Function of Follicular Cytokines: Roles Played during Maturation, Development and Implantation of Embryo

Medicina (Kaunas). 2021 Nov 16;57(11):1251. doi: 10.3390/medicina57111251.ABSTRACTA balance within the immune system is necessary for the proper development of ovarian follicles. Numerous cytokines were detected in follicular fluid, the role of which in reproductive physiology seems crucial. They influence the development and maturation of the follicle, ovulation, and corpus luteum formation, as well as embryo implantation and maintenance of pregnancy. The analysis of follicular fluid requires its collection by puncturing of the ovary, which is usually executed in connection with various gynaecological procedures. When interpreting such test results, clinical indications for a given procedure and the method of patient preparation should be taken into account. This review revealed the results of currently available studies on the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines in follicular fluid in various forms of infertility. Additionally, it presented cytokines, whose concentration has a significant impact on the size of ovarian follicles, their number, the effectiveness of in vitro fertilisation, development of the embryo, and chances of correct implantation. Despite the many recent publications, the knowledge of follicular fluid immunology in the context of reproductive pathology is superficial and further research is required to extensively understand the roles of individual cytokines in reproductive pathology. In the future, this knowledge may enable patients' individual q...
Source: Medicina (Kaunas) - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Source Type: research

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Medicina (Kaunas). 2021 Nov 16;57(11):1251. doi: 10.3390/medicina57111251.ABSTRACTA balance within the immune system is necessary for the proper development of ovarian follicles. Numerous cytokines were detected in follicular fluid, the role of which in reproductive physiology seems crucial. They influence the development and maturation of the follicle, ovulation, and corpus luteum formation, as well as embryo implantation and maintenance of pregnancy. The analysis of follicular fluid requires its collection by puncturing of the ovary, which is usually executed in connection with various gynaecological procedures. When int...
Source: Medicina (Kaunas) - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The use of adjuvant GH in IVF treatment protocols has uncertain effect on live birth rates and mean number of oocytes retrieved in normal responders. However, it slightly increases the number of oocytes retrieved and pregnancy rates in poor responders, while there is an uncertain effect on live birth rates in this group. The results however, need to be interpreted with caution, as the included trials were small and few in number, with significant bias and imprecision. Also, the dose and regimen of GH used in trials was variable. Therefore, further research is necessary to fully define the role of GH as adjuvan...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
This study was designed in two sections: in vivo/in vitro with clonidine as the alpha-2 adrenoceptor (ADR-α2) agonist for modulating this hyperactivity. Eighty women with PCO participated in this randomised clinical trial (in vivo). A clonidine (0.1 mg) tablet was given twice a day for two months. Polycystic ovary morphology (PCOM) and pregnancy rate were the main outcome measurements. In the candidates for in vitro fertilisation (IVF), clonidine was added to the culture medium during IVF for two study groups (PCO-clonidine/PCO-without) and two control groups (egg donors-clonidine/egg donors-without). Our results sho...
Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - Category: OBGYN Authors: Source Type: research
In conclusion, PCOS patients with AMH levels higher than the 90th percentile had substantially higher preterm delivery rates than those with AMH levels at the 75th-90th percentile, suggesting the need for closer follow-up. Further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms behind this correlation.IMPACT STATEMENTWhat is already known on this subject? The association of AMH levels with the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes has been previously investigated. In women with PCOS, substantially elevated AMH levels were significantly associated with preterm birth.What do the results of this study add? Results show...
Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - Category: OBGYN Authors: Source Type: research
J Obstet Gynaecol. 2021 Sep 29:1-7. doi: 10.1080/01443615.2021.1959536. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWe performed a retrospective cohort study, namely "Surgery and ART for Endometriomas" (SAFE) trial (Clinical Trial ID: NCT03717870), including women who underwent laparoscopic cystectomy for endometrioma before first IVF and compared their reproductive outcomes with the ones of women without endometriosis and with unexplained infertility, tubal factor or male factor infertility. We found that women who underwent previous laparoscopic cystectomy for endometrioma had higher FSH and LH levels between the 2nd and 5th...
Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - Category: OBGYN Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, whole-exome sequencing was performed to identify the causative genes in ten unrelated infertile patients with PCD: seven males and three females. Notably, homozygous frameshift mutations in MCIDAS (c.186dupT, p.Pro63Serfs*22) and CCNO (c.262_263insGGCCC, p.Gln88Argfs*8) were identified in one male and one female participant from two unrelated consanguineous families. Haematoxylin-eosin staining/scanning electron microscopy revealed abnormal MCCs in the mutated EDs/oviducts. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy revealed significantly reduced BBs. Immunofluorescence staining showed the absence of MCID...
Source: Clinical Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research
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