Case of the Week 663

This week's case was generously donated by Monica Jarvis and her lab. They identified the following structures in a stool wet mount. They measure approximately 160 micrometers in length. Identification?
Source: Creepy Dreadful Wonderful Parasites - Category: Parasitology Source Type: blogs

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In conclusion, we identified conserved peptides containing B and T-cell epitopes in antigens of B. bovis that elicit a Th1 immune response and showed evidence that peptides from the same protein elicit different immune responses, which has implication for vaccine development in bovine babesiosis.PMID:35078663 | DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2022.01.023
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Findings of the current study suggested indole triazole compounds, based on their structure and enzymes targeting, have a considerable effect on tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain and can be considered as a new anti-Toxoplasma agent.PMID:35079376 | PMC:PMC8777237 | DOI:10.1016/j.amsu.2022.103245
Source: Annals of Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Neuroinflammation is one of the most frequently studied topics of neurosciences as it is a common feature in almost all neurological disorders. Although the primary function of neuroinflammation is to protect the nervous system from an insult, the complex and sequential response of activated glial cells can lead to neurological damage. Depending on the type of insults and the time post-insult, the inflammatory response can be neuroprotective, neurotoxic, or, depending on the glial cell types, both. There are multiple pathways activated and many bioactive intermediates are released during neuroinflammation. One of the most ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Macrophages are essential innate immune cells that contribute to host defense during infection. An important feature of macrophages is their ability to respond to extracellular cues and to adopt different phenotypes and functions in response to these stimuli. The evidence accumulated in the last decade has highlighted the crucial role of metabolic reprogramming during macrophage activation in infectious context. Thus, understanding and manipulation of macrophage immunometabolism during infection could be of interest to develop therapeutic strategies. In this review, we focus on 5 major metabolic pathways including glycolys...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced by across almost all the living kingdoms and play a crucial role in cell-cell communication processes. EVs are especially important for pathogens, as Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) parasite, the leading causing species in human malaria. Malaria parasites are able to modulate the host immune response from a distance via delivering diverse cargo components inside the EVs, such as proteins and nucleic acids. We have previously shown that imaging flow cytometry (IFC) can be effectively used to monitor the uptake of different cargo components of malaria derived EVs by host human monocytes. ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Emerg Infect Dis. 2022 Feb;28(2):482-485. doi: 10.3201/eid2802.211963.ABSTRACTDirofilaria immitis is a parasite related to pulmonary dirofilariasis in humans, its accidental hosts. We detected an autochthonous case of D. immitis infection in a woman from Slovakia. The emergence and spread of this parasite in Europe indicates a critical need for proper diagnosis of infection.PMID:35076370 | DOI:10.3201/eid2802.211963
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Emerg Infect Dis. 2022 Feb;28(2). doi: 10.3201/eid2802.210213.ABSTRACTBabesia spp. are tickborne parasites that cause the clinical infection babesiosis, which has an increasing incidence in the United States. We performed an analysis of hospitalizations in the United States during 2010-2016 in which babesiosis was listed as a diagnosis. We used the National Inpatient Sample database to characterize the epidemiology of Babesia-associated admissions, reflecting severe Babesia-related disease. Over a 7-year period, a total of 7,818 hospitalizations listed babesiosis as a primary or secondary admitting diagnosis. Hospitalizati...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
We describe a case in a splenectomized patient, in which a routine Babesia divergens PCR result was negative. A universal Babesia spp. PCR yielded a positive result and enabled classification of the parasite into the less-described Babesia crassa-like complex.PMID:35076002 | DOI:10.3201/eid2802.211596
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Am Nat. 2022 Feb;199(2):266-276. doi: 10.1086/717430. Epub 2021 Dec 15.ABSTRACTAbstractParasites are thought to play a role in ecosystem energetics, in part because some ecosystems harbor a substantial amount of parasite biomass. Nevertheless, the extent to which parasite biomass accurately reflects the flow of energy from hosts to parasites-and the linkages between their energetics-remains unclear. Here, we estimate parasite community energetics at the host and ecosystem level and test predictions for parasite energetics using the metabolic theory of ecology. Across 27 host species, parasite community abundance declines w...
Source: The American Naturalist - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: research
Am Nat. 2022 Feb;199(2):252-265. doi: 10.1086/717679. Epub 2022 Jan 6.ABSTRACTAbstractThe ecological and evolutionary consequences of microbiome treatments aimed at protecting plants and animals against infectious disease are not well understood, even as such biological control measures become more common in agriculture and medicine. Notably, we lack information on the impacts of symbionts on pathogen fitness with which to project the consequences of competition for the evolution of virulence. To address this gap, we estimated fitness consequences for a common plant pathogen, Ustilago maydis, over differing virulence level...
Source: The American Naturalist - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: research
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