TNF α in MS and Its Animal Models: Implications for Chronic Pain in the Disease

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating autoimmune disease often accompanied by severe chronic pain. The most common type of pain in MS, called neuropathic pain, arises from disease processes affecting the peripheral and central nervous systems. It is incredibly difficult to study these processes in patients, so animal models such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice are used to dissect the complex mechanisms of neuropathic pain in MS. The pleiotropic cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) is a critical factor mediating neuropathic pain identified by these animal studies. The TNF signaling pathway is complex, and can lead to cell death, inflammation, or survival. In complex diseases such as MS, signaling through the TNFR1 receptor tends to be pro-inflammation and death, whereas signaling through the TNFR2 receptor is pro-homeostatic. However, most TNFα-targeted therapies indiscriminately block both arms of the pathway, and thus are not therapeutic in MS. This review explores pain in MS, inflammatory TNF signaling, the link between the two, and how it could be exploited to develop more effective TNFα-targeting pain therapies.
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Among the many symptoms (motor, sensory, and cognitive) associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), chronic pain is a common disabling condition. In particular, neuropathic pain symptoms are very prevalent and debilitating, even in early stages of the disease. Unfortunately, chronic pain still lacks efficient therapeutic agents. Progress is needed (i) clinically by better characterizing pain symptoms in MS and understanding the underlying mechanisms, and (ii) preclinically by developing a more closely dedicated model to identify new therapeutic targets and evaluate new drugs. In this setting, new variants of experimental auto...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifaceted, complex and chronic neurological disease that leads to motor, sensory and cognitive deficits. MS symptoms are unpredictable and exceedingly variable. Pain is a frequent symptom of MS and manifests as nociceptive or neuropathic pain, even at early disease stages. Neuropathic pain is one of the most debilitating symptoms that reduces quality of life and interferes with daily activities, particularly because conventional pharmacotherapies do not adequately alleviate neuropathic pain. Despite advances, the mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain in MS remain elusive. The majority of th...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Curr Neuropharmacol. 2021 Nov 1. doi: 10.2174/1570159X19666211101142115. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurodegenerative, inflammatory and autoimmune disease characterised by the demyelination of the central nervous system. One of the main approaches to treating MS is the use of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). Among the DMTs are interferons (IFNs), which are cytokines responsible for controlling the activity of the immune system, exerting immunomodulatory, antiviral, and antiproliferative activities. IFN-beta (IFN-β) is the first-choice drug used to treat relapsing-remitting MS...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Biotechnology Future of Medicine Portable Medical Diagnostics Telemedicine & Smartphones chatbot diabetes digital health sleep optimization chronic pain chronic illness skin coronavirus autoimmune disease Source Type: blogs
Schmerz. 2021 May 25. doi: 10.1007/s00482-021-00554-5. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMultiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are autoimmune inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, which can lead to a multitude of neurological complaints and pain syndromes. Pain may be an acute symptom during disease exacerbation as well as a chronic symptom, whereby the latter sometimes substantially reduces the quality of life. The etiology of pain is very heterogeneous but the rapid differential diagnostic classification is decisive in order to be able to initiate a differentiated treatment strategy. C...
Source: Schmerz - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, leading to neurodegeneration and manifesting as a variety of symptoms. These can include “invisible” symptoms, not externally evident to others, such as fatigue, mood disorders, cognitive impairments, pain, bladder/bowel dysfunction, sexual dysfunction, and vision changes. Invisible symptoms are highly prevalent in people living with MS, with multifactorial etiology and potential to impact the disease course. Patient experiences of these symptoms include both physical and psychosocial elements, which when...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
BEERSE, BELGIUM, MARCH 26, 2021 – The Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson &Johnson announced today that the European Medicines Agency’s (EMA) Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) has issued a positive opinion recommending marketing authorisation for PONVORY™ (ponesimod) for the treatment of adult patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS) with active disease defined by clinical or imaging features.[3]“Relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) have varied and often unpredictable symptoms, posing a unique human, societal and economic burden,” said Catherine Ta...
Source: Johnson and Johnson - Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Innovation Source Type: news
TITUSVILLE, N.J. – (March 19, 2021) – The Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson &Johnson today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved PONVORY™ (ponesimod), a once-daily oral selective sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) modulator, to treat adults with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS), to include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting disease and active secondary progressive disease.1,2,3 PONVORY™ offers MS patients superior efficacy in reducing annualized relapse rates compared to an established oral therapy and a proven safety profil...
Source: Johnson and Johnson - Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Innovation Source Type: news
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Efficacy of treatments for MS is associated with risk of adverse effects, and effective and well-tolerated drugs remain a major unmet need. Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L., fam. Cannabaceae) and cannabinoids are popular among MS patients to treat spasticity and pain. Cannabinoids are endowed with remarkable immunomodulating properties, and in particular the non-psychotropic cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) is increasingly recognized as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive, nevertheless with excellent tolerability even ...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the brain and spinal cord causing a wide range of symptoms such as impaired walking capability, spasticity, fatigue, and pain. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system has regulatory functions for the induction of inflammatory pathways in experimental encephalomyelitis. We have therefore assessed expression and regulation of the IGF system on the level of IGFs and IGFBPs in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the course of four repeated triamcinolone acetonide (TCA) administrations in two female and four male MS patients. Sample series of 20 treatment cycles ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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