Application of Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction for Pathogen Identification and Antibiotic Use in Children With Respiratory Infections in a PICU

OBJECTIVES: To compare the pathogen identification rate and use of antibiotics before and after the implementation of multiplex polymerase chain reaction testing in children with respiratory infections in a PICU. DESIGN: Single-center, pre-post study. SETTING: PICU of Osaka Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Osaka, Japan. PATIENTS: Consecutive children with respiratory infections who were admitted to the PICU between December 2017 and November 2018 (premultiplex polymerase chain reaction period) and between March 2019 and February 2020 (postmultiplex polymerase chain reaction period). INTERVENTIONS: Conventional rapid antigen tests and bacterial culture tests were performed throughout the study period. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction testing using the FilmArray respiratory panel (BioFire Diagnostics, Salt Lake City, UT) was conducted to detect 17 viruses and three bacterial pathogens. During the postmultiplex polymerase chain reaction period, we did not recommend prescribing antibiotics for stable children, depending on the virus species and laboratory test results. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Ninety-six and 85 children were enrolled during the pre- and postmultiplex polymerase chain reaction periods, respectively. Rapid antigen tests identified pathogens in 22% of the children (n = 21) during the premultiplex polymerase chain reaction period, whereas rapid antigen tests and/or multiplex polymerase chain reaction testing...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Brief Reports Source Type: research

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No abstract available
Source: Cornea - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research
Abstract: Following identification of limbal stem cells, efforts have been devoted to restore and/or replace these essential progenitors of the corneal epithelium. Limbal stem cell deficiency, commonly a consequence of ocular chemical injury, results in clinically compromised vision consequent to corneal conjunctivalization. The insight of Kim and Tseng provided experimental proof of the concept that even in the presence of total limbal stem cell deficiency, amnion membrane overlay grafts can promote limbal recovery as a means of ocular surface reconstruction.
Source: Cornea - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Invited Submission Source Type: research
No abstract available
Source: Cornea - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Classic Article Source Type: research
Conclusions: The prevalence of histopathological OSSN in clinically suspected pterygia within our sample was approximately 0.3%. Because of shared clinical characteristics of pterygia and OSSN, a high index of suspicion and judicious use of anterior segment optical coherence tomography enable for effective preoperative diagnosis of OSSN. However, in the absence of clinical expertise or high-resolution optical coherence tomography, routine tissue pathologic examination may be warranted.
Source: Cornea - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research
Purpose: To report the long-term outcomes after phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) for the treatment of bullous keratopathy. Methods: This is a retrospective medical record review of all patients with symptomatic bullous keratopathy who underwent PTK between June 2005 and March 2019 at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital who were followed up for at least 12 months after the procedure. Medical records were used to extract demographic data, etiology of bullous keratopathy, complication rates, and subsequent procedures after PTK. The main outcomes recorded were pain and recurrence of bullae, which were assesse...
Source: Cornea - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research
Conclusions: In this study, DSEK had a success rate of ∼60% at 5 years. Increased IOP post-DSEK is a significant risk factor for graft failure. Graft survival is not affected by the clinical variant of ICE syndrome.
Source: Cornea - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research
Conclusions: These results support previous data reporting Bowman layer transplantation as a useful strategy in the treatment of advanced keratoconus and suggest greater attention may be focused on central or paracentral corneal changes.
Source: Cornea - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research
Purpose: The purpose of this article was to study the clinical, optical, and morphological correlates of visual function in patients with Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). Methods: The case records were analyzed for patients diagnosed with FECD between September 2019 and March 2020. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was recorded as decimal visual acuity and converted to the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution units. Contrast sensitivity was measured with the Pelli–Robson contrast sensitivity test. Corneal alterations, including central corneal thickness, depression of the posterior...
Source: Cornea - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research
Conclusions: Using the new 6-mm cylindrical light guide for IPL treatment in patients with MGD induced less pain during treatment and had similar treatment effects to the conventional 8 × 15-mm light guide. The new 6-mm cylindrical light guide can be useful when treating patients with dark or hyperpigmented skin and for pediatric patients with low compliance.
Source: Cornea - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research
Conclusions: PHSCD is distinct from SND, primarily occurring in middle-aged women, bilateral and fairly symmetric with larger more peripheral opacities than SND, and absence of inflammatory signs and symptoms.
Source: Cornea - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research
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