Gut-brain mechanisms underlying changes in disordered eating behaviour after bariatric surgery: a review

Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2021 Dec 1. doi: 10.1007/s11154-021-09696-4. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBariatric surgery results in long-term weight loss and an improved metabolic phenotype due to changes in the gut-brain axis regulating appetite and glycaemia. Neuroendocrine alterations associated with bariatric surgery may also influence hedonic aspects of eating by inducing changes in taste preferences and central reward reactivity towards palatable food. However, the impact of bariatric surgery on disordered eating behaviours (e.g.: binge eating, loss-of-control eating, emotional eating and 'addictive eating'), which are commonly present in people with obesity are not well understood. Increasing evidence suggests gut-derived signals, such as appetitive hormones, bile acid profiles, microbiota concentrations and associated neuromodulatory metabolites, can influence pathways in the brain implicated in food intake, including brain areas involved in sensorimotor, reward-motivational, emotional-arousal and executive control components of food intake. As disordered eating prevalence is a key mediator of weight-loss success and patient well-being after bariatric surgery, understanding how changes in the gut-brain axis contribute to disordered eating incidence and severity after bariatric surgery is crucial to better improve treatment outcomes in people with obesity.PMID:34851508 | DOI:10.1007/s11154-021-09696-4
Source: ENDOCR REV - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research

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AbstractBackgroundEmerging evidence suggest that problematic eating behaviors such as food addiction (FA) and binge eating (BE) may alter following bariatric surgery (BS) and impact weight outcomes. We aimed to examine the prevalence of FA and BE and their associations with weight outcomes 2  years post-sleeve gastrectomy (SG).MethodsForty-five women (mean age 32.4  ± 10.9 years) who underwent SG and completed 24 months of follow-up were evaluated prospectively at pre-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month post-SG. Data collected included anthropometrics, nutritional intake, and lifestyle patterns....
Source: Obesity Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
In conclusion, this review identified potential biomarkers of LOC eating. Future studies would benefit from a direct focus on LOC eating (especially in the bariatric population), using longitudinal designs, exploring potential mediators and moderators, and increased inclusion of the male population.PMID:34111480 | DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2021.105442
Source: Appetite - Category: Nutrition Authors: Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to determine the statistical and clinical validity of the YFAS 2.0 in adults seeking bariatric surgery.MethodsPatients who underwent a preoperative psychological evaluation in preparation for bariatric surgery from 2015 to 2018 were included. The YFAS 2.0 was administered as part of routine clinical care and validated against an assessment battery of standardized clinical measures. Statistical analyses included chi-square and Wilcoxon rank sum tests and calculation of Spearman ’s rank correlation coefficients.ResultsOverall, 1061 patients were included. Mean age and BMI were 47.5 &thin...
Source: Obesity Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective clinical cohort study, patients who screened positive for BP had a higher prevalence of food addiction, subthreshold binge eating disorder and recent illegal drug use. They also demonstrated lower completion rates for having bariatric surgery. Clearly, more needs to be learned about how to help patients with symptoms of bipolar disorder manage their obesity and behavioral challenges. PMID: 33307467 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Eating Behaviors - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Tags: Eat Behav Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe mYFAS 2.0 has close psychometric properties to the YFAS 2.0 in non-clinical and clinical samples. However, the use of the mYFAS 2.0 in bariatric surgery candidates might lead to a significant underestimation of FA prevalence and number of FA symptoms.
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
AbstractBinge eating disorder (BED), with its compulsive and addictive components, may often underlie weight regain after gastrointestinal bariatric surgeries. BED is therefore considered an exclusion criterion for these surgeries. Anecdotal reports suggest that deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for addictive disorders with, similar to BED, pathological changes in cerebral reward circuitry. We therefore assessed effect of DBS of the nucleus accumbens (NAC) in a rat model of BED. Twenty-one male obesity prone Wistar rats with DBS electrodes placed in NAC subregions were subjected to a binge eating proto...
Source: Obesity Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
  At one point, Gabe weighed more than 550 pounds. Today, he and Lisa remember and discuss the extreme pain and slow healing process of living with binge-eating disorder. Gabe shares his shame in being so overweight, his intense relationship with food, the story of his gastric bypass and the difficult process of learning new coping mechanisms. How did Gabe’s bipolar and panic attacks tie in with his binge eating? And, importantly, how is he managing the illness today? Join us for an open and honest discussion on living with an eating disorder. (Transcript Available Below) Please Subscribe to Our Show: And We...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Binge Eating Disorders Eating Disorders General Not Crazy Podcast Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that both FA and clinical level of binge eating are common problems in both overweight/obese patients seeking low-energy-diet therapy and in obese bariatric surgery candidates, justifying the clinical utility of assessing these dysfunctional eating patterns. PMID: 31282493 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Rivista di Psichiatria - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Riv Psichiatr Source Type: research
ConclusionNearly 18% of post-operative patients with LOC eating met food addiction criteria on the YFAS. Co-occurrence of LOC and food addiction following sleeve gastrectomy signals a more severe subgroup with elevated eating disorder psychopathology, problematic eating behaviors, greater depressive symptoms, and diminished functioning. Future research should examine whether this combination impacts long-term bariatric surgery outcomes.
Source: Obesity Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
gin C Abstract Food addiction (FA) has recently emerged as a new field in the study of obesity. Previous studies have contributed to identifying psychological correlates of FA. However, few researchers have examined the cognitive profile related to this condition; up until now, attentional biases related to food cues and a poorer performance monitoring have been observed. The present study aimed to examine the psychological profile and executive functioning related to FA in individuals with severe obesity and awaiting bariatric surgery. Participants (N = 86) were split into two groups, according to t...
Source: Eating and weight disorders : EWD - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Tags: Eat Weight Disord Source Type: research
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