Sporotrichosis Caused by Non-Wild Type Sporothrix brasiliensis Strains
This study evaluated 100 Sporothrix spp. strains obtained from 1999 to 2018 from the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fiocruz, which were identified through a polymerase chain reaction using specific primers for species identification. Two-fold serial dilutions of stock solutions of amphotericin B, itraconazole, posaconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine prepared in dimethyl sulfoxide were performed to obtain working concentrations of antifungal drugs ranging from 0.015 to 8.0 mg/L. The broth microdilution reference method was performed according the M38-A2 CLSI guideline. All strains were identified as S. brasiliensis and thirteen were classified as non-wild type, two of them against different drugs. Non-wild type strains were identified throughout the entire study period. Patients infected by non-wild type strains presented prolonged treatment times, needed increased antifungal doses than those described in the literature and one of them presented a permanent sequel. In addition, three of them, with immunosuppression, died from sporotrichosis. Despite the broad use of antifungal drugs in hyperendemic areas of sporotrichosis, an emergence of non-wild type strains did not occur. The results of in vitro antifungal susceptibility tests should guide sporotrichosis therapy, especially in immunosuppressed patients.