Surgery Versus Radiofrequency Ablation for Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma: a Randomized Controlled Trial (SURF-Trial)

Introduction: It remains unclear which of surgery or radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is the more effective treatment for small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to compare survival between patients undergoing surgery (surgery group) and patients undergoing RFA (RFA group). Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial involving 49 institutions in Japan. Patients with Child-Pugh scores ≤ 7, largest HCC diameter ≤ 3 cm, and ≤ 3 HCC nodules were considered eligible. The co-primary endpoints were recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). The current study reports the final result of RFS, and the follow-up of OS is still ongoing. Results: During 2009–2015, 308 patients were registered. After excluding ineligible patients, the surgery and RFA groups included 150 and 151 patients, respectively. Baseline factors did not differ significantly between the groups. In both groups, 90% of patients had solitary HCC. The median largest HCC diameter was 1.8 cm (inter quartile range, 1.5–2.2 cm) in the surgery group and 1.8 cm (interquartile range, 1.5–2.3 cm) in the RFA group. The median procedure duration (274 versus 40 minutes, P
Source: Liver Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research