High Prevalence and Early Onsets: Legal and Illegal Substance Use in an Urban Cohort of Young Adults in Switzerland

The objective of the current study was to investigate substance use prevalence rates and ages of onset in a community-representative sample of female and male young adults in Switzerland.Methods: Data came from the Zurich Project on the Social Development from Childhood to Adulthood (z-proso). In 2018, participants (N = 1,180, 50.8% females) were ∼20 years old. Lifetime and past-year use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabinoids, stimulants, hallucinogens, opioids, and benzodiazepines were assessed with an extensive substance use questionnaire. Additionally, ages of onsets of the respective substances were estimated by averaging participants’ se lf-reported ages of onsets from ages 13 to 20 (max. 4 assessments).Results: 57% of 20-year-olds had used cannabinoids, 16% stimulants, 15% opioids (mostly codeine), and 8% hallucinogens in the past year. Males had higher prevalence than females for most drugs; nevertheless, females ’ prevalence rates were notably high. Legal substance use was typically initiated 1.3–2.7 years before legal selling age. Thus, almost half of the sample had consumed alcohol and tobacco by age 14. More than 40% of the total sample had smoked cannabis by age 16. Males initiated use of legal subs tances and cannabis earlier than females.Discussion: Our recent community-representative data suggested unexpectedly high levels and early onsets of substance use compared to a previous Swiss surveys and also the European average. Drug policy debates s...
Source: European Addiction Research - Category: Addiction Source Type: research

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aacute;rbara Oliván-Blázquez The disruption in healthcare attention to people with alcohol dependence, along with psychological decompensation as a consequence of lockdown derived from the COVID-19 pandemic could have a negative impact on people who suffer from alcohol abuse disorder. Observational real world data pre-post study included 9966 men aged >16 years registered as having the diagnosis of alcohol abuse disorder in the electronic medical records (EMR) of the Aragon Regional Health Service (Spain). Clinical (Glutamate-oxaloacetate -GOT-, Glutamate pyruvate -GPT-, creatinine, glomerular filt...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Life-history strategies and remission status are both significantly associated with DD and various health and finance behaviors among individuals in recovery from AUD. This finding supports the characterizations of DD as a candidate behavioral marker of addiction that could help differentiate subgroups needing special attention or specific interventions to improve the outcomes of their recovery. Future longitudinal studies are warranted to understand the relationships between changes in life-history strategies, DD, maladaptive health behaviors, and remission status over time.PMID:35076945 | DOI:10.1111/acer.14747
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - Category: Addiction Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: We observed higher prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms and greater drinking to forget worries in the early months of COVID restrictions relative to the period just prior, with some effects more prominent among women. These observations call for sustained monitoring of and support for the mental health of the general population, and of women in particular during the course of the pandemic.PMID:35074636 | PMC:PMC8760097 | DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2022.107247
Source: Addictive Behaviors - Category: Addiction Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Past-year recreational ketamine use is a risk factor for reporting current depression than most other drugs.SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: This was the first study to compare the risk of use of various drugs in relation to depression.PMID:35076151 | DOI:10.1111/ajad.13259
Source: The American Journal on Addictions - Category: Addiction Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Life-history strategies and remission status are both significantly associated with DD and various health and finance behaviors among individuals in recovery from AUD. This finding supports the characterizations of DD as a candidate behavioral marker of addiction that could help differentiate subgroups needing special attention or specific interventions to improve the outcomes of their recovery. Future longitudinal studies are warranted to understand the relationships between changes in life-history strategies, DD, maladaptive health behaviors, and remission status over time.PMID:35076945 | DOI:10.1111/acer.14747
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - Category: Addiction Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: We observed higher prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms and greater drinking to forget worries in the early months of COVID restrictions relative to the period just prior, with some effects more prominent among women. These observations call for sustained monitoring of and support for the mental health of the general population, and of women in particular during the course of the pandemic.PMID:35074636 | DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2022.107247
Source: Addictive Behaviors - Category: Addiction Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Past-year recreational ketamine use is a risk factor for reporting current depression than most other drugs.SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: This was the first study to compare the risk of use of various drugs in relation to depression.PMID:35076151 | DOI:10.1111/ajad.13259
Source: American Journal on Addictions - Category: Addiction Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundInpatient addiction medicine consultation services (AMCS) have grown rapidly, but there is limited research of their impact on patient outcomes.ObjectiveTo examine whether AMCS is associated with all-cause mortality and hospital utilization post-discharge.DesignThis was a propensity-score-matchedcase-control study from 2018 to 2020.ParticipantsThe intervention group included patients referred to the AMCS from October 2018 to March 2020. Matched control participants included patients hospitalized from October 2017 to September 2018 at an urban academic hospital with a large suburban and rural catchment are...
Source: Journal of General Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research
Benzodiazepines (BZDs) represent one of the most widely used groups of pharmaceuticals, but if used for long periods of time they are associated with dependence and an increased risk of harmful effects. High-dose (HD) BZD dependence is a specific substance use disorder associated with a poor quality of life. It is especially important to pinpoint differences in HD BZD addict subgroups in order to tailor treatment to the individual's specific needs, also considering possible comorbidities with other substance use disorders. We conducted a study to evaluate HD BZD dependence (converted doses to diazepam equivalents, mg) in a...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
BACKGROUND: Poor adherence to treatment is a common clinical problem in individuals affected by mental illness and substance use/dependence. In Italy, mental care is organized in a psychiatric service and addiction unit (SERD), characterized by dual indepe...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Alcohol and Other Drugs Source Type: news
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