al(3+) damaged the synthetic capability and regeneration power of liver cells and induced inflammation. It also damaged the kidney and disturbed the lipid profile enhancing the total cholesterol level and LDL-cholesterol level increasing the risks of atherosclerosis. Al(3+) reduced the cellular antioxidant milieu typified by the decre...
Source: Biological Trace Element Research - August 17, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Nour-Eldein NH, Hassanin EA, El-Sayed WM Tags: Biol Trace Elem Res Source Type: research

The Role of Oxidative Stress in Acute Renal Injury of Newborn Rats Exposed to Hypoxia and Endotoxin
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: FEBS Journal)
Source: FEBS Journal - July 17, 2017 Category: Research Authors: Egor Y. Plotnikov, Tatiana A. Pavlenko, Irina B. Pevzner, Ljubava D. Zorova, Vasily N. Manskikh, Denis N. Silachev, Gennady T. Sukhikh, Dmitry B. Zorov Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Acetylcysteine (Cetylev) for Acetaminophen Overdose
Date: June 19, 2017 Issue #:  1523Summary:  The FDA has approved an effervescent tablet formulation of acetylcysteine (Cetylev– Arbor) to prevent or lessen hepatic injury after acetaminophen overdose. Acetylcysteine has been available for years in an IV solution (Acetadote, and generics) and an oral solution for the same indication; use of the oral solution has been limited by its unpleasant odor and taste. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - May 17, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Acetadote Acetaminophen Acetylcysteine Cetylev Drug Safety Paracetamol Tylenol Source Type: research

Potent Thrombolytic Effect of N-Acetylcysteine on Arterial Thrombi.
Conclusions -We provide evidence that NAC is an effective and safe alternative to currently available antithrombotic agents to restore vessel patency after arterial occlusion. PMID: 28487393 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Circulation)
Source: Circulation - May 9, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Martinez de Lizarrondo S, Gakuba C, Herbig BA, Repessé Y, Ali C, Denis CV, Lenting P, Touzé E, Diamond SL, Vivien D, Gauberti M Tags: Circulation Source Type: research

Effect of N ‐acetylcysteine on motivation, seeking and relapse to ethanol self‐administration
We report here N‐acetylcysteine (NAC) efficacy to reduce operant ethanol self‐administration in rats during short‐time session of 15 minutes. NAC also reduces seeking and reacquisition following protracted abstinence. Our results suggest for the first time that NAC is a potential new anticraving treatment for reduction of alcohol relapse. (Source: Addiction Biology)
Source: Addiction Biology - May 1, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Sophie Lebourgeois, Mar ía Carmen González‐Marín, Jerome Jeanblanc, Mickael Naassila, Catherine Vilpoux Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Protective Role of N-Acetylcysteine on Isoprenaline-Induced Myocardial Injury: Histological, Immunohistochemical and Morphometric Study.
This study was applied over both short and long time periods. A total of 90 male adult Wistar albino rats were used in the study. The rats were divided into four groups: control group, ISP-treated group, NAC-pretreated group and NAC-pre-& posttreated group. Based on the duration of the experiment, the second and third groups were further subdivided into a and b groups. Histological, immunohistochemical and histomorphometric analysis were used. The myocytes in the ISP-treated groups were fragmented, disrupted with karyolysis. The blood vessels were dilated, congested and associated with blood extravasation, interstitial...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - April 24, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Zaki SM, Abdalla IL, Sadik AOE, Mohamed EA, Kaooh S Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

N-Acetylcysteine improves intestinal function in lipopolysaccharides-challenged piglets through multiple signaling pathways.
This study determined whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could improve intestinal function through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathways in a piglet model of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) challenge. Thirty-two piglets (24-day-old) were randomly allocated to one of four treatments, with eight replicates per treatment and one piglet per replicate. The experiment ...
Source: Amino Acids - March 6, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yi D, Hou Y, Xiao H, Wang L, Zhang Y, Chen H, Wu T, Ding B, Hu CA, Wu G Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Effects and mechanisms of pirfenidone, prednisone and acetylcysteine on pulmonary fibrosis in rat idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis models.
This study investigated Cav-1 expression in pirfenidone-treated IPF, and compared the effects of pirfenidone with acetylcysteine and prednisone on IPF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat IPF model was established by endotracheal injection of 5 mg/kg bleomycin A5 into the specific pathogen-free Wistar male rats. Pirfenidone (P, 100 mg/kg once daily), prednisone (H, 5 mg/kg once daily) and acetylcysteine (N, 4 mg/kg 3 times per day) were used to treat the rat model by intragastric administration for 45 consecutive days, respectively. The normal rats without IPF were used as the controls. After 15, 30 ...
Source: Pharmaceutical Biology - December 14, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Pharm Biol Source Type: research

The safety and tolerability of the second-line injectable antituberculosis drugs in children.
Authors: Garcia-Prats AJ, Schaaf HS, Hesseling AC Abstract INTRODUCTION: A growing number of children globally are being treated for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The second-line injectable antituberculosis medications amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin, traditionally a mainstay of MDR-TB treatment, cause important adverse effects including permanent sensorineural hearing loss, nephrotoxicity, electrolyte abnormalities, injection pain and local injection site complications. AREAS COVERED: To characterize the safety and tolerability of the second-line injectables in children treated for MDR-TB, we ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety - August 23, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Drug Saf Source Type: research

ROS Affect Transglutaminase in a Crustacean [Cell Biology]
In this study, the potential function of ROS during hematopoiesis in the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus was examined. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was used to decrease ROS in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. An increase in ROS was observed in the anterior proliferation center (APC) after LPS injection. In the absence of NAC, the LPS-induced increase in ROS levels resulted in the rapid restoration of the circulating hemocyte number. In the presence of NAC, a delay in the recovery rate of the hemocyte number was observed. NAC treatment also blocked the spread of APC and other hematopoietic tissue (HPT) cel...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - August 18, 2016 Category: Chemistry Authors: Junkunlo, K., Soderhall, K., Soderhall, I., Noonin, C. Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Poor sensitization of 50-kHz vocalization response to amphetamine predicts rat susceptibility to self-administration of the drug
Conclusions There is no link between the FM 50-kHz vocalization and key characteristics of AMPH self-administration. Additionally, N-acetylcysteine does not help prevent AMPH self-administration relapse. However, there is a high predictive value for poor sensitization of the FM 50-kHz vocalization response to AMPH with respect to the acquisition and maintenance of self-administration of this psychostimulant. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 1, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Acute liver failure impairs function and expression of breast cancer ‐resistant protein (BCRP) at rat blood–brain barrier partly via ammonia‐ROS‐ERK1/2 activation
This study aimed to investigate whether ALF affected function and expression of breast cancer‐resistant protein (BCRP) at the BBB of rats and the role of ammonia in the regulation. ALF rats were developed by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of thioacetamide (300 mg/kg) for 2 days. Hyperammonemic rats were developed by NH4Ac (i.p. 4.5 mmol/kg). BCRP function and expression were measured by brain distribution of specific substrates (prazosin and methotrexate) and western blot, respectively. MDCK‐BCRP cells and primarily cultured rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (rBMECs) were employed to investigate ...
Source: Journal of Neurochemistry - May 29, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ying Li, Ji Zhang, Ping Xu, Binbin Sun, Zeyu Zhong, Can Liu, Zhaoli Ling, Yang Chen, Nan Shu, Kaijing Zhao, Li Liu, Xiaodong Liu Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Acute liver failure impairs function and expression of breast cancer‐resistant protein (BCRP) at rat blood–brain barrier partly via ammonia‐ROS‐ERK1/2 activation
This study aimed to investigate whether ALF affected function and expression of breast cancer‐resistant protein (BCRP) at the BBB of rats and the role of ammonia in the regulation. ALF rats were developed by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of thioacetamide (300 mg/kg) for 2 days. Hyperammonemic rats were developed by NH4Ac (i.p. 4.5 mmol/kg). BCRP function and expression were measured by brain distribution of specific substrates (prazosin and methotrexate) and western blot, respectively. MDCK‐BCRP cells and primarily cultured rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (rBMECs) were employed to investigate ...
Source: Journal of Neurochemistry - May 29, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ying Li, Ji Zhang, Ping Xu, Binbin Sun, Zeyu Zhong, Can Liu, Zhaoli Ling, Yang Chen, Nan Shu, Kaijing Zhao, Li Liu, Xiaodong Liu Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Acute liver failure impairs function and expression of breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP) at rat blood‐brain barrier partly via ammonia‐ROS‐ERK1/2 activation
This study aimed to investigate whether ALF affected function and expression of breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP) at the BBB of rats and the role of ammonia in the regulation. ALF rats were developed by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of thioacetamide (300 mg/kg) for 2 days. Hyperammonemic rats were developed by NH4Ac (i.p. 4.5 mmol/kg). BCRP function and expression were measured by brain distribution of specific substrates (prazosin and methotrexate) and Western blot, respectively. MDCK‐BCRP cells and primarily cultured rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (rBMECs) were employed to investigate possible mechanis...
Source: Journal of Neurochemistry - May 10, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ying Li, Ji Zhang, Ping Xu, Binbin Sun, Zeyu Zhong, Can Liu, Zhaoli Ling, Yang Chen, Nan Shu, Kaijing Zhao, Li Liu, Xiaodong Liu Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Effects of N-acetylcysteine and pentoxifylline on remote lung injury in a rat model of hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion injury
Objective : To investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and pentoxifylline in a model of remote organ injury after hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats, the lungs being the remote organ system. Methods : Thirty-five male Wistar rats were assigned to one of five conditions (n = 7/group), as follows: sham operation (control group); hind-limb ischemia, induced by clamping the left femoral artery, for 2 h, followed by 24 h of reperfusion (I/R group); and hind-limb ischemia, as above, followed by intraperitoneal injection (prior to reperfusion) of 150 mg/kg of NAC (I/R+NAC group), 40 mg/kg of pentoxifylline (I/...
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia - March 16, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

N-acetylcysteine Ameliorates Prostatitis via miR-141 Regulating Keap1/Nrf2 Signaling
In this study, we determined the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on prostatitis and the molecular mechanism involved in it. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control group (group A, n = 20), carrageenan-induced chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP) model group (group B, n = 20), and carrageenan-induced CNP model group with NAC injection (group C, n = 20). Eye score, locomotion score, inflammatory cell count, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression, and Evans blue were compared in these three groups. The expression of miR-141 was determined by quantitative real-t...
Source: Inflammation - March 3, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

N-acetylcysteine attenuates cigaret smoke-induced pulmonary exacerbation in a mouse model of emphysema.
Authors: Wang LS, Hu Y, Li CL, Li Y, Wei YR, Yin ZF, Du YK, Min Z, Weng D, Chen JM, Li HP Abstract OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cigaret smoke (CS) on a mouse model of emphysema and examine the protective role of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in the CS-induced exacerbation of pulmonary damage in the mice. METHOD: Particulate matter (PM) in sidestream cigaret smoke aerosol was analyzed by a scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer. A mouse model of emphysema was established by an injection of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) into the trachea. Mice with emphysema were then ...
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - February 18, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Antioxidant therapy alters brain MAPK-JNK and BDNF signaling pathways in experimental Diabetes Mellitus.
In conclusion, both diabetes and treatment with antioxidants were able to alter intracellular pathways involved in the regulation of cell survival in a brain area and treatment-dependent fashion. PMID: 26891662 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neurovascular Research)
Source: Current Neurovascular Research - February 18, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Réus GZ, Dos Santos MA, Abelaira HM, Maciel AL, Arent CO, Matias BI, Bruchchen L, Ignácio ZM, Michels M, Dal-Pizzol F, Carvalho AF, Zugno AI, Quevedo J Tags: Curr Neurovasc Res Source Type: research

N-acetylcysteine and/or ascorbic acid versus placebo to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization: The NAPCIN trial; A single-center, prospective, randomized trial.
This study is aimed to evaluate the effect of a high dose of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) plus hydration, a low dose of NAC plus ascorbic acid and hydration or hydration alone on the prevention of CIN in high-risk patients undergoing elective coronary artery intervention. We conducted a randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled trial of 105 high-risk patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization. The patients were divided into three different groups: Group A (n = 30), NAC 1200 mg orally before angiography and 1200 mg orally twice daily for three doses along with good hydration; Group B (n = 30), NAC 600 mg before angiog...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - January 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Habib M, Hillis A, Hammad A Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Protective effects of hydrogen sulfide anions against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.
This study evaluated the protective roles of HS(-) against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. We utilized cystathionine γ-lyase-deficient (Cth(-/-)) mice that are highly sensitive to acetaminophen toxicity. Intraperitoneal injection of acetaminophen (150 mg/kg) into Cth(-/-) mice resulted in highly elevated levels of serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase associated with marked increases in oncotic hepatocytes; all of which were significantly inhibited by intraperitoneal preadministration of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). NaHS preadministration significantly suppressed APAP-induced serum m...
Source: Journal of Toxicological Sciences - November 14, 2015 Category: Toxicology Tags: J Toxicol Sci Source Type: research

Sulfasalazine attenuates ACL transection and medial menisectomy‐induced cartilage destruction by inhibition of cystine/glutamate antiporter a novel factor in osteoarthritis
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Orthopaedic Research)
Source: Journal of Orthopaedic Research - October 17, 2015 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Wei‐Yuan Tsai, Ru‐Yin Tsai, Chih‐Chung Liu, Jia‐lin Wu, Chih‐Shung Wong Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Protective effect of N-acetylcysteine against nicardipine hydrochloride-induced autophagic cell death of human vascular endothelial cells.
Authors: Ochi M, Tanaka Y, Toyoda H Abstract Nicardipine hydrochloride (NIC) injection has been widely used for emergency treatment of abnormally high blood pressure. However, NIC injection often causes severe peripheral vascular injury. The purpose of the present study was to reduce the NIC-induced cell injury in human vascular endothelial cells by use of clinical agents. The mechanism of NIC-induced cell injury was evaluated by time-lapse microscopic imaging, autophagosome staining with monodansylcadaverine, immunostaining of light chain 3 isoform B (LC-3B) and assessment of cell viability after exposure to NIC w...
Source: Journal of Toxicological Sciences - September 13, 2015 Category: Toxicology Tags: J Toxicol Sci Source Type: research

Mechanical Ventilation Antioxidant Trial.
CONCLUSIONS: Enteral administration of antioxidants is a simple, safe, inexpensive, and effective intervention that decreases the duration of mechanical ventilation in critically ill adults. PMID: 26330437 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Critical Care)
Source: American Journal of Critical Care - September 1, 2015 Category: Nursing Authors: Howe KP, Clochesy JM, Goldstein LS, Owen H Tags: Am J Crit Care Source Type: research