The Roles of Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP4) and DPP4 Inhibitors in Different Lung Diseases: New Evidence
CD26/Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that is widely expressed in various organs and cells. It can also exist in body fluids in a soluble form. DPP4 participates in various physiological and pathological processes by regulating energy metabolism, inflammation, and immune function. DPP4 inhibitors have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. More evidence has shown the role of DPP4 in the pathogenesis of lung diseases, since it is highly expressed in the lung parenchyma and the surface of the epithelium, vascular endothelium, and fibroblasts of human bronchi. It is a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for various lung diseases. During the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) global pandemic, DPP4 was found to be an important marker that may play a significant role in disease progression. Some clinical trials on DPP4 inhibitors in COVID-19 are ongoing. DPP4 also affects other infectious respiratory diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome and non-infectious lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma. This review aims to summarize the roles of DPP4 and its inhibitors in infectious lung diseases and non-infectious diseases to provide new insights for clinical physicians.
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